Presentation on theme: "Cell Membrane Transport. GPS Standards SAP1. Students will analyze anatomical structures in relationship to their physiological functions. d.Relate cellular."— Presentation transcript:
Cell Membrane Transport
GPS Standards SAP1. Students will analyze anatomical structures in relationship to their physiological functions. d.Relate cellular metabolism and transport to homeostasis and cellular reproduction.
Learning Goals By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe the components of the cell membrane and their functions. Relate cellular transport to homeostasis. Differentiate between passive transport processes and active transport processes.
Medical Terminology Use prefixes, suffixes, and roots sheet to define the following: bi- endo- exo- extra- hydro- inter- intra- phago- pino- trans- -osis -philic -phobic cyt integral peripheral Use prefixes, suffixes, and roots to define the following: transport bilayer extracellular endocytosis exocytosis hydrophilic hydrophobic integral protein intracellular peripheral protein phagocytosis pinocytosis prefix suffix root
The Cell Membrane The cell membrane is a selectively permeable membrane that determines which molecules can come into the cell and which molecules can leave the cell.
Nucleus Cell Membrane Transverse Section of the cell membrane
The Cell Membrane
Cell Membrane Components 1.Phospholipid bilayer –Made up of Hydrophilic head Hydrophobic tail –Allows small molecules, like water and gases, to pass through the membrane easily
Cell Membrane Components Continued 2.Proteins –Integral proteins Permanently imbedded in the membrane Used as carrier proteins for large molecules –Peripheral proteins Loosely bonded to the internal and external surfaces of the membrane Mainly used in cell to cell communication and the immune response
Passive Transport A process that moves molecules across the cell membrane without energy from the cell Moves molecules from high to low concentrations Like riding a bike downhill Processes –Diffusion –Osmosis –Facilitated Diffusion
Diffusion The movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Osmosis The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane. Osmotic solutions can be –Hypotonic (hypo- means less than) –Isotonic (iso- means the same) –Hypertonic (hyper- means more than)
Cells in Osmotic Solutions
Facilitated Diffusion The diffusion of molecules across a membrane with the help of transport molecules imbedded in the cell membrane.
Active Transport A process that drives large molecules across the cell membrane from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration Like riding a bike uphill Processes –Endocytosis –Exocytosis –Ion Pumps
Endocytosis Molecules are brought into the cell by vesicles formed from the cell membrane Processes –Pinocytosis. The cell takes tiny droplets from its surroundings into tiny vesicles. –Phagocytosis. The vesicle engulfs food particles that are digested by lysosomes.
Exocytosis Molecules are forced out of the cell by vesicles made by the Golgi apparatus
Ion Pumps Ion pumps use integral proteins and energy (ATP) to transport ions, such as sodium (Na) and potassium (K) across the membrane.