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Economic, Political, and Social Changes in Georgia:

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Presentation on theme: "Economic, Political, and Social Changes in Georgia:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Economic, Political, and Social Changes in Georgia:
1870 to 1918

2 SS8H7 The student will evaluate key political, social, and economic changes that occurred ion Georgia between 1877 and 1918. SS8E3 the student will evaluate the influence of Georgia’s economic growth and development

3 GPS SS8H7a a. Evaluate the impact the Bourbon Triumvirate, Henry Grady, International Cotton Exposition, Tom Watson and the Populists, Rebecca Latimer Felton. . . had on Georgia during this period.


5 The Bourbon Triumvirate
#1 Joseph E. Brown (1821 to 1894) 1857 to 1865 Governor of Georgia 1866 to 1868 Georgia Supreme Court Chief Justice 1868 to 1880 Head of Western and Atlantic Railroad 1880 to 1891 U.S. Senator Trustee for UGA and President of Atlanta Board of Education

6 #2 Alfred H. Colquitt (1824 to 1894)
Worked with Joseph E. Brown in Georgia Assembly in 1849 to 1851 Served in Sate and Federal governments before Civil War Voted for Georgia to succeed from Union in 1861 Civil War General for Confederacy 1876 to 1882 Governor of Georgia Served as U. S. Senator from 1883 until his death

7 #3 John B. Gordon (1832 to 1904) Only one of three officers who reached rank of Lt. General for Confederate Army 1872 to 1880, and 1891 to 1897 Served as U.S. Senator 1880 to 1886 Head of railroad in GA 1886 to 1890 served as Georgia Governor Gordon College (Barnesville) named after him

8 Bourbon Triumvirate Political Views— Accomplishments—
1. Redemption Years (restore Democratic rule in GA and prosperity to its economy) 2. Wanted stronger ties to Northern industries 3. Belief in White Supremacy and maintain many Southern traditions Accomplishments— Lowered taxes Reduced war debt Expanded business and industry (YET did little to help poor whites and blacks, no improvements in education, factories and hospitals)

9 Rebecca Latimer Felton
Valedictorian at Madison Female College in 1852 Ran newspaper with her husband Dr. William Felton Campaign Manager and advisor to her husband while he served in both state and U.S. Congress Reformer in temperance and women’s suffrage movement First woman to serve in U.S. Senate in 1922

10 Rebecca Latimer Felton
Political Views— Independent Democrat and opposed Bourbon Triumvirate views and their influence Believed in social reform for poor and lower middle class Accomplishments 1. Ended convict lease system and improved prison conditions Regulate alcohol traffic in Georgia Established female vocational education One of the leaders in achieving the 20th Amendment

11 Henry Grady (1850 to 1889) “Spokesman for the New South,” traveled to many northern cities Graduate of UGA in 1688 Southern correspondent for New York Herald 1880 to 1886 managing editor of Atlanta Journal

12 Henry Grady Political Views— Accomplishments—
Leader of Atlanta Ring who were Democrat political leaders who believed in a “New South” program: a. Northern investment b. Southern industrial growth c. Diversified farming d. White supremacy 2. Superiority of Atlanta 3. Creating trust and unity between North and South Accomplishments— Convinced northerners to invest in Atlanta industries Established Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) Key player in Atlanta’s three Cotton Expositions in 1881, 1887, and 1895 (industrial fairs which attracted northern investments and created new jobs in Atlanta) Atlanta becomes symbol of New South

13 Tom Watson (1856 to 1922) Attended Mercer University, and studied law on his own and became lawyer by age 21 1882 to 1890 served in General Assembly 1890 to 1894 Served in Congress 1896 Vice-Presidential Candidate for Populist Party 1904 Presidential candidate for Populist Party Advocated for white and black farmers—but sided with supremacist, anti-Semitic, and anti-Catholic in his last twenty years

14 Tom Watson Political Views— Accomplishments—
Democrat turned Populist (fought for rights of common men-- farmers and factory workers) First southern politician to speak for the interest of blacks in Georgia Believed that farming reform can be made if whites and black united politically Accomplishments— Introduced the Rural Free Delivery (RFD) bill which provide country resident free mail Because of RFD, states built new roads and bridges in rural areas. Use his weekly and monthly news magazines to influence Georgia politics and elections for GA governor

15 GPS SS8H7 b. Analyze how the denial of rights to African-Americans through the Jim Crow laws, Plessy v. Ferguson, disenfranchisement, and racial violence. c. Explain the roles of Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. DuBois, John and Lugenia Burns Hope, and Alonzo Herndon

16 Continued Struggle for Civil Rights: 1877 to 1918
1865 to **13th, 14th , and 15th Amendments passed **Civil Rights Acts denied discrimination in hotels and trains **1870s Democrat and white Supremacists gain control of all southern state governments **Georgia General Assembly passed Jim Crow Laws– created “separate but equal” facilities for black and whites (hotels, trains, schools, water fountains, restrooms, waiting rooms, etc.)

17 Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896

18 Plessy v. Ferguson: 1. Blacks in 1895 decided to test the new Jim Crow Laws on ______________ that people rode on. 2. Homer Plessy believed that his rights were protected under the _______ ________________________. 3. Plessy v. Ferguson introduced the phrase “_________________ ______ ________________” to the American vocabulary, and created ___________ separate Americas. 4. In the song in the video, if you are Black, _________ __________!! 5. Plessy v. Ferguson also led to a wave of ___________________ ___________________ against blacks throughout the nation.

19 Supreme Court Decisions
1896 Plessy v. Ferguson made segregation the law of the land until 1954. U.S. Supreme Court upheld Jim Crow Laws with a vote of 7-1. 1899 Cummings v. Richmond County Board of Education upheld Georgia laws to create “separate but equal” schools.

20 Disenfranchisement of Black voters
In 1900, 12% of population in United States were Blacks 47% of population in Georgia were Blacks 1908 **Georgia enacted the Grandfather Clause, which only allow black males to vote if their grandfather or fathers were eligible to vote in 1867. **Strict voting requirements 1. Own property 2. Poll Tax 3. Literacy tests **Gerrymandering established voting districts to weaken Black voting power

21 Two examples of Racial Injustice, Fear, Scapegoating, and Ignorance in Georgia
Atlanta Race Riots of 1906 Politicians running for Governor blamed Blacks for Georgia’s problems Newspaper printed false articles on Blacks violating women White workers feared losing jobs to Blacks Leo Frank Case (1915) Frank accused and convicted (with little evidence) of murdering 14 year old girl. When governor changed Frank’s sentence from death to life in prison. Anti-Jewish leaders told people to take matters in their own hands—broke in prison and hanged Frank in Marietta, GA Sparked resurgence of KKK

22 Atlanta Race Riot of 1906

23 Atlanta Race Riot of 1906: 1. Whites feared blacks around because they were competing for ___________________. 2. Even if blacks were well educated, whites believed that blacks were _________________ to them. 3. Hox Smith and the Atlanta newspapers falsely accused black men of attacking _________________ ______________ ______________ people were killed and ________________ more injured due to the riots in Atlanta The race riots of 1906 and the 1990s were caused by deep ____________ __________________ in our nation that are not resolved.

24 Leo Frank Case

25 Leo Frank Case: Under the plan called the ___________ ___________________, political leaders in Georgia thought Northern industries will greatly benefit the state and citizens of Georgia There was _________________ difference that factory workers earned in comparison to working on farms. Eventually, those who moved to the cities from the country ended up living in ______________ ______________. 3. Leo Frank, a __________, was falsely accused of murdering a 13 year old girl in the factory he managed. 4. Frank, as well as all northern industrial men, were treated as ___________________________ and blamed for most of the problems Georgians faced with new industrialization and urbanization. 5. Governor _______________ ________________ changed Leo Frank’s sentence but it cost him his political career. 6. As a result, a mob kidnapped Frank from prison and ________________ him in Marietta, Georgia.

26 Booker T. Washington (1856 to 1915) Born as slave in Virginia (mixed)
Learned to read and write while as a free houseboy Studied to be a teacher in Hampton, VA 1881 appointed president of Tuskegee Institute in AL

27 Booker T. Washington’s Views on Civil Rights
September 18, Atlanta “Compromise” opening day ceremonies at Cotton Sates and International Exposition Washington accepted the races being separated for now, and that believed that social equality “must be the result of severe and constant struggle rather than of artificial forcing. No race that has anything to contribute to the markets of the world is long in any degree ostracized. It is important and right that all privileges of the law be ours, but it is vastly more important that we be prepared for the exercises of these privileges. The opportunity to earn a dollar in a factory just now is worth infinitely more than the opportunity to spend a dollar in an opera-house.” Black must become economically independence before they can achieve political and social equality!!!

28 Booker T. Washington’s Accomplishments
Foremost Black leader (both educationally and politically) in the late 1800s Raised funds to establish and operate hundreds of small schools and black colleges Wrote his famous book Up from Slavery

29 W.E.B. DuBois (1868 to 1963) Born in Massachusetts
First African American to earn Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1895 Became professor at Atlanta University in 1897 Studied social conditions of blacks in 1800s

30 W.E.B. DuBois’ Views on Civil Rights
He believed that Blacks need to protest the social and political system NOW, and demand social equality NOW!! 2. Renounced Washington’s “Atlanta Compromise Speech” (It was too accommodating to the present injustices of the day, and only action will bring change!!) 3. Founder of Niagara Movement in 1905 with 29 other Black leaders in Niagara Falls, Canada

31 Du Bois, said in the Niagara Movement’s Manifesto,
“We want full manhood suffrage and we want it now…. We are men! We want to be treated as men. And we shall win.”

32 W.E.B. Du Bois’ Accomplishments
One of the founders of Niagara Movement, which eventually became the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Leader among Black authors and educator throughout first half of 20th century. Contributed most influence on the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s. Died one day before the March on Washington in 1963

33 John Hope (1868 to 1936) Born to a Scottish father and Black mother who were married in Augusta, GA Treated well until father died when John was 8. Instead of passing off as just white, he became proud of his Black heritage Educated in New England, and graduated from Brown University (RI) Became professor at Atlanta Baptist College in 1899

34 John Hope’s Views on Civil Rights
Shared same views as Du Bois that social action and protest will create change “If we are not striving for equality, in heaven’s name, for what are we living?” He believed that all Blacks must stand up for and “demand social equality.” 3. Co-founder of Niagara Movement in 1905

35 John Hope’s Accomplishments
First Black president of Atlanta Baptist College (Morehouse) in 1906, and Atlanta University in 1929. One of the community leaders which helped restore calm after Atlanta Riots in 1906. President of National Association of Teachers and Colored Schools Worked with YMCA and National Studies of Negro Life and History Lead in creating the Atlanta University Center (consolidating six black schools) Also advocated for job opportunities, better housing, recreational facilities, and health care throughout nation

36 Progressive Movement and Populist Party

37 Question from Video on Progressive Movement
1. Gilded Age in America was a pleasant and successful time for all Americans? True or False 2. To end the corruption due to patronage among government officials, Congress in the 1880s passed the _________________ ___________________ ________ to reform and create “honest” government. 3. The Populist supported laws that benefited the interest of workers and farmers. Some of their proposals were: A. An _________________ ______________ to replace tariffs placed on farmers. B. A ______________________ work week C. The direct election of ____________________ and _____________ ballots. 4.___________________________ believed in the end of capitalism, while most ____________________________ wanted to reform business and government but keep capitalism and democracy. 5. __________________________________ were writer/journalists who wrote novels that exposed corruption in government and horrible conditions in business practices. 6. The Progressive Movement was responsible for a number of reforms in state and local governments, such as the secret ballot, the initiative, the recall, and the ________________ ______________________ where voters choose the party’s nominees. 7. Progressive advocated for ___________________ ______________ to improve the “slave” conditions of factories. 8. Blaming alcohol the root of most of society’s problems, the _________________________ movement wanted to prohibit the sale of liquor and beer.

38 The Women’s _____________________ Movement believed that all women had the right to vote. They claimed this right was stated in the ___________Amendment—yet they had to push for the passage of the _____________ Amendment to finally earn this right ____________________ _______________________ was considered the first “Progressive” President. He called his progressive plan as the _______________________ _________________________ _____________________________ ______________ were enacted to destroy the power of monopolies, while several ______________________ Acts regulate the food and drug processing industries The 16th Amendment established a Federal ___________________ ___________ To protect our nation’s natural resources, Roosevelt advocated the _______________________ _______________________ system Teddy Roosevelt’s Progressive Party nickname during the 1912 Presidential Election was the _________________ _________________ Party The Democratic Party candidate, _________________ ____________________, called his progressive plan the ____________________ ________________ and won the election in Although Progressives accomplished a number of reforms, the _______________ ____________________ of Blacks improved very little during the first two decades of the 20th century When in first was formed, the _______________________ _______________________ for the ______________________ of _________________ _______________________ supported Woodrow Wilson but was dismayed when he appeared indifferent towards the mistreatment of Blacks.

39 The Populist Party and Progressive Movement in Georgia
Tom Watson and Populist Party a. RFD Bill (improvements made on roads and bridges) b. Agricultural Extension Service and Smith-Hughes Act (Georgia laws improving farming and vocational training) c. County Unit System (allowed smaller rural counties more voting power in primaries) ( 8 most had 6 each/next 30 had 4 each/ 121 other counties had 2 each) Civil Rights a. NAACP (white liberal and Niagara Movement formed to work for rights of Blacks) b. National Urban League (interracial groups formed to solve urban problems) Women’s Suffrage (19th Amendment in 1920 but Georgia voted against) Child Labor Laws a. Set minimum wage for children (oppose to 2 cents an hour) b. Laws required school attendance, forbade 13 hour days and working around dangerous machines Temperance Movement (Mary Harris Armor and Rebecca Felton in GA) a. Outlaw sale of liquor near schools and churches b , 48 counties banned the sale of alcohol C. Several more attempts before 18th Amendment in 1919 Prison Reform Eliminated Convict Lease System; separated adults and children, juvenile court in 1915

40 Write a letter to the Editor
On the handout, please write a page letter to the editor of a newspaper. You are a person living in Georgia between and 1918, and want to advocate and/or demand the reform of any of the areas listed below: Shorter work week for factory workers Federal Income tax to stop tariffs Temperance Movement Women’s Suffrage Election reform (County Unit system and direct elections) Civil Rights for Blacks Child Labor Laws Improve work conditions in factory Improve the food processing industry

41 Standards focused on Economic Changes in Georgia SS8H7a The student will evaluate the impact of Henry Grady and International Cotton Exposition SS8E1 The student will give examples of goods and services produced in Georgia in different historical periods. SS8E3 The student will evaluate the influence of Georgia’s economic growth and development. B. Explain how entrepreneurs take risks to develop new goods and services to start a business C. Evaluate the importance of entrepreneurs in Georgia such as enterprises Coca-Cola

42 Key Economic Components of the “New South Era”
The New South was a concept conceived by Henry Grady: Northern investment Southern Industrial growth Atlanta the symbol of the New South Rise of Atlanta after Civil War a. Fifty families remained in Atlanta after Civil War to rebuild city b. Became state capital in 1868 c. Competing railway companies build and connect Atlanta with the seaports and rest of nation.

43 New Industries a. Textile mills developed in Atlanta and Fall Line b. Lumber 1. Paper products 2. Naval stores (pine tar, pitch, turpentine, etc.) 3. Furniture c. Mining 1. kaolin (white clay for paper) 2. gold and coal 3. bauxite (aluminum)

44 International Cotton Expositions
a. Atlanta hosted them in 1881, 1887, and 1895 b. Exposition in 1895 had 800,000 visitors world-wide over three-month period and 6,000 exhibits c. The exposition goals were to: 1. Show how the South had recovered economically 2. Highlight Georgia’s and the rest of the south’s natural resources 3. Attract northern investment and/or industries

45 Entrepreneurs A. Rich’s Department Stores 1. Morris Rich began in 1867 and moved into downtown Atlanta in 1924. 2. Became the “Store to Shop At” due to: a. Involvement in community traditions (i.e., Pink Pig, Christmas Tree and Hanukkah lightings) b. Helping customers during hard times 1. Farmers buy with farm produce 2. Allowed teachers use of scrip

46 B. Coca- Cola c. Patented bottle
1. After Civil War, Atlanta druggist John S Pemberton developed a “Nerve Tonic’ or “French Wine Cola.” 2. In 1885 attempted to change recipe due to Temperance Movement (remove alcohol) 3. In 1888 Pemberton sold rights to Asa Chandler for $2,300 sold drug store and started Coca-Cola Co. 5. Woodruff’s bought company for $25 million in —international success due to: a. Advertising b. Supplying U.S. soldiers and Europeans during WWII c. Patented bottle

47 C. Alonzo Herndon 1. Herndon was born in 1858 as a slave, and worked as a sharecropper for three years. 2. He moved to Atlanta to obtain a skill, which was becoming a barber. 3. Herndon eventually earned enough money to start his own shop called the Crystal Palace. 4. All of his employees were Black and all his clients were white due to segregation in Atlanta. 5. Alonzo Herndon became the wealthiest Black businessman in Atlanta by three attributes: a. Hard work b. Saving his money c. Investing wisely 6. Herndon exhibited his pride in his African American heritage in his murals at his home They told of scenes from Africa, when Herndon was a slave, and how he became successful.

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