Presentation on theme: "Economic, Political, and Social Changes in Georgia:"— Presentation transcript:
1Economic, Political, and Social Changes in Georgia: 1870 to 1918
2SS8H7 The student will evaluate key political, social, and economic changes that occurred ion Georgia between 1877 and 1918.SS8E3 the student will evaluate the influence of Georgia’s economic growth and development
3GPS SS8H7aa. Evaluate the impact the Bourbon Triumvirate, Henry Grady, International Cotton Exposition, Tom Watson and the Populists, Rebecca Latimer Felton. . . had on Georgia during this period.
5The Bourbon Triumvirate #1 Joseph E. Brown(1821 to 1894)1857 to 1865 Governor of Georgia1866 to 1868 Georgia Supreme Court Chief Justice1868 to 1880 Head of Western and Atlantic Railroad1880 to 1891 U.S. SenatorTrustee for UGA and President of Atlanta Board of Education
6#2 Alfred H. Colquitt (1824 to 1894) Worked with Joseph E. Brown in Georgia Assembly in 1849 to 1851Served in Sate and Federal governments before Civil WarVoted for Georgia to succeed from Union in 1861Civil War General for Confederacy1876 to 1882 Governor of GeorgiaServed as U. S. Senator from 1883 until his death
7#3 John B. Gordon(1832 to 1904)Only one of three officers who reached rank of Lt. General for Confederate Army1872 to 1880, and 1891 to 1897 Served as U.S. Senator1880 to 1886 Head of railroad in GA1886 to 1890 served as Georgia GovernorGordon College (Barnesville) named after him
8Bourbon Triumvirate Political Views— Accomplishments— 1. Redemption Years (restore Democratic rule in GA and prosperity to its economy)2. Wanted stronger ties to Northern industries3. Belief in White Supremacy and maintain many Southern traditionsAccomplishments—Lowered taxesReduced war debtExpanded business and industry(YET did little to help poor whites and blacks, no improvements in education, factories and hospitals)
9Rebecca Latimer Felton Valedictorian at Madison Female College in 1852Ran newspaper with her husband Dr. William FeltonCampaign Manager and advisor to her husband while he served in both state and U.S. CongressReformer in temperance and women’s suffrage movementFirst woman to serve in U.S. Senate in 1922
10Rebecca Latimer Felton Political Views—Independent Democrat and opposed Bourbon Triumvirate views and their influenceBelieved in social reform for poor and lower middle classAccomplishments1. Ended convict lease system and improved prison conditionsRegulate alcohol traffic in GeorgiaEstablished female vocational educationOne of the leaders in achieving the 20th Amendment
11Henry Grady(1850 to 1889)“Spokesman for the New South,” traveled to many northern citiesGraduate of UGA in 1688Southern correspondent for New York Herald1880 to 1886 managing editor of Atlanta Journal
12Henry Grady Political Views— Accomplishments— Leader of Atlanta Ring who were Democrat political leaders who believed in a “New South” program:a. Northern investmentb. Southern industrial growthc. Diversified farmingd. White supremacy2. Superiority of Atlanta3. Creating trust and unity between North and SouthAccomplishments—Convinced northerners to invest in Atlanta industriesEstablished Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech)Key player in Atlanta’s three Cotton Expositions in 1881, 1887, and 1895 (industrial fairs which attracted northern investments and created new jobs in Atlanta)Atlanta becomes symbol of New South
13Tom Watson(1856 to 1922)Attended Mercer University, and studied law on his own and became lawyer by age 211882 to 1890 served in General Assembly1890 to 1894 Served in Congress1896 Vice-Presidential Candidate for Populist Party1904 Presidential candidate for Populist PartyAdvocated for white and black farmers—but sided with supremacist, anti-Semitic, and anti-Catholic in his last twenty years
14Tom Watson Political Views— Accomplishments— Democrat turned Populist (fought for rights of common men-- farmers and factory workers)First southern politician to speak for the interest of blacks in GeorgiaBelieved that farming reform can be made if whites and black united politicallyAccomplishments—Introduced the Rural Free Delivery (RFD) bill which provide country resident free mailBecause of RFD, states built new roads and bridges in rural areas.Use his weekly and monthly news magazines to influence Georgia politics and elections for GA governor
15GPS SS8H7 b. Analyze how the denial of rights to African-Americans through the Jim Crow laws, Plessy v. Ferguson, disenfranchisement, and racial violence. c. Explain the roles of Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. DuBois, John and Lugenia Burns Hope, and Alonzo Herndon
16Continued Struggle for Civil Rights: 1877 to 1918 1865 to **13th, 14th , and 15th Amendments passed**Civil Rights Acts denied discrimination in hotels and trains**1870s Democrat and white Supremacists gain control of all southern state governments**Georgia General Assembly passed Jim Crow Laws– created “separate but equal” facilities for black and whites (hotels, trains, schools, water fountains, restrooms, waiting rooms, etc.)
18Plessy v. Ferguson: 1. Blacks in 1895 decided to test the new Jim Crow Laws on ______________ that people rode on. 2. Homer Plessy believed that his rights were protected under the _______ ________________________. 3. Plessy v. Ferguson introduced the phrase “_________________ ______ ________________” to the American vocabulary, and created ___________ separate Americas. 4. In the song in the video, if you are Black, _________ __________!! 5. Plessy v. Ferguson also led to a wave of ___________________ ___________________ against blacks throughout the nation.
19Supreme Court Decisions 1896Plessy v. Ferguson made segregation the law of the land until 1954.U.S. Supreme Court upheld Jim Crow Laws with a vote of 7-1.1899Cummings v. Richmond County Board of Education upheld Georgia laws to create “separate but equal” schools.
20Disenfranchisement of Black voters In 1900, 12% of population in United States were Blacks47% of population in Georgia were Blacks1908**Georgia enacted the Grandfather Clause, which only allow black males to vote if their grandfather or fathers were eligible to vote in 1867.**Strict voting requirements1. Own property2. Poll Tax3. Literacy tests**Gerrymandering established voting districts to weaken Black voting power
21Two examples of Racial Injustice, Fear, Scapegoating, and Ignorance in Georgia Atlanta Race Riots of 1906Politicians running for Governor blamed Blacks for Georgia’s problemsNewspaper printed false articles on Blacks violating womenWhite workers feared losing jobs to BlacksLeo Frank Case (1915)Frank accused and convicted (with little evidence) of murdering 14 year old girl.When governor changed Frank’s sentence from death to life in prison.Anti-Jewish leaders told people to take matters in their own hands—broke in prison and hanged Frank in Marietta, GASparked resurgence of KKK
23Atlanta Race Riot of 1906: 1. Whites feared blacks around because they were competing for ___________________. 2. Even if blacks were well educated, whites believed that blacks were _________________ to them. 3. Hox Smith and the Atlanta newspapers falsely accused black men of attacking _________________ ______________ ______________ people were killed and ________________ more injured due to the riots in Atlanta The race riots of 1906 and the 1990s were caused by deep ____________ __________________ in our nation that are not resolved.
25Leo Frank Case: Under the plan called the ___________ ___________________, political leaders in Georgia thought Northern industries will greatly benefit the state and citizens of Georgia There was _________________ difference that factory workers earned in comparison to working on farms. Eventually, those who moved to the cities from the country ended up living in ______________ ______________. 3. Leo Frank, a __________, was falsely accused of murdering a 13 year old girl in the factory he managed. 4. Frank, as well as all northern industrial men, were treated as ___________________________ and blamed for most of the problems Georgians faced with new industrialization and urbanization. 5. Governor _______________ ________________ changed Leo Frank’s sentence but it cost him his political career. 6. As a result, a mob kidnapped Frank from prison and ________________ him in Marietta, Georgia.
26Booker T. Washington (1856 to 1915) Born as slave in Virginia (mixed) Learned to read and write while as a free houseboyStudied to be a teacher in Hampton, VA1881 appointed president of Tuskegee Institute in AL
27Booker T. Washington’s Views on Civil Rights September 18, Atlanta “Compromise”opening day ceremonies at Cotton Sates and International ExpositionWashington accepted the races being separated for now, and that believed that social equality“must be the result of severe and constant struggle rather than of artificial forcing. No race that has anything to contribute to the markets of the world is long in any degree ostracized. It is important and right that all privileges of the law be ours, but it is vastly more important that we be prepared for the exercises of these privileges. The opportunity to earn a dollar in a factory just now is worth infinitely more than the opportunity to spend a dollar in an opera-house.”Black must become economically independence before they can achieve political and social equality!!!
28Booker T. Washington’s Accomplishments Foremost Black leader (both educationally and politically) in the late 1800sRaised funds to establish and operate hundreds of small schools and black collegesWrote his famous book Up from Slavery
29W.E.B. DuBois (1868 to 1963) Born in Massachusetts First African American to earn Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1895Became professor at Atlanta University in 1897Studied social conditions of blacks in 1800s
30W.E.B. DuBois’ Views on Civil Rights He believed that Blacks need to protest the social and political system NOW, and demand social equality NOW!!2. Renounced Washington’s “Atlanta Compromise Speech” (It was too accommodating to the present injustices of the day, and only action will bring change!!)3. Founder of Niagara Movement in 1905 with 29 other Black leaders in Niagara Falls, Canada
31Du Bois, said in the Niagara Movement’s Manifesto, “We want full manhood suffrage and we want it now…. We are men! We want to be treated as men. And we shall win.”
32W.E.B. Du Bois’ Accomplishments One of the founders of Niagara Movement, which eventually became the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)Leader among Black authors and educator throughout first half of 20th century.Contributed most influence on the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s.Died one day before the March on Washington in 1963
33John Hope(1868 to 1936)Born to a Scottish father and Black mother who were married in Augusta, GATreated well until father died when John was 8.Instead of passing off as just white, he became proud of his Black heritageEducated in New England, and graduated from Brown University (RI)Became professor at Atlanta Baptist College in 1899
34John Hope’s Views on Civil Rights Shared same views as Du Bois that social action and protest will create change“If we are not striving for equality, in heaven’s name, for what are we living?” He believed that all Blacks must stand up for and “demand social equality.”3. Co-founder of Niagara Movement in 1905
35John Hope’s Accomplishments First Black president of Atlanta Baptist College (Morehouse) in 1906, and Atlanta University in 1929.One of the community leaders which helped restore calm after Atlanta Riots in 1906.President of National Association of Teachers and Colored SchoolsWorked with YMCA and National Studies of Negro Life and HistoryLead in creating the Atlanta University Center (consolidating six black schools)Also advocated for job opportunities, better housing, recreational facilities, and health care throughout nation
37Question from Video on Progressive Movement 1. Gilded Age in America was a pleasant and successful time for all Americans?True or False2. To end the corruption due to patronage among government officials, Congress in the 1880s passed the _________________ ___________________ ________to reform and create “honest” government.3. The Populist supported laws that benefited the interest of workers and farmers. Some of their proposals were:A. An _________________ ______________ to replace tariffs placed on farmers.B. A ______________________ work weekC. The direct election of ____________________ and _____________ ballots.4.___________________________ believed in the end of capitalism, while most ____________________________ wanted to reform business and government but keep capitalism and democracy.5. __________________________________ were writer/journalists who wrote novels that exposed corruption in government and horrible conditions in business practices.6. The Progressive Movement was responsible for a number of reforms in state and local governments, such as the secret ballot, the initiative, the recall, and the ________________ ______________________ where voters choose the party’s nominees.7. Progressive advocated for ___________________ ______________ to improve the “slave” conditions of factories.8. Blaming alcohol the root of most of society’s problems, the _________________________ movement wanted to prohibit the sale of liquor and beer.
38The Women’s _____________________ Movement believed that all women had the right to vote. They claimed this right was stated in the ___________Amendment—yet they had to push for the passage of the _____________ Amendment to finally earn this right ____________________ _______________________ was considered the first “Progressive” President. He called his progressive plan as the _______________________ _________________________ _____________________________ ______________ were enacted to destroy the power of monopolies, while several ______________________ Acts regulate the food and drug processing industries The 16th Amendment established a Federal ___________________ ___________ To protect our nation’s natural resources, Roosevelt advocated the _______________________ _______________________ system Teddy Roosevelt’s Progressive Party nickname during the 1912 Presidential Election was the _________________ _________________ Party The Democratic Party candidate, _________________ ____________________, called his progressive plan the ____________________ ________________ and won the election in Although Progressives accomplished a number of reforms, the _______________ ____________________ of Blacks improved very little during the first two decades of the 20th century When in first was formed, the _______________________ _______________________ for the ______________________ of _________________ _______________________ supported Woodrow Wilson but was dismayed when he appeared indifferent towards the mistreatment of Blacks.
39The Populist Party and Progressive Movement in Georgia Tom Watson and Populist Partya. RFD Bill (improvements made on roads and bridges)b. Agricultural Extension Service and Smith-Hughes Act (Georgia laws improving farming and vocational training)c. County Unit System (allowed smaller rural counties more voting power in primaries)( 8 most had 6 each/next 30 had 4 each/ 121 other counties had 2 each)Civil Rightsa. NAACP (white liberal and Niagara Movement formed to work for rights of Blacks)b. National Urban League (interracial groups formed to solve urban problems)Women’s Suffrage (19th Amendment in 1920 but Georgia voted against)Child Labor Lawsa. Set minimum wage for children (oppose to 2 cents an hour)b. Laws required school attendance, forbade 13 hour days and working around dangerous machinesTemperance Movement (Mary Harris Armor and Rebecca Felton in GA)a. Outlaw sale of liquor near schools and churchesb , 48 counties banned the sale of alcoholC. Several more attempts before 18th Amendment in 1919Prison ReformEliminated Convict Lease System; separated adults and children, juvenile court in 1915
40Write a letter to the Editor On the handout, please write a page letter to the editor of a newspaper. You are a person living in Georgia between and 1918, and want to advocate and/or demand the reform of any of the areas listed below:Shorter work week for factory workersFederal Income tax to stop tariffsTemperance MovementWomen’s SuffrageElection reform (County Unit system and direct elections)Civil Rights for BlacksChild Labor LawsImprove work conditions in factoryImprove the food processing industry
41Standards focused on Economic Changes in Georgia SS8H7a The student will evaluate the impact of Henry Grady and International Cotton Exposition SS8E1 The student will give examples of goods and services produced in Georgia in different historical periods. SS8E3 The student will evaluate the influence of Georgia’s economic growth and development. B. Explain how entrepreneurs take risks to develop new goods and services to start a business C. Evaluate the importance of entrepreneurs in Georgia such as enterprises Coca-Cola
42Key Economic Components of the “New South Era” The New South was a concept conceived by Henry Grady:Northern investmentSouthern Industrial growthAtlanta the symbol of the New SouthRise of Atlanta after Civil Wara. Fifty families remained in Atlanta after Civil War to rebuild cityb. Became state capital in 1868c. Competing railway companies build and connect Atlanta with the seaports and rest of nation.
43New Industriesa. Textile mills developed in Atlanta and Fall Lineb. Lumber1. Paper products2. Naval stores (pine tar, pitch, turpentine, etc.)3. Furniturec. Mining1. kaolin (white clay for paper)2. gold and coal3. bauxite (aluminum)
44International Cotton Expositions a. Atlanta hosted them in 1881, 1887, and 1895b. Exposition in 1895 had 800,000 visitors world-wide over three-month period and 6,000 exhibitsc. The exposition goals were to:1. Show how the South had recovered economically2. Highlight Georgia’s and the rest of the south’s natural resources3. Attract northern investment and/or industries
45EntrepreneursA. Rich’s Department Stores1. Morris Rich began in 1867 and moved into downtown Atlanta in 1924.2. Became the “Store to Shop At” due to:a. Involvement in community traditions(i.e., Pink Pig, Christmas Tree and Hanukkah lightings)b. Helping customers during hard times1. Farmers buy with farm produce2. Allowed teachers use of scrip
46B. Coca- Cola c. Patented bottle 1. After Civil War, Atlanta druggist John S Pemberton developed a “Nerve Tonic’ or “French Wine Cola.”2. In 1885 attempted to change recipe due to Temperance Movement (remove alcohol)3. In 1888 Pemberton sold rights to Asa Chandler for $2,300sold drug store and started Coca-Cola Co.5. Woodruff’s bought company for $25 million in —international success due to:a. Advertisingb. Supplying U.S. soldiers and Europeans during WWIIc. Patented bottle
47C. Alonzo Herndon1. Herndon was born in 1858 as a slave, and worked as a sharecropper for three years.2. He moved to Atlanta to obtain a skill, which was becoming a barber.3. Herndon eventually earned enough money to start his own shop called the Crystal Palace.4. All of his employees were Black and all his clients were white due to segregation in Atlanta.5. Alonzo Herndon became the wealthiest Black businessman in Atlanta by three attributes:a. Hard workb. Saving his moneyc. Investing wisely6. Herndon exhibited his pride in his African American heritage in his murals at his home They told of scenes from Africa, when Herndon was a slave, and how he became successful.