Presentation on theme: "The Jefferson Era 1800 - 1816. “..the soil will be soaked with blood, and the nation black with crimes.” - Anonymous Adams supporter Jefferson Takes Office."— Presentation transcript:
“..the soil will be soaked with blood, and the nation black with crimes.” - Anonymous Adams supporter Jefferson Takes Office “…the country fell into a more dangerous juncture than almost any old confederation ever endured.” - James Callendar, Jefferson supporter
The Election of 1800 Thomas Jefferson Democratic- Republican 73 John Adams Federalist 65 Aaron Burr Democratic- Republican 73
Breaking the Tie The U.S. Constitution states that in the event of a tie in a presidential race, the House of Representatives must choose. The majority Federalist House voted 35 times over the course of 7 days without deciding. Alexander Hamilton finally convinced several Federalists not to vote for Burr because he distrusted him. On the 36 th ballot, Jefferson was elected as president and Burr became vice president.
The Duel In 1804, Burr decided to run for governor of New York after the Democratic- Republicans replaced him as their candidate for vice- president. Burr lost the election and blamed Hamilton, who questioned his fitness for public office. Burr challenged him to a duel, shot him, and Hamilton died the next day.
Jefferson’s Many Talents Jefferson’s love of classic Greek and Roman architecture influenced many buildings in Washington D.C. Capital Building Began work in 1793
Jefferson’s Many Talents Jefferson’s home in Virginia, called Monticello, included many of his inventions. They include storm windows, a seven-day clock, and a dumbwaiter.
Jefferson’s Philosophy In his inaugural speech, Jefferson is quoted as saying, “Let us, then fellow citizens, unite with one heart and one mind…” Believed that that the United States should remain a nation of small, independent farmers. This would promote strong morals and democratic values. It would also prevent overcrowding in American cities, as was the case in European cities.
Undoing Federalist Programs Under the belief that the federal government should have LESS power than it did under the Federalists, Jefferson took the following actions: Allowed the Alien and Sedition Acts to expire and released prisoners convicted under the act, including James Callendar. Ended many taxes, including the whiskey tax. This led to less revenue so Jefferson also reduced the number of federal employees and reduced the size of the military. Believed that government debt should be paid off with money raised from tariffs and land sales while Hamilton believed that money should come from interest paid on government loans.
Marshall and the Judiciary Jefferson had no control over the federal courts due the Judiciary Act of 1801. Adams had used this act to appoint as many Federalist judges as he could. Chief Justice John Marshall served for more than three decades and held the Democratic- Republican power in check. Chief Justice John Marshall
Marbury v. Madison William Marbury was appointed by Adams as a justice of the peace in Washington D.C. Secretary of State James Madison refused to give him this job so Marbury sued. Supreme Court found the law which Marbury cited was unconstitutional. Case established judicial review, which means the Supreme Court has the FINAL say when interpreting the Constitution.
Assessment 1. How was the tie between Jefferson and Burr settled after the election of 1800? 2. In what ways was Jefferson talented besides politics? 3. How did the opinions of Jefferson and Hamilton regarding public debt differ?