We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you!
Presentation is loading. Please wait.
Published byLucas Arnold
Modified over 3 years ago
Race and Ethnic Relations© he McGraw Hill Companies
© 2009 he McGraw Hill CompaniesBasic Definitions Race is a socially constructed category composed of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important. There are no biologically pure races. Race is a significant concept chiefly because most people consider it to be such. Biologically speaking, race has less and less meaning in the United States © he McGraw Hill Companies
© 2009 he McGraw Hill CompaniesBasic Definitions Ethnicity is a shared cultural heritage. Ethnicity involves even more variability and mixture than race because most people identify with more than one ethnic background. A minority is a category of people, distinguished by physical or cultural traits, who are socially disadvantaged. Minorities have two major characteristics: They share a distinctive identity. They occupy a subordinate status. © he McGraw Hill Companies
Racial and Ethnic GroupsMinority group: subordinate group whose members have significantly less control or power over their own lives than members of the dominant group Racial group: group set apart from others because of physical differences that have taken on social significance Ethnic group: group set apart from others primarily because of its national origin or distinctive cultural patterns © he McGraw Hill Companies
Racial and Ethnic Groups in the United States, 2006Note: Percentages do not total 100 and subtotals do not add up to totals in major categories because of overlap between groups (for example, Polish American Jews or people of mixed ancestry, such as Irish and Italian). White ancestry is for the year 2000, and percentages are based on total population in that year. Source: Author estimates based on American Community Survey 2006, Tables DP-1 and R0203, in Bureau of the Census 2007d; Sheskin and Dashefsky 2006. © he McGraw Hill Companies
© 2009 he McGraw Hill CompaniesRace Race as a biological construct does not exist Racial formation: sociohistorical process in which racial categories are created, inhibited, transformed, and destroyed Social construction of race: process by which people come to define a group as as a race based on physical characteristics as a race based on physical characteristics, but also on historical, cultural, and economic factors © he McGraw Hill Companies
© 2009 he McGraw Hill CompaniesRace The “one-drop” rule was a vivid example of the social construction of race Race is often used to justify unequal access to economic, social, and cultural resources based on the assumption that such inequality is “natural” Stereotypes: unreliable generalizations about all members of a group Often used to justify inequality © he McGraw Hill Companies
© 2009 he McGraw Hill CompaniesRace Multiple Identities 2000 census gave people option of identifying themselves with multiple racial categories for the first time Half of those classified as multiracial were under age 18 Points toward growing awareness of population diversity © he McGraw Hill Companies
© 2009 he McGraw Hill CompaniesU.S. Racial Categories © he McGraw Hill Companies
© 2009 he McGraw Hill CompaniesNational Map 14-1 Where the Minority-Majority Already Exists Source: Macionis , John J. Sociology, 10th Ed , Pearson Prentice Hall , 2005 Ch 14 © he McGraw Hill Companies
© 2009 he McGraw Hill CompaniesEthnicity An ethnic group is set apart from others explicitly because of its national origin or cultural patterns Distinction between racial and ethnic minorities not always clear-cut Distinction between racial and ethnic groups is socially significant © he McGraw Hill Companies
© 2009 he McGraw Hill CompaniesAttitudes and their consequences Prejudice is a rigid and irrational generalization about an entire category of people. Prejudices are prejudgments and they may be positive or negative. Stereotypes are exaggerated descriptions applied to every person in some category. One measure of prejudice is social distance, that is, how closely people are willing to interact with members of some category. Almost eighty years ago, Emory Bogardus developed the seven-point social distance scale and determined that people felt much more social distance from some categories than from others. © he McGraw Hill Companies
© 2009 he McGraw Hill CompaniesAttitudes and their consequences A recent study using the same scale reported three major findings: A trend toward greater social acceptance has continued. People see less difference in various minorities. The September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks may have contributed to low social acceptance of Arabs and Muslims. © he McGraw Hill Companies
© 2009 he McGraw Hill CompaniesAttitudes and their consequences Racism refers to the belief that one racial category is innately superior or inferior to another. Does Race Affect Intelligence? Theories of prejudice: Scapegoat theory holds that prejudice results from frustrations among people who are themselves disadvantaged. A scapegoat is a person or category of people, typically with little power, whom unfairly blame for their own troubles © he McGraw Hill Companies
© 2009 he McGraw Hill CompaniesAttitudes and their consequences Authoritarian personality theory views prejudice as a personality trait in certain individuals. The cultural theory of prejudice argues that prejudice is embedded in culture. The conflict theory of prejudice proposes that powerful people use prejudice to justify oppressing others. © he McGraw Hill Companies
© 2009 he McGraw Hill CompaniesAttitudes and their consequences Authoritarian personality theory views prejudice as a personality trait in certain individuals. The cultural theory of prejudice argues that prejudice is embedded in culture. The conflict theory of prejudice proposes that powerful people use prejudice to justify oppressing others. Discrimination is an action that involves treating various categories of people unequally. © he McGraw Hill Companies
Patterns of Intergroup RelationsPluralism: mutual respect for one another’s cultures among the various groups in a society, which allows minorities to express their own cultures without experiencing prejudice In U.S., pluralism is more of an ideal than a reality Switzerland exemplifies a modern pluralistic state © he McGraw Hill Companies
Patterns of Intergroup RelationsThe Melting Pot. Probably the most important theory stating that ethnic minorities would live together in harmony. Multiculturalism is a society in which each group celebrates its own characteristics Some people feel this harms the wider society, for example © he McGraw Hill Companies
© 2009 he McGraw Hill CompaniesPatterns of Interaction. Segregation refers to the physical and social separation of categories of people. It may be voluntary, but is usually imposed. Assimilation is the process by which minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant culture. Racial traits can diminish over time only through miscegenation, biological reproduction by partners of different racial categories. Genocide is the systematic annihilation of one category of people by another. Amalgamation: when a majority group and a minority group combine to form a new group © he McGraw Hill Companies
Racial Groups: African AmericansBrought to this country as indentured servants or slaves. Sociologist Gunnar Myrdal referred to as “the American dilemma.” In 1865 This denial of basic human rights was a sharp contradiction to the promise of the American republic Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution outlawed slavery After Reconstruction, Jim Crow laws perpetuated the subordinate status of African Americans. © he McGraw Hill Companies
Racial Groups: African AmericansIn the first part of the twentieth century, a mass migration of African Americans to the cities of the North occurred followed by the civil rights movement of the 1960s. Even today African Americans continue to be economically disadvantaged as a group, Problem exacerbated by the loss of factory jobs that has accompanied America’s move to a service economy. The educational gap between whites and African Americans has narrowed substantially in recent years. Political clout of African Americans has increased substantially in recent decades. © he McGraw Hill Companies
© 2009 he McGraw Hill CompaniesSource: Macionis , John J. Sociology, 10th Ed , Pearson Prentice Hall , 2005 National Map 14.4 (b) The Concentration African Americans by County, 2000 © he McGraw Hill Companies
Racial Groups: Native AmericansNative Americans were the original inhabitants of the Americas. Before European contact, they lived in hundreds of distinct societies. Between 1871 and 1924, they were subjected to a policy of forced assimilation. Now they are being encouraged to migrate from reservations to the cities in search of economic opportunity, but they remain far behind whites in educational and economic standing. Many tribes and individuals have recently come together to assert pride in their culture. © he McGraw Hill Companies
© 2009 he McGraw Hill CompaniesSource: Macionis , John J. Sociology, 10th Ed , Pearson Prentice Hall , 2005 National Map Land Controlled by Native Americans, © he McGraw Hill Companies
Racial Groups: Asian AmericansAsian Americans make up about 4 percent of the United States population. They have a “model minority” image. Chinese immigration started with the Gold Rush. When the economy soured, discrimination increased and harsh laws were enacted limiting further immigration. In response, most Chinese Americans clustered in closed ghettoes called Chinatowns. Assimilation and upward mobility marked the era that began with World War II. Chinese Americans currently outpace the national average economically and educationally, although many living in Chinatowns continue to experience poverty Currently, about 3.1 million Chinese Americans live in U.S. © Alan S. Berger
Racial Groups: Asian AmericansJapanese Americans also came to this country in the last century to work, and soon experienced legal and social discrimination. During the Second World War many were confined in relocation camps. After the war, many made a dramatic economic recovery, and today this group is above the national average in financial standing. Their upward social mobility has also strongly encouraged cultural assimilation and interracial marriage. More recent Asian immigrants include Koreans and Filipinos. Large-scale Korean immigration followed the Korean War. Korean Americans often own and operate small businesses. Filipinos enjoy relatively high incomes. © Alan S. Berger
Racial Groups: Asian AmericansVietnamese Americans Came to U.S. during and after Vietnam War and, over time, gravitated toward larger urban areas © he McGraw Hill Companies
Major Asian American Groups in the United States, 2006Source: Author’s analysis of American Community Survey 2006 in Bureau of the Census 2007d. © he McGraw Hill Companies
Racial Groups: WASPS White Anglo-Saxon-Protestants (WASPs), mostly of English origin, have dominated the U.S. since colonial days. Most came to this country highly skilled and motivated to achieve. Especially in the last century, many WASPs strongly opposed subsequent waves of non-Anglo immigrants. Their power is gradually declining in the twenty-first century. Ancestry Across the United States. The highest concentrations of WASPs are in Utah, Appalachia, and northern New England. © Alan S. Berger
© 2009 he McGraw Hill CompaniesRacial Groups: WASPS White ethnic Americans come from European nations other than Britain. Most experienced substantial prejudice and discrimination when they arrived here in the nineteenth century. Many have now fully assimilated and achieved substantial success. © he McGraw Hill Companies
© 2009 he McGraw Hill CompaniesSource: Macionis , John J. Sociology, 10th Ed , Pearson Prentice Hall , 2005 National Map 14-3 The Concentration of People of WASP Ancestry across the United States © he McGraw Hill Companies
© 2009 he McGraw Hill CompaniesRacial Groups: Hispanic Americans Most Mexican Americans (or Chicanos) are recent immigrants, though some lived in Mexican territory annexed by the U.S. in the last century. They are well below the national average in economic and educational attainment. Puerto Ricans are American citizens and travel freely between the island and the mainland, especially New York City. They are the most socially disadvantaged Hispanic minority. © he McGraw Hill Companies
© 2009 he McGraw Hill CompaniesRacial Groups: Hispanic Americans Many Cubans fled the 1959 Marxist revolution and settled in Miami and other U.S. cities. Most were well-educated business and professional people and have done relatively well in this country. © he McGraw Hill Companies
© 2009 he McGraw Hill CompaniesSource: Macionis , John J. Sociology, 10th Ed , Pearson Prentice Hall , 2005 National Map 14.4 (a) The Concentration of Hispanics/Latinos by County, 2000 © he McGraw Hill Companies
© 2009 he McGraw Hill CompaniesRacial Groups Arab Americans About 3 million live in U.S. Arabic language is single most unifying force Most are not Muslim For years, and especially after 9/11, have been subject to profiling and surveillance by law enforcement © he McGraw Hill Companies
© 2009 he McGraw Hill CompaniesSource: Curry et al Sociology For The Twenty-First Century, Fifth Edition, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River,2008 © he McGraw Hill Companies
Residential Segregation in the United States, 2005© he McGraw Hill Companies Source: Who Are the People in Your Neighborhood? Gallup Organization July 12,2005.
Race and Ethnicity Chapter 11 Society, The Basics 10th Edition
Sociology, 12 th Edition by John Macionis Copyright 2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Race and Ethnicity.
Chapter 11 Race and Ethnicity.
Race and Ethnicity Sociology Ch. 14.
Introduction to Sociology Chapter 11 - Race and Ethnicity
Society, Seventh Edition
Sociology, 13 h Edition by John Macionis Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Race and Ethnicity.
Lecture 11 Race and Ethnicity 1. Definitions Race A socially constructed category composed of people who share biologically transmitted qualities that.
The United States is among the most racially and ethnically heterogeneous societies in the world.
Copyright (c) 2003 by Allyn & Bacon1 Sociology Sixth Edition Chapter Twelve Race & Ethnicity This multimedia product and its contents are protected under.
Ch. 9: Race and Ethnicity Race- a group w/ inherited physical characteristics that distinguish it from another group Race- a group w/ inherited physical.
Race and Ethnicity.
Race and Ethnicity as Lived Experience
Chapter 3 Racial and Ethnic Inequality. Race and Ethnicity Race – socially constructed category based on physical traits that members of a society define.
Chapter 8: Sociological Perspectives on Race and Ethnicity Race and Ethnicity Prejudice and Discrimination Racial and Ethnic Interactions Sociological.
How people react to others AND How those reactions impact society
Chapter 9 Race and Ethnicity. Race: Myth and Reality The Reality of Human Variety The Myth of Pure Races The Myth of a Fixed Number of Races The Myth.
Marvin Rosario. Category based on physical characteristics, such as skin color, hair texture, and body structure. 3 racial groups: Caucasoids, Mongoloids,
© 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Chapter 14 Race and Ethnicity.
Chapter 8. Majority is often referred to as the dominate group…the ones that are advantaged and have superior rights in society. Minority is often referred.
Chapter 11 Racial and Ethnic Inequality and Conflict.
Race and Ethnic Relations in the U.S.. Major Ethnic Groups in U.S. Largest to Smallest European American Latinos African Americans Native Americans First.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
1 Race & Ethnicity. 3 What is the difference between race and ethnicity? n Race = biologically transmitted traits n Ethnicity = culture –Can be changed.
Which is the largest minority group in the U.S.? African Americans, Hispanics, Asians Americans, Native American Indians, White Ethnics.
Chapter 10 Race and Ethnicity Race and Ethnicity Prejudice Discrimination.
Chapter 9 Race and ethnicity Race and Ethnicity Prejudice Discrimination Sociological Perspectives on Race and Ethnic Relations Racial and Ethnic Groups.
CHAPTER 10 Racial and Ethnic Relations
Lecture Three The (Racial) History of the US. Who is American? When you hear the word “American” who do you think of? Describe this person. Why do we.
Chapter 11 Ethnicity and Race Ethnicity refers to cultural practices and outlooks of a given community that tend to set people apart.
Racial and Ethnic Inequality
Chapter 9 Race and Ethnicity. Chapter Outline Race and Ethnicity Prejudice Discrimination Sociological Perspectives on Race and Ethnic Relations Racial.
Race and Ethnicity. In the past 25 years there has been a decrease in racial prejudice and discrimination against African Americans. a. Yes b. No.
Chapter 12 Henslin’s Sociology: A Down To Earth Approach
Race, Ethnicity, and Immigration Chapter 3. Lecture Outline I. Defining Race and Ethnicity II. American Stories of Inequality, Diversity, and Social Change.
Figure 12-2 Asian Pacific Islanders. Model Minority Education and the economy Model Minority image - in spite of prejudice and discrimination Asian Americans.
Chapter 9 Inequalities of Race and Ethnicity. Chapter Outline Using the Sociological Imagination Racial and Ethnic Minorities Theories of Prejudice and.
Joli Jackson, Cedria Reid, Asia Johnson, Ana C.. Race is a category of people who share inherited physical characteristics and whom others see as being.
Race and Ethnicity. Movie Basic Instincts – Soc.Series2 Questions Is there any such thing as a positive or neutral prejudice? What are the differences.
Stratification, Minorities, and Discrimination Chapter 12 This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are.
1 Race & Ethnicity. 2 “Scientific” racial types are misleading n No society contains biologically “pure” people n All racial categories are genetically.
Chapter 9: Race and Ethnicity
Chapter 9 Racial and Ethnic Inequality. Chapter Outline A Framework for Racial and Ethnic Inequality The Maintenance of Inequality: Basic Processes.
Introduction to Sociology, 5/e © 2012 BVT Publishing.
Chapter 10 Race and Ethnicity Race and Ethnicity Prejudice Discrimination Sociological Perspectives on Race and Ethnic Relations Racial and Ethnic.
Chapter 12, Race And Ethnic Relations Race and Ethnicity Racial Stereotypes Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism Theories of Prejudice and Racism Diverse.
Ethnicity, “Race” Concepts are key Race and ethnic relations: structured inequality.
© 2017 SlidePlayer.com Inc. All rights reserved.