4The Late Abbasid EraAs early as the third Abbasid Caliph, al-Mahdi ( ), issues related to the decline of the Abbasid Caliphate were apparent.Somewhat typical pattern:Caliph abandons frugal ways of predecessorsCaliph does NOT establish clear pattern of succession
5The Late Abbasid EraHarun al-Rashid ( ) ascended to the throne after the death of al-Mahdi (and the poisoning of his eldest son)Harun al-Rashid enjoyed the sumptuous palace living like his dad.Charlemagne’s emissaries sent in the 9th century were dazzled with the splendor of Baghdad
6Harun al-RashidPower of Royal Advisors grew throughout the rule of Harun al-Rashid.Upon al-Rashid’s death, full-scale civil war broke out amongst those vying for power.While al-Ma’mum ( ) was the victor…what he did next truly changed the nature of the Caliphate…
7Slave ArmiesAl-Ma’mum was convinced to conscript thousands of mostly Turkic-speaking slaves as his personal bodyguards.As the number eclipsed 70,000 the slave regiment became a power center, in its own right.By 846, they had murdered the reigning caliph, and in the coming decades would murder at least four more
8Abbasid Decline Caliphs struggle to control the Slave Regiments Some Caliphs want to move capital away from Baghdad turmoilIncreased spendingPublic works fall into disrepairSpiraling taxation/pillaging, etc…
9Late Abbasid Decline…women The Harem and the Veil are the twin emblems of women’s increasing subjugation to men and confinement.The Abbasid court created the concept of the Harem for the Caliphate.
10Further Abbasid Decline Egypt and Syria break away from Abbasid ruleIn once-provincial areas of the Islamic Caliphate, independent kingdoms had arose to challenge the AbbasidsIn 945, the Buyids of Persia invade and capture Baghdad.Caliphs became puppets controlled by families, like the Buyids.Buyid leaders took the title of “sultan” meaning “victorious” in Arabic, which will designate Muslim rulers.
11The Seljuks By 1055, the Buyid control over the Caliphate was broken In 1055, Central Asian Nomadic warriors known as the Seljuk Turks ruled over the Abbasid lands.Staunch Sunnis…kick Shia’s out of governmental positions
12Seljuk TurksDefeat of the Byzantines led to the settlement of Asia Minor which would eventually become the seat of the Ottoman Empire
14The CrusadesKnights from Western Europe launched crusades to capture portions of the Islamic world that made up the Holy Land of Biblical times.Muslim divisions and the element of surprise made the first Crusade a Christian success.1099: Christian knights took Jerusalem.Muslim and Jewish inhabitants were massacred
16The CrusadesFor the next two centuries, Europeans would mount 8 crusades.Varying degrees of successWhen Muslim were united under powerful rule like Salah-ud-Din (Saladin) they re-conquer most of the lands they lost.The last crusader kingdom fell in Acre in 1291
17Impact of CrusadesThe Crusaders’ experiences in the Eastern Mediterranean intensified European “borrowing” from the Muslim world.Through increased cultural contacts, Europeans began to recover much of the Greek learning lost during the waves of nomadic invasions after the fall of the Roman Empire
18Age of Muslim Learning and Refinement Ironically, even though the caliphate was steeped in political turmoil, the Muslim Empire still experienced growth and prosperity until late in the Abbasid era.Muslim/Jewish/Christian entrepreneurs amass great fortunes supplying cities with staples (grain/barley), essentials (cotton, woolen textiles for clothing), and luxury items.Long-Distance trade flourishes
19Age of Muslim Learning and Refinement Artists and Artisans benefitMosques and palaces became more ornate.Tapestries and rugs from Persia were in great demand from Europe to China.Persian becomes the language of “high culture.”Arabic remains language of religion, law, and natural sciencesPersian was language of literary expression, administration, and scholarship.
20Age of Muslim Learning and Refinement Not only did Muslims revive Greco-Roman scientific traditions…they developed their own theories as well!Major corrections to algebraic and geometric theoriesAdvances in trigonometry
21Age of Muslim Learning and Refinement Cairo: best hospitals in the worldMuslim traders introduce techniques like papermaking and silk-weaving that was developed in China.
22Age of Muslim Learning and Refinement Contradictory trends in Islamic CivilizationSocial strife and political divisionsVsExpanded trading links and intellectual creativityThis was felt in the religious world, as well…A resurgence of mysticismVsOrthodox religious scholars become wary of non-Islamic ideas and scientific thinking (crusades)
23Religious contradictions Orthodox religious scholars felt that the revival of Greco-Roman philosophical traditions would erode the absolute authority of the Qur’anSufi movement…Sufis are wandering mystics who sought a personal union with AllahA reaction against the abstract divinity of the Qur’anSufis gain reputations as healers and miracle workers…gain sizeable followings
24The End of the Caliphate By the 10th and 11th centuries, the Abbasid Caliphate was compromised by many different factionsIn the early 13th century, the Mongols, united under Chinggis Khan became a powerful force in Asia, smashing through Turko-Persian kingdoms to the east of Baghdad by 1220 CE.
25The End of the Caliphate Genghis dies before conquest of the Islamic Heartlands, but his grandson, renewed the assault on the Islamic lands in the 1250s.By 1258, the Abbasid capital of Baghdad was taken by the Mongols
26The End of the Caliphate The 37th and last Abbasid Caliph was put to death by the Mongols.The Mongol advance was stopped by the Mamluks, or Turkic Slaves who ruled Egypt.In 1401, Baghdad suffers from another capture and round of pillaging by the forces of Tamerlane.Baghdad’s glory becomes supplanted by Cairo to the west and Istanbul to the North
28Islam’s arrival in South Asia India through the Gupta Empire had been a crossroads of migration for Central Asian nomads seeking refugeGenerally, those people were accepted, and assimilated into Indian Society.The arrival of the Muslims in the 7th Century CE, will alter that.
29The Hindu/Islam mix India…Hinduism India…Islam Open, tolerant, and inclusive of varying forms of religious devotion.Search of union with spiritual source of all creation.Social hierarchy structured on the caste systemBased on doctrines, practices (specific) and exclusive worship of a single god.Highly egalitarian in the sight of god.Religious practices are mandatory and obvious
30The Hindu/Islam mixEarly centuries were characterized by violent conflict.However, a good deal of trade and religious interchange.In time, peaceful interactions became the normThere were contacts via traders in the Indian Ocean Trade network as early as 711 CEIndian overlords who took over land in South Asia brought little change to most inhabitants of the Indian Subcontinent.Many people welcomed the Arabs because they promised lighter taxation and religious tolerance
31Early Muslim encounters in India Muslim leaders decided to treat Hindus and Buddhists as the dhimmi, or “people of the book” even though they had no connection to the Bible.This meant that Hindus and Buddhists had to pay the tax on non-believers, but they enjoyed the freedom to worship as they pleased.Little effort was put towards conversion, so most people remained Hindu or Buddhist.
32Indian/Muslim cultural diffusion Muslims inherit the Indian scientific learning, which rivaled the Greeks as the most advanced in the world.Arabic numerals originated in IndiaIndian learning was transferred to Baghdad in the age of the Abbasids.Indian doctors, scientists, etc.Muslims adopt Indian styles of dress, food, and ride on elephants as the Hindu rajas (kings) did.Muslims also adopt and infuse Indian architectural styles
34Move towards Empire…Early interactions did little to add territory to the Muslim Empire, and in some cases, lost territoryBUT, in 962 CE, a Turkish slave dynasty seized power in Afghanistan.Their third ruler, Mahmud of Ghazni, began two CENTURIES of Muslim raiding and conquest in Northern IndiaThroughout the 11th century, Mahmud defeated one confederation of Hindu princes after another in the name of Islam.
35The efforts of Mahmud of Ghazni were continued by Muhammad of Ghur Assassinated in 1206A slave lieutenant seizes power…Qutb-ud-din Aibak
36The Delhi SultanateA new Muslim empire was proclaimed with the capital at Delhi, on the Gengetic Plain.For the next 300 years, a succession of dynasties known as the Delhi Sultante (literally, princes of the heartland) ruled North and Central India
37The Delhi SultanateThis was a period of clashing control between the sultanate princes themselves, as well as Mongol and Turkic invaders.MAPS OF DELHI SULTANATE OVER TIME
38ConversionCarriers of the new faith on the subcontinent were often merchants and Sufi mysticsSufis shared many characteristics with Indian gurus and wandering ascetics.Belief in magical healing powersAccepted lower-caste and outcaste groups into Islamic faithMost Muslims were NOT from the Indo-Gangetic centers of the Delhi Sultanate, indicating low forced conversions
39Conversion Most conversions came from low-caste or Buddhist groups. Buddhism became largely debased as a result of corrupt practicesBuddhist temples and monasteries became lucrative targets for raids, etc.Many lower-caste, untouchables, animistic tribes, and Buddhists were attracted to the egalitarian nature of Islam
40AccommodationHindus were convinced that Muslims would soon be absorbed by the superior religions and more sophisticated cultures of IndiaMany things pointed that way!Muslim princes adopted regal stylesMuslim rulers claim divine descentMuslim rulers mint coins with Hindu imagesMuslim communities also became socially divided along Caste linesViolation of the original tenets of Islam!
41Islam in South Asia at the end of the Sultanate Attempts to fuse Hinduism and Islam soon were recognized as impossible.Brahmans soon denounce Muslim leaders, etc.Bhakti MovementAfter centuries of political domination though, South Asia remained one of the least converted and integrated of all the areas Islam reached.
45Southeast Asian contribution Aromatic woods from rainforests of Borneo and SumatraSpices: cloves, nutmeg from IndonesiaFrom 8th Century onward, coastal trade in India became dominated by Muslims
46SE ASIAAs a result, elements of Islam began to filter into the southeast Asian regionThe collapse of the Shrivijaya trading empire (Buddhist) in the 13th century opened the door for the widespread introduction of Islam
47SE ASIA Trading contacts paved the way for conversion NOT conquest and forceMuslim ships also carry Sufis to the various parts of SE AsiaConversion begins in Sumatra, then across the Strait of Malacca to Malaya
48SE ASIAMuslims impressed SE Asians by telling them how much of the world had already been converted
49MalaccaMainland conversion was centered on Malacca, a powerful trading citySpreads to east Sumatra and to DEMAK on the north coast of JavaFrom there, spread to the Celebes and then the Spice Islands, then to Mindanao and Southern Philippines
51Conversion Trading was the key to conversion. Regulation of commonality in Muslim laws was good to regulate business.Conversion linked centers culturally, and economically to Indian merchants and ports in India, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean
52SE Asian IslamSome areas (like Central Java) saw conversion take longer than othersHindu-Buddhist dynasties contested its spreadMainland Southeast Asia did NOT see wholesale conversion, and remained largely BuddhistBecause it was spread primarily by Sufis, SE Asian Islam was more dynamic than orthodox IslamInfused with mythical strainsTolerated animist, Hindu, and Buddhist beliefs and rituals.
53Women in SE Asian Islamic Society Women retained a strong position in the family and the communityTrading in local and regional markets was dominated by small-scale female merchantsAs in Western Sumatra, lineage and inheritance was traced through female linesMany cultural elements were blended from SE Asian Culture with Muslim Culture.Adas, M., Gilbert, M.J., Schwartz, S.B., & Stearns, P.N. (2007). World civilizations: The global experience. (5th ed.). New York: Pearson Education.Neater, B. (2009).