Presentation on theme: "Isolation v. Globalization in the 1940s, 50s and 60s SSUSH 20a-d, 24a."— Presentation transcript:
Isolation v. Globalization in the 1940s, 50s and 60s SSUSH 20a-d, 24a
SSUSH20 The student will analyze the domestic and international impact of the Cold War on the United States. a. Describe the creation of the Marshall Plan, U.S. commitment to Europe, the Truman Doctrine, and the origins and implications of the containment policy. b. Explain the impact of the new communist regime in China and the outbreak of the Korean War and how these events contributed to the rise of Senator Joseph McCarthy. c. Describe the Cuban Revolution, the Bay of Pigs, and the Cuban missile crisis. d. Describe the Vietnam War, the Tet offensive, and growing opposition to the war SSUSH24 The student will analyze the impact of social change movements and organizations of the 1960s. a. Analyze the anti-Vietnam War movement.
Rebuilding Europe U.S. Commitment to Europe –Rebuild » Marshall Plan –Protect » NATO, U.S. troops in Germany, Turkey
Rebuilding Europe Marshall Plan [European Recovery Program] –Proposed by George Marshall in a speech on June 5, 1947 Goal: Rebuild Europe –More than $12,000,000,000 ($12 billion) invested in Western Europe from DID YOU KNOW: A 2002 survey of political scientists and historians by Paul Light of the Brookings Institute named the Marshall Plan as the most significant American achievement from World War II to the year 2000.
George C. Marshall ( ) U.S. Army Chief of Staff – , during WWII Secretary of State – –Designed Marshall Plan Time Man of the Year 47 Nobel Peace Prize 53
Counties receiving aid from the Marshall Plan Courtesy of photos.state.gov
Countries in eastern Europe, Soviet satellite nations, turned down Marshall Plan aid.
U.S. vs. Communism Cold War Origins: –Division of Europe U.S. and U.S.S.R. allies during WWII U.S.S.R. turns eastern Europe into a series of satellite nations Iron Curtain – idea that Europe was divided in half, first presented in speech by Churchill (Fulton, MO 1946) –Atomic Weapons U.S. deployed vs. Japan in WWII U.S.S.R. sought to have their own
From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia; all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject, in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and in some cases increasing measure of control from Moscow. – Winston Churchill
U.S. vs. Communism Truman Doctrine –U.S. will support countries who are fighting communism –to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures. Containment
U.S. vs. Communism Containment –Origins Fear of Soviet Union Communism spreading –Ex. Greece – 1947 –Implications See next slide
Containment U.S. Policy that would attempt to stop Communist expansion throughout the world Would lead to U.S. involvement in: –Korea: –Cuba: –Vietnam: –Cambodia: –Angola: 1975 –Nicaragua: –Afghanistan: Korean War Bay of Pigs/Cuban Missile Crisis Vietnam War Angolan Civil War Sandinistas Soviet Invasion / mujahadeen
Berlin Airlift (June 24, 1948 –May 12, 1949) Berlin is divided into Soviet and Western spheres Soviets block Western supplies –U.S. Air Force and Royal Air Force provide 13,000 tons of supplies daily by air
U.S. vs. Communism Communism in China –Mao Zedongs Communist Party fully defeats Chiang Kai-sheks Nationalist Party on October 1, 1949 Nationalists forced onto island of Formosa, becomes known as Taiwan
U.S. vs. Communism Foundation of NATO [North Atlantic Treaty Organization] –Formed in 1949 to defend against Soviet aggression in Europe –Original Members: Belgium, Britain, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, & United States
U.S. vs. Communism Korean War ( ) –Background: Korea ruled by Japan from Divided after WWII along the 38 th parallel: –U.S. occupied south –U.S.S.R. occupied north North Korea: –Communist since 1948 –Invades south (6/25/50) –U.N. passes resolution calling for intervention to help South
U.S. vs. Communism Korean War ( ) –First Phase: Communist invasion S. Korea troops surrounded at Pusan
U.S. vs. Communism Korean War ( ) –Second Phase: U.N. counterattack Landing at Inchon
U.S. vs. Communism Korean War ( ) –Second Phase: U.S./U.N. forces approach Yalu R., the border with China
U.S. vs. Communism Korean War ( ) –Third Phase: China enters the war (Oct. 1950) Invades across Yalu R. and forces American troops back
U.S. vs. Communism Korean War ( ) –Stalemate: U.S./U.N. counterattack gets close to 38 th parallel Pres. Eisenhower gets North & South Korea to agree to armistice (July 53) Progress of the Korean War
U.S. vs. Communism Warsaw Pact –Soviet response to NATO –Formed in 1955 –Original Members: Soviet Union, Albania (until 1968), Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany (until 1990), Hungary, Poland, Romania
U.S. vs. Communism Other Events Worldwide –Iran (1951) CIA sponsored coup overthrows Mohammad Mosadeq and replaces him with Shah Mohammad Reza Pahvali –Guatemala (1954) CIA sponsored coup overthrows Jacabo Arbenz Guzman and replaces him w/ pro-U.S. govt
U.S. vs. Communism Other Events Worldwide –Suez Crisis (1956) Egypt nationalizes Suez canal; Israel, Britain and France invade; U.S.S.R. threatens war – U.S. brokers peace deal, Eisenhower Doctrine: aid to any Middle East country resisting Communism –Poland/Hungary (1956) Pro-democracy protests demand new, representative government; crushed by Soviet troops
2 nd Red Scare House Un-American Activities Committee –Set up to investigate possible Communists Example: –Movie industry Hollywood Ten – went to jail rather than talk to committee Use of blacklists – kept certain people from working Resistence to Red Scare/McCarthyism –Arthur Millers Crucible
2 nd Red Scare Julian and Ethyl Rosenberg –Accused of being Soviet spies, executed in 1953 Leader of the 2 nd Red Scare: Joe McCarthy
Joseph McCarthy ( ) U.S. Senator (R-Wisconsin) Argued that America was infiltrated with Communists Name gives us term McCarthyism Making accusations without evidence, as McCarthy was often accused of doing
U.S. vs. Communism Cuban Revolution –Background: Freed after Spanish-American War, but the US was given the right to intervene (Platt Amendment) Became a center of tourism Political unrest – eventually, ruled by a dictator (Fulgencio Batista) 26 th of July Movement, led by Fidel Castro, overthrows the Batista government
U.S. vs. Communism Bay of Pigs (April 17–19, 1961) –CIA-backed invasion of Cuban exiles –Goal: Remove Castro from power –Invasion fails, defeated within 3 days
U.S. vs. Communism Bay of Pigs (April 17–19, 1961) –Results: Embarrassing to U.S. government, Pres. Kennedy Moves Castro closer to U.S.S.R.
U.S. vs. Communism Cuban missile crisis (Oct./Nov. 1962) –Response to Bay of Pigs U.S.S.R. moves nuclear missiles into Cuba U.S. spy planes see missiles, alert govt –U.S. demands U.S.S.R. remove missiles Establishes a quarantine around Cuba – all ships will be searched on their way to Cuba –U.S.S.R. threatens a war
Adlai Stevenson presenting U.S. photos of missiles to United Nations, Oct. 25, 1962
U.S. vs. Communism Cuban missile crisis (Oct./Nov. 1962) –U.S.S.R. and U.S. reach an agreement to avoid war Soviets withdraw nuclear weapons U.S. promises to never invade Cuba [SECRET] U.S. promises to withdraw missiles in Turkey
U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War ( ) –Background: French colony ( ) Japanese colony ( ) French colony (1945-…) Vietminh – League for the Independence of Vietnam –Led by Ho Chi Minh (He Who Enlightens, born Nguyen That Thanh) –Fought for independence from France –U.S. supported France…why? Ho Chi Minhs Communist beliefs and connections – lived in both China and U.S.S.R.
U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War ( ) –U.S. support for France became known as the Domino Theory If one country fell to communists, others would quickly follow
U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War ( ) –Background: Vietnamese fought French using guerilla tactics Dien Bien Phu: French tried to lure Vietminh into a large-scale battle; plan backfires, 50,000 Vietminh surround 13,000 French; surrender May 7, 1954
U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War ( ) –Background: Geneva Conference: produced a cease fire –Vietnam divided along 17 th parallel »North – Vietminh/Communist »South – French-controlled –Elections in July 1956 to unify the country U.S. refused to support the elections, instead encouraging Ngo Dinh Diem to continue as President of an independent South Vietnam
U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War ( ) –Background: Ngo Dinh Diem Very unpopular… –Religion » Roman Catholic (while most people were Buddhist) –Land Policies » favored the wealthy (while most people were poor) –Corruption » Election fraud, widespread corruption
U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War ( ) –Background: National Liberation Front –Organization of southern members of the Vietminh and others who sought to overthrow the Diem government –Usually called Vietcong –Not all were communist, many just hated Diems government
Vietnam War ( ) –U.S. involvement Advisors
U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War ( ) Escalation –Gulf of Tonkin Incident July 31 – U.S. shells 2 islands (Hon Me, Hon Ngu) August 2 – U.S.S. Maddox attacked Night of August 4 – Second attack?? August 5 – Airstrikes from Ticonderoga and Constellation August 7 – Congress approves Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (next slide)
Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the Congress approves and supports the determination of the President, as Commander in Chief, to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression…the United States is, therefore, prepared, as the President determines, to take all necessary steps, including the use of armed force, to assist any member or protocol state of the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty requesting assistance in defense of its freedom. Section 3. This resolution shall expire when the President shall determine that the peace and security of the area is reasonably assured by international conditions created by action of the United Nations or otherwise, except that it may be terminated earlier by concurrent resolution of the Congress. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (Aug )
U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War ( ) Escalation –Gulf of Tonkin Incident: Impact President given authority to go to war without Congressional approval
U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War ( ) Air War –Operation Rolling Thunder Bombing campaigns against targets in N. Vietnam and along the Ho Chi Minh Trail Goal: Weaken North Vietnam By 1967, U.S. aircraft were dropping a daily average of 800 tons [1.6 million lbs.] of bombs on North Vietnam.
U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War ( ) Air War –Operation Rolling Thunder Types of bombs: –Firebombs (Napalm) –Cluster bombs –Defoliants (Agent Orange)
U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War (65-75) Ground War –Vietcong used guerilla tactics –U.S. troops often could not use their superior technology or firepower –Leads to frustration Guerrilla War - William D. Ehrhart Its practically impossible to tell the civilians from the Vietcong. Nobody wears uniforms. They all talk the same language (and you couldnt understand them even if they didnt). They tape grenades inside their clothes, and carry satchel charges in their market baskets. Even their women fight; and young boys; and girls. Its practically impossible to tell the civilians from the Vietcong; after awhile you quit trying.
U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War (65-75): Tet Offensive –Tet – Vietnamese New Year –Usually fighting slowed down Tet Offensive –North Vietnamese surprise attack –Began January 30, 1968 –84,000 troops attack 100+ cities, 12 U.S. bases simultaneously –Goal: Create uprisings in South Vietnam
U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War (65-75): Tet Offensive –Casualties: North Vietnamese/Vietcong – ~40,000 South Vietnamese/U.S. – 2,300 / 1,100 [3,400 tot.] –Effects: U.S. public opinion turned against the war –No part of S. Vietnam was safe U.S. troop increases stop
Vietnam War ( ) –Troop numbers decrease after Tet Offensive
U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War (65-75): –After Tet: Election of Pres. Richard Nixon (1968) leads to Vietnamization –Vietnamization Turning the war over to the South Vietnamese Gradually withdrawing American combat troops Peace with honor
U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War (65-75): –Cambodia Neutral Bombing began in 1969, American troops sent in 1970 North Vietnam invades Cambodia also –Bombings increase after new North Vietnamese invasion of South Vietnam in 1972
U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War (65-75): –Ceasefire January 27, 1973 U.S. agrees to pull out all troops North Vietnam recognizes South Vietnam Prisoner exchange –Collapse of South Vietnam South Vietnamese government collapses North Vietnam invades (January 1975) U.S. evacuates 120,000 Vietnamese, withdraws all personnel
U.S. vs. Communism Growing opposition to the Vietnam war – the Anti-Vietnam Movement –Anti-war protestors: College students Middle-class suburbanites Hippies Labor Unions Civil Rights protestors
U.S. vs. Communism Anti-Vietnam Movement Hippies: Counter-culture: long hair, promiscuous, casual drug users College professors and College students with…
U.S. vs. Communism Anti-Vietnam Movement –Tet Offensive: moves public opinion against the war
U.S. vs. Communism Anti-Vietnam Movement –Widespread protests Kent State University (May 4, 1970) – 4 killed Jackson State University (May , 1970) – 2 killed
U.S. vs. Communism Anti-Vietnam Movement –Protest Music Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young – Ohio Creedence Clearwater Revival – Fortunate Son Edwin Starr – War I-Feel-Like-I'm-Fixin'-To-Die Rag