Presentation on theme: "Isolation v. Globalization in the 1940’s, 50’s and 60’s"— Presentation transcript:
1 Isolation v. Globalization in the 1940’s, 50’s and 60’s Section 4:Isolation v. Globalization in the 1940’s, 50’s and 60’sSSUSH 20a-d, 24a
2 SSUSH20 The student will analyze the domestic and international impact of the Cold War on the United States.a. Describe the creation of the Marshall Plan, U.S. commitment to Europe, the Truman Doctrine, and the origins and implications of the containment policy.b. Explain the impact of the new communist regime in China and the outbreak of the Korean War and how these events contributed to the rise of Senator Joseph McCarthy.c. Describe the Cuban Revolution, the Bay of Pigs, and the Cuban missile crisis.d. Describe the Vietnam War, the Tet offensive, and growing opposition to the warSSUSH24 The student will analyze the impact of social change movements and organizations of the 1960s.a. Analyze the anti-Vietnam War movement.
3 Rebuilding Europe U.S. Commitment to Europe Rebuild » Marshall Plan Protect » NATO, U.S. troops in Germany, Turkey
4 Rebuilding Europe Marshall Plan [European Recovery Program] Proposed by George Marshall in a speech on June 5, 1947Goal: Rebuild EuropeMore than $12,000,000,000 ($12 billion) invested in Western Europe fromDID YOU KNOW: A 2002 survey of political scientists and historians by Paul Light of the Brookings Institute named the Marshall Plan as the most significant American achievement from World War II to the year 2000.
5 George C. Marshall (1880-1959) U.S. Army Chief of Staff , during WWIISecretary of StateDesigned Marshall PlanTime Man of the Year ’47Nobel Peace Prize ‘53
6 Counties receiving aid from the Marshall Plan Courtesy of photos.state.gov
7 Countries in eastern Europe, Soviet satellite nations, turned down Marshall Plan aid.
9 U.S. vs. Communism Cold War Origins: Division of Europe Atomic Weapons U.S. and U.S.S.R. allies during WWIIU.S.S.R. turns eastern Europe into a series of “satellite nations”“Iron Curtain” – idea that Europe was divided in half, first presented in speech by Churchill (Fulton, MO 1946)Atomic WeaponsU.S. deployed vs. Japan in WWIIU.S.S.R. sought to have their own
10 “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia; all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject, in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and in some cases increasing measure of control from Moscow.” – Winston Churchill
13 U.S. vs. Communism Becomes known as... Truman Doctrine Containment U.S. will support countries who are fighting communism“to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.”ContainmentBecomes known as...
14 U.S. vs. Communism Containment Origins Implications Fear of Soviet UnionCommunism spreadingEx. Greece – 1947ImplicationsSee next slide
15 ContainmentU.S. Policy that would attempt to stop Communist expansion throughout the worldWould lead to U.S. involvement in:Korea:Cuba:Vietnam:Cambodia:Angola: 1975Nicaragua:Afghanistan:Korean WarBay of Pigs/Cuban Missile CrisisVietnam WarVietnam WarAngolan Civil WarSandinistasSoviet Invasion / mujahadeen
16 Berlin Airlift (June 24, 1948 –May 12, 1949) Berlin is divided into Soviet and Western spheresSoviets block Western suppliesU.S. Air Force and Royal Air Force provide 13,000 tons of supplies daily by air
17 U.S. vs. Communism vs. Communism in China Mao Zedong’s Communist Party fully defeats Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalist Party on October 1, 1949Nationalists forced onto island of Formosa, becomes known as Taiwanvs.
18 U.S. vs. Communism Foundation of NATO [North Atlantic Treaty Organization]Formed in 1949 to defend against Soviet aggression in EuropeOriginal Members:Belgium, Britain, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, & United States
20 U.S. vs. Communism Korean War (1950-1953) Background: Korea ruled by Japan fromDivided after WWII along the 38th parallel:U.S. occupied southU.S.S.R. occupied northNorth Korea:Communist since 1948Invades south (6/25/50)U.N. passes resolution calling for intervention to help South
21 U.S. vs. Communism Korean War (1950-1953) First Phase: Communist invasionS. Korea troops surrounded at Pusan
22 U.S. vs. Communism Korean War (1950-1953) Second Phase: U.N. counterattackLanding at Inchon
32 U.S. vs. Communism Korean War (1950-1953) Third Phase: China enters the war (Oct. 1950)Invades across Yalu R. and forces American troops back
33 Progress of the Korean War U.S. vs. CommunismKorean War ( )Stalemate:U.S./U.N. counterattack gets close to 38th parallelPres. Eisenhower gets North & South Korea to agree to armistice (July ‘53)
34 U.S. vs. Communism Warsaw Pact Soviet response to NATO Formed in 1955 Original Members:Soviet Union, Albania (until 1968), Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany (until 1990), Hungary, Poland, Romania
35 U.S. vs. Communism Other Events Worldwide Iran (1951) Guatemala (1954) CIA sponsored coup overthrows Mohammad Mosadeq and replaces him with Shah Mohammad Reza PahvaliGuatemala (1954)CIA sponsored coup overthrows Jacabo Arbenz Guzman and replaces him w/ pro-U.S. gov’t
36 U.S. vs. Communism Other Events Worldwide Suez Crisis (1956) Egypt nationalizes Suez canal; Israel, Britain and France invade; U.S.S.R. threatens war – U.S. brokers peace deal, Eisenhower Doctrine: aid to any Middle East country resisting CommunismPoland/Hungary (1956)Pro-democracy protests demand new, representative government; crushed by Soviet troops
37 2nd “Red Scare” House Un-American Activities Committee Example: Set up to investigate possible CommunistsExample:Movie industryHollywood Ten – went to jail rather than talk to committeeUse of blacklists – kept certain people from workingResistence to Red Scare/McCarthyismArthur Miller’s “Crucible”
38 2nd “Red Scare” Julian and Ethyl Rosenberg Accused of being Soviet spies, executed in 1953Leader of the 2nd Red Scare: Joe McCarthy
39 Joseph McCarthy (1908-1957) U.S. Senator ‘47-’57 (R-Wisconsin) Argued that America was infiltrated with CommunistsName gives us term “McCarthyism”Making accusations without evidence, as McCarthy was often accused of doing
41 U.S. vs. Communism Cuban Revolution Background: Freed after Spanish-American War, but the US was given the right to intervene (Platt Amendment)Became a center of tourismPolitical unrest – eventually, ruled by a dictator (Fulgencio Batista)26th of July Movement, led by Fidel Castro, overthrows the Batista government
42 U.S. vs. Communism Bay of Pigs (April 17–19, 1961) CIA-backed invasion of Cuban exilesGoal: Remove Castro from powerInvasion fails, defeated within 3 days
43 U.S. vs. Communism Bay of Pigs (April 17–19, 1961) Results: Embarrassing to U.S. government, Pres. KennedyMoves Castro closer to U.S.S.R.
44 U.S. vs. Communism Cuban missile crisis (Oct./Nov. 1962) Response to Bay of PigsU.S.S.R. moves nuclear missiles into CubaU.S. spy planes see missiles, alert gov’tU.S. demands U.S.S.R. remove missilesEstablishes a “quarantine” around Cuba – all ships will be searched on their way to CubaU.S.S.R. threatens a war
45 Adlai Stevenson presenting U. S Adlai Stevenson presenting U.S. photos of missiles to United Nations, Oct. 25, 1962
48 U.S. vs. Communism Cuban missile crisis (Oct./Nov. 1962) U.S.S.R. and U.S. reach an agreement to avoid warSoviets withdraw nuclear weaponsU.S. promises to never invade Cuba[SECRET] U.S. promises to withdraw missiles in Turkey
49 U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War (1965-1975) Background: French colony ( )Japanese colony ( )French colony (1945-…)Vietminh – “League for the Independence of Vietnam”Led by Ho Chi Minh (“He Who Enlightens,” born Nguyen That Thanh)Fought for independence from FranceU.S. supported France…why?Ho Chi Minh’s Communist beliefs and connections – lived in both China and U.S.S.R.
50 U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War (1965-1975) U.S. support for France became known as the “Domino Theory”If one country fell to communists, others would quickly follow
51 U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War (1965-1975) Background: Vietnamese fought French using guerilla tacticsDien Bien Phu: French tried to lure Vietminh into a large-scale battle; plan backfires, 50,000 Vietminh surround 13,000 French; surrender May 7, 1954
52 U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War (1965-1975) Background: Geneva Conference: produced a cease fireVietnam divided along 17th parallelNorth – Vietminh/CommunistSouth – French-controlledElections in July 1956 to unify the countryU.S. refused to support the elections, instead encouraging Ngo Dinh Diem to continue as President of an independent South Vietnam
53 U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War (1965-1975) Background: Ngo Dinh Diem Very unpopular…Religion » Roman Catholic (while most people were Buddhist)Land Policies » favored the wealthy (while most people were poor)Corruption » Election fraud, widespread corruption
54 U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War (1965-1975) Background: National Liberation FrontOrganization of southern members of the Vietminh and others who sought to overthrow the Diem governmentUsually called “Vietcong”Not all were communist, many just hated Diem’s government
56 U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War (1965-1975) Escalation Gulf of Tonkin IncidentJuly 31 – U.S. shells 2 islands (Hon Me, Hon Ngu)August 2 – U.S.S. Maddox attackedNight of August 4 – Second attack??August 5 – Airstrikes from Ticonderoga and ConstellationAugust 7 – Congress approves Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (next slide)
57 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (Aug. 7 1964) Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,That the Congress approves and supports the determination of the President, as Commander in Chief, to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression…the United States is, therefore, prepared, as the President determines, to take all necessary steps, including the use of armed force, to assist any member or protocol state of the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty requesting assistance in defense of its freedom.Section 3. This resolution shall expire when the President shall determine that the peace and security of the area is reasonably assured by international conditions created by action of the United Nations or otherwise, except that it may be terminated earlier by concurrent resolution of the Congress.
58 U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War (1965-1975) Escalation Gulf of Tonkin Incident: ImpactPresident given authority to go to war without Congressional approval
59 U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War (1965-1975) Air War Operation Rolling ThunderBombing campaigns against targets in N. Vietnam and along the Ho Chi Minh TrailGoal: Weaken North Vietnam“By 1967, U.S. aircraft were dropping a daily average of 800 tons [1.6 million lbs.] of bombs on North Vietnam.”Quote from Holt American Nation, p. 986
60 U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War (1965-1975) Air War Operation Rolling ThunderTypes of bombs:Firebombs (Napalm)Cluster bombsDefoliants (Agent Orange)Quote from Holt American Nation, p. 986; pictures:
62 U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War (‘65-’75) Ground War “Guerrilla War” - William D. EhrhartIt’s practically impossible to tell the civilians from the Vietcong.Nobody wears uniforms They all talk the same language (and you couldn’t understand them even if they didn’t).They tape grenades inside their clothes, and carry satchel charges in their market baskets.Even their women fight; and young boys; and girls.It’s practically impossible to tell the civilians from the Vietcong;after awhile you quit trying.U.S. vs. CommunismVietnam War (‘65-’75)Ground WarVietcong used guerilla tacticsU.S. troops often could not use their superior technology or firepowerLeads to frustrationPoem from Holt American Nation, p. 988
63 U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War (‘65-’75): Tet Offensive Tet Offensive Tet – Vietnamese New YearUsually fighting slowed downTet OffensiveNorth Vietnamese surprise attackBegan January 30, 196884,000 troops attack 100+ cities, 12 U.S. bases simultaneouslyGoal: Create uprisings in South Vietnam
64 U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War (‘65-’75): Tet Offensive Casualties: North Vietnamese/Vietcong – ~40,000South Vietnamese/U.S. – 2,300 / 1,100 [3,400 tot.]Effects:U.S. public opinion turned against the warNo part of S. Vietnam was safeU.S. troop increases stop
65 Vietnam War ( )Troop numbers decrease after Tet Offensive
66 U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War (‘65-’75): After Tet: Vietnamization Election of Pres. Richard Nixon (1968) leads to VietnamizationVietnamizationTurning the war over to the South VietnameseGradually withdrawing American combat troops“Peace with honor”
67 U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War (‘65-’75): Cambodia NeutralBombing began in 1969, American troops sent in 1970North Vietnam invades Cambodia alsoBombings increase after new North Vietnamese invasion of South Vietnam in 1972
68 U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War (‘65-’75): Ceasefire January 27, 1973U.S. agrees to pull out all troopsNorth Vietnam recognizes South VietnamPrisoner exchangeCollapse of South VietnamSouth Vietnamese government collapsesNorth Vietnam invades (January 1975)U.S. evacuates 120,000 Vietnamese, withdraws all personnel