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Isolation v. Globalization in the 1940’s, 50’s and 60’s

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Presentation on theme: "Isolation v. Globalization in the 1940’s, 50’s and 60’s"— Presentation transcript:

1 Isolation v. Globalization in the 1940’s, 50’s and 60’s
Section 4: Isolation v. Globalization in the 1940’s, 50’s and 60’s SSUSH 20a-d, 24a

2 SSUSH20 The student will analyze the domestic and international impact of the Cold War on the United States. a. Describe the creation of the Marshall Plan, U.S. commitment to Europe, the Truman Doctrine, and the origins and implications of the containment policy. b. Explain the impact of the new communist regime in China and the outbreak of the Korean War and how these events contributed to the rise of Senator Joseph McCarthy. c. Describe the Cuban Revolution, the Bay of Pigs, and the Cuban missile crisis. d. Describe the Vietnam War, the Tet offensive, and growing opposition to the war SSUSH24 The student will analyze the impact of social change movements and organizations of the 1960s. a. Analyze the anti-Vietnam War movement.

3 Rebuilding Europe U.S. Commitment to Europe Rebuild » Marshall Plan
Protect » NATO, U.S. troops in Germany, Turkey

4 Rebuilding Europe Marshall Plan [European Recovery Program]
Proposed by George Marshall in a speech on June 5, 1947 Goal: Rebuild Europe More than $12,000,000,000 ($12 billion) invested in Western Europe from DID YOU KNOW: A 2002 survey of political scientists and historians by Paul Light of the Brookings Institute named the Marshall Plan as the most significant American achievement from World War II to the year 2000.

5 George C. Marshall (1880-1959) U.S. Army Chief of Staff
, during WWII Secretary of State Designed Marshall Plan Time Man of the Year ’47 Nobel Peace Prize ‘53

6 Counties receiving aid from the Marshall Plan
Courtesy of

7 Countries in eastern Europe, Soviet satellite nations, turned down Marshall Plan aid.


9 U.S. vs. Communism Cold War Origins: Division of Europe Atomic Weapons
U.S. and U.S.S.R. allies during WWII U.S.S.R. turns eastern Europe into a series of “satellite nations” “Iron Curtain” – idea that Europe was divided in half, first presented in speech by Churchill (Fulton, MO 1946) Atomic Weapons U.S. deployed vs. Japan in WWII U.S.S.R. sought to have their own

10 “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia; all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject, in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and in some cases increasing measure of control from Moscow.” – Winston Churchill



13 U.S. vs. Communism Becomes known as... Truman Doctrine Containment
U.S. will support countries who are fighting communism “to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.” Containment Becomes known as...

14 U.S. vs. Communism Containment Origins Implications
Fear of Soviet Union Communism spreading Ex. Greece – 1947 Implications See next slide

15 Containment U.S. Policy that would attempt to stop Communist expansion throughout the world Would lead to U.S. involvement in: Korea: Cuba: Vietnam: Cambodia: Angola: 1975 Nicaragua: Afghanistan: Korean War Bay of Pigs/Cuban Missile Crisis Vietnam War Vietnam War Angolan Civil War Sandinistas Soviet Invasion / mujahadeen

16 Berlin Airlift (June 24, 1948 –May 12, 1949)
Berlin is divided into Soviet and Western spheres Soviets block Western supplies U.S. Air Force and Royal Air Force provide 13,000 tons of supplies daily by air

17 U.S. vs. Communism vs. Communism in China
Mao Zedong’s Communist Party fully defeats Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalist Party on October 1, 1949 Nationalists forced onto island of Formosa, becomes known as Taiwan vs.

18 U.S. vs. Communism Foundation of NATO
[North Atlantic Treaty Organization] Formed in 1949 to defend against Soviet aggression in Europe Original Members: Belgium, Britain, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, & United States


20 U.S. vs. Communism Korean War (1950-1953) Background:
Korea ruled by Japan from Divided after WWII along the 38th parallel: U.S. occupied south U.S.S.R. occupied north North Korea: Communist since 1948 Invades south (6/25/50) U.N. passes resolution calling for intervention to help South

21 U.S. vs. Communism Korean War (1950-1953) First Phase:
Communist invasion S. Korea troops surrounded at Pusan

22 U.S. vs. Communism Korean War (1950-1953) Second Phase:
U.N. counterattack Landing at Inchon







29 U.S. vs. Communism Korean War (1950-1953) Second Phase:
U.S./U.N. forces approach Yalu R., the border with China



32 U.S. vs. Communism Korean War (1950-1953) Third Phase:
China enters the war (Oct. 1950) Invades across Yalu R. and forces American troops back

33 Progress of the Korean War
U.S. vs. Communism Korean War ( ) Stalemate: U.S./U.N. counterattack gets close to 38th parallel Pres. Eisenhower gets North & South Korea to agree to armistice (July ‘53)

34 U.S. vs. Communism Warsaw Pact Soviet response to NATO Formed in 1955
Original Members: Soviet Union, Albania (until 1968), Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany (until 1990), Hungary, Poland, Romania

35 U.S. vs. Communism Other Events Worldwide Iran (1951) Guatemala (1954)
CIA sponsored coup overthrows Mohammad Mosadeq and replaces him with Shah Mohammad Reza Pahvali Guatemala (1954) CIA sponsored coup overthrows Jacabo Arbenz Guzman and replaces him w/ pro-U.S. gov’t

36 U.S. vs. Communism Other Events Worldwide Suez Crisis (1956)
Egypt nationalizes Suez canal; Israel, Britain and France invade; U.S.S.R. threatens war – U.S. brokers peace deal, Eisenhower Doctrine: aid to any Middle East country resisting Communism Poland/Hungary (1956) Pro-democracy protests demand new, representative government; crushed by Soviet troops

37 2nd “Red Scare” House Un-American Activities Committee Example:
Set up to investigate possible Communists Example: Movie industry Hollywood Ten – went to jail rather than talk to committee Use of blacklists – kept certain people from working Resistence to Red Scare/McCarthyism Arthur Miller’s “Crucible”

38 2nd “Red Scare” Julian and Ethyl Rosenberg
Accused of being Soviet spies, executed in 1953 Leader of the 2nd Red Scare: Joe McCarthy

39 Joseph McCarthy (1908-1957) U.S. Senator ‘47-’57 (R-Wisconsin)
Argued that America was infiltrated with Communists Name gives us term “McCarthyism” Making accusations without evidence, as McCarthy was often accused of doing


41 U.S. vs. Communism Cuban Revolution Background:
Freed after Spanish-American War, but the US was given the right to intervene (Platt Amendment) Became a center of tourism Political unrest – eventually, ruled by a dictator (Fulgencio Batista) 26th of July Movement, led by Fidel Castro, overthrows the Batista government

42 U.S. vs. Communism Bay of Pigs (April 17–19, 1961)
CIA-backed invasion of Cuban exiles Goal: Remove Castro from power Invasion fails, defeated within 3 days

43 U.S. vs. Communism Bay of Pigs (April 17–19, 1961) Results:
Embarrassing to U.S. government, Pres. Kennedy Moves Castro closer to U.S.S.R.

44 U.S. vs. Communism Cuban missile crisis (Oct./Nov. 1962)
Response to Bay of Pigs U.S.S.R. moves nuclear missiles into Cuba U.S. spy planes see missiles, alert gov’t U.S. demands U.S.S.R. remove missiles Establishes a “quarantine” around Cuba – all ships will be searched on their way to Cuba U.S.S.R. threatens a war

45 Adlai Stevenson presenting U. S
Adlai Stevenson presenting U.S. photos of missiles to United Nations, Oct. 25, 1962



48 U.S. vs. Communism Cuban missile crisis (Oct./Nov. 1962)
U.S.S.R. and U.S. reach an agreement to avoid war Soviets withdraw nuclear weapons U.S. promises to never invade Cuba [SECRET] U.S. promises to withdraw missiles in Turkey

49 U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War (1965-1975) Background:
French colony ( ) Japanese colony ( ) French colony (1945-…) Vietminh – “League for the Independence of Vietnam” Led by Ho Chi Minh (“He Who Enlightens,” born Nguyen That Thanh) Fought for independence from France U.S. supported France…why? Ho Chi Minh’s Communist beliefs and connections – lived in both China and U.S.S.R.

50 U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War (1965-1975)
U.S. support for France became known as the “Domino Theory” If one country fell to communists, others would quickly follow

51 U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War (1965-1975) Background:
Vietnamese fought French using guerilla tactics Dien Bien Phu: French tried to lure Vietminh into a large-scale battle; plan backfires, 50,000 Vietminh surround 13,000 French; surrender May 7, 1954

52 U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War (1965-1975) Background:
Geneva Conference: produced a cease fire Vietnam divided along 17th parallel North – Vietminh/Communist South – French-controlled Elections in July 1956 to unify the country U.S. refused to support the elections, instead encouraging Ngo Dinh Diem to continue as President of an independent South Vietnam

53 U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War (1965-1975) Background: Ngo Dinh Diem
Very unpopular… Religion » Roman Catholic (while most people were Buddhist) Land Policies » favored the wealthy (while most people were poor) Corruption » Election fraud, widespread corruption

54 U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War (1965-1975) Background:
National Liberation Front Organization of southern members of the Vietminh and others who sought to overthrow the Diem government Usually called “Vietcong” Not all were communist, many just hated Diem’s government

55 Vietnam War ( ) U.S. involvement Advisors

56 U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War (1965-1975) Escalation
Gulf of Tonkin Incident July 31 – U.S. shells 2 islands (Hon Me, Hon Ngu) August 2 – U.S.S. Maddox attacked Night of August 4 – Second attack?? August 5 – Airstrikes from Ticonderoga and Constellation August 7 – Congress approves Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (next slide)

57 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (Aug. 7 1964)
Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the Congress approves and supports the determination of the President, as Commander in Chief, to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression…the United States is, therefore, prepared, as the President determines, to take all necessary steps, including the use of armed force, to assist any member or protocol state of the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty requesting assistance in defense of its freedom. Section 3. This resolution shall expire when the President shall determine that the peace and security of the area is reasonably assured by international conditions created by action of the United Nations or otherwise, except that it may be terminated earlier by concurrent resolution of the Congress.

58 U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War (1965-1975) Escalation
Gulf of Tonkin Incident: Impact President given authority to go to war without Congressional approval

59 U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War (1965-1975) Air War
Operation Rolling Thunder Bombing campaigns against targets in N. Vietnam and along the Ho Chi Minh Trail Goal: Weaken North Vietnam “By 1967, U.S. aircraft were dropping a daily average of 800 tons [1.6 million lbs.] of bombs on North Vietnam.” Quote from Holt American Nation, p. 986

60 U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War (1965-1975) Air War
Operation Rolling Thunder Types of bombs: Firebombs (Napalm) Cluster bombs Defoliants (Agent Orange) Quote from Holt American Nation, p. 986; pictures:

61 http://www. globalsecurity

62 U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War (‘65-’75) Ground War
“Guerrilla War” - William D. Ehrhart It’s practically impossible to tell the civilians from the Vietcong. Nobody wears uniforms They all talk the same language (and you couldn’t understand them even if they didn’t). They tape grenades inside their clothes, and carry satchel charges in their market baskets. Even their women fight; and young boys; and girls. It’s practically impossible to tell the civilians from the Vietcong; after awhile you quit trying. U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War (‘65-’75) Ground War Vietcong used guerilla tactics U.S. troops often could not use their superior technology or firepower Leads to frustration Poem from Holt American Nation, p. 988

63 U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War (‘65-’75): Tet Offensive Tet Offensive
Tet – Vietnamese New Year Usually fighting slowed down Tet Offensive North Vietnamese surprise attack Began January 30, 1968 84,000 troops attack 100+ cities, 12 U.S. bases simultaneously Goal: Create uprisings in South Vietnam

64 U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War (‘65-’75): Tet Offensive Casualties:
North Vietnamese/Vietcong – ~40,000 South Vietnamese/U.S. – 2,300 / 1,100 [3,400 tot.] Effects: U.S. public opinion turned against the war No part of S. Vietnam was safe U.S. troop increases stop

65 Vietnam War ( ) Troop numbers decrease after Tet Offensive

66 U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War (‘65-’75): After Tet: Vietnamization
Election of Pres. Richard Nixon (1968) leads to Vietnamization Vietnamization Turning the war over to the South Vietnamese Gradually withdrawing American combat troops “Peace with honor”

67 U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War (‘65-’75): Cambodia
Neutral Bombing began in 1969, American troops sent in 1970 North Vietnam invades Cambodia also Bombings increase after new North Vietnamese invasion of South Vietnam in 1972

68 U.S. vs. Communism Vietnam War (‘65-’75): Ceasefire
January 27, 1973 U.S. agrees to pull out all troops North Vietnam recognizes South Vietnam Prisoner exchange Collapse of South Vietnam South Vietnamese government collapses North Vietnam invades (January 1975) U.S. evacuates 120,000 Vietnamese, withdraws all personnel

69 http://upload. wikimedia. org/wikipedia/en/9/95/Saigon-hubert-van-es

70 U.S. vs. Communism Growing opposition to the Vietnam war – the “Anti-Vietnam” Movement Anti-war protestors: College students Middle-class suburbanites Hippies Labor Unions Civil Rights protestors

71 U.S. vs. Communism Unifies... “Anti-Vietnam” Movement Hippies:
Counter-culture: long hair, promiscuous, casual drug users Unifies... with… College professors and College students

72 U.S. vs. Communism “Anti-Vietnam” Movement
Tet Offensive: moves public opinion against the war

73 U.S. vs. Communism “Anti-Vietnam” Movement Widespread protests
Kent State University (May 4, 1970) – 4 killed Jackson State University (May 14-15, 1970) – 2 killed

74 U.S. vs. Communism “Anti-Vietnam” Movement Protest Music
Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young – “Ohio” Creedence Clearwater Revival – “Fortunate Son” Edwin Starr – “War” “I-Feel-Like-I'm-Fixin'-To-Die Rag”

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