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2d Industrial Revolution and the Growth of Big Business Georgia Performance Standards: SSUSH11a-d.

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Presentation on theme: "2d Industrial Revolution and the Growth of Big Business Georgia Performance Standards: SSUSH11a-d."— Presentation transcript:

1 2d Industrial Revolution and the Growth of Big Business Georgia Performance Standards: SSUSH11a-d

2 SSUSH11 The student will describe the economic, social, and geographic impact of the growth of big business and technological innovations after Reconstruction. a. Explain the impact of the railroads on other industries, such as steel, and on the organization of big business. b. Describe the impact of the railroads in the development of the West; include the transcontinental railroad, and the use of Chinese labor. c. Identify John D. Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Company and the rise of trusts and monopolies d. Describe the inventions of Thomas Edison; include the electric light bulb, motion pictures, and the phonograph, and their impact on American life






8 Growth of Railroads





13 Need: –Faster mode of transportation Results: –Creation of a national market –Standardized American culture –Helps lead to: Urbanization Industrialization, Organized Labor Immigration

14 Railroads and the West

15 Government involvement in settlement: –Morrill Act (1862) Public land used or sold to found colleges Examples: UGA, Ft. Valley, Auburn, AL A&M –Homestead Act (1862) People could gain property after living on it and farming for 5 years

16 Railroads and the West Railheads –Cities on a rail line that served to move cattle eastward Cattle Drives Ranching –open range –Introduction of barbed wire



19 Transcontinental Railroad Prior: –Routes to California Overland by wagon train (2 months) Water, via Panama/Nicaragua (2-6 months) Water, via Cape Horn(6-10 months) Pacific Railroad Acts –Central Pacific – from Sacramento CA east –Union Pacific – from Council Bluffs IA west

20 Transcontinental Railroad Problems: –Weather –Geography –Supplies Had to be shipped to San Francisco California Iowa



23 Transcontinental Railroad Meeting: –Promontory, Utah –May 10, 1869

24 Transcontinental Railroad meeting at Promontory Summit, Utah

25 Chinese Labor and Railroads Early labor: –Miners Viewed as unreliable, expensive Move to Chinese immigrants –Cheap Economic conditions in China were poor –By 1868, 12,000 were employed by the Central Pacific Railroad (80% of their workforce)

26 Chinese Labor Harsh treatment –Paid less –Discriminated against due to ethnicity

27 Reaction to Chinese LaborersThe Mongolian invasion has begun at last in good earnest…the first detachment of Chinese laborers…numbering 250 men, arrived… carrying their baggage on poles…in true Oriental fashion. Most of these men were employed in the construction of the Pacific Railroad….- Harpers Weekly, 22 January, 1870








35 Rise of Trusts/Monopolies Cause: –Rise of urban centers (cities) –Rise of industrialization/mass production –Transportation improvements Two Major Corporations: –Standard Oil –U.S. Steel Monopoly: control over all or almost all trade or production of a good Trusts: a large corporation or combination with a monopoly of some service or commodity.

36 Big Business A pejorative (negative) term used to describe the political and economic power of a corporation that influences prices of goods –Wal-Mart –Exxon –Home Depot –Now its your turn.


38 Monopoly –One company has exclusive control over their entire industry –Wipe out all of the competition –Two Methods: Vertical Integration Horizontal Integration

39 Vertical Integration One company controls all means of production and distribution from beginning to end –Middleman is eliminated –Costs less for company to create a product Lower prices Consumers go with cheaper prices Competition eliminated

40 Assembly and Manufacturing End Product Distribution Raw Materials One Company Owns all Phases of Production From Top To Bottom Vertical Integration

41 Horizontal Integration Buy out the competition –If companies refuse to sell, lower prices to undercut the competition –Consumers flock to lower prices –Competition goes bankrupt or is forced to sell


43 Small Business Small Business Small Business Small Business Small Business Small Business Small Business Small Business Small Business Small Business Small Business Small Business To Form a Giant Company (Trust) Purchased by one Company Horizontal Integration



46 Steel Industry Needed to build railroads, buildings Mass production, perfected by Carnegie, allowed U.S. steel production to skyrocket

47 U.S. Steel Formed in 1901 –Worlds first billion dollar company –Produced 67% of U.S. steel in that year

48 Robber Baron Negative - a business leader that builds wealth by lying, cheating and stealing –Robs from consumers –Abuses employees and workers –Drives competitors out of business (And enjoys it!) –Drains the country of natural resources –Bribes government officials


50 Captain of Industry Positive - a business leader that positively contributes to the country –Creates jobs –Increases availability of goods –Expands markets –Helps the economy –A philanthropists – donates money or goods to a charity Creates museums, libraries, universities


52 Andrew Carnegie ( ) Rags to riches –Born poor in Scotland –Became rich in U.S. due to investments –Worked his way to the top –Gave away most of his fortune



55 Oil company founded in Cleveland, Ohio by John D. Rockefeller Successful, yet ruthless –B–By 1890, it controlled 88% of all refined oil –B–By 1904, it controlled 91% of U.S. oil production Standard Oil Company DID YOU KNOW: Today, descendants of Standard Oil Company still exist. Do you recognize any of these logos of just a small portion of the successors to Standard Oil?


57 John D. Rockefeller ( ) Founder of Standard Oil Famous businessman and philanthropist Richest man in the world at his death –Worth $1,400,000,000 at his death, approx. $663,000,000,000 today


59 Thomas Edison ( ) American Inventor Held over 1,000 patents

60 Edisons Inventions Electric Light Bulb –Improvement,1879 Motion Pictures –Kinetograph/Kinetoscope, 1891 Phonograph –1878

61 Light bulb used by Thomas Edison in his first demonstration in 1879

62 Other Inventions of the Time Cash Register (1879) –James Ritty Popcorn Machine (1885) –Charles Cretors Thermostat (1883) –Warren Johnson Dishwasher (1886) –Josephine Cochrane

63 Other Inventions of the Time Photographic Film / Roll Film (1885) –George Eastman Zipper (1891) –Whitcomb Judson Air Conditioning (1902) –Willis Carrier Electric Washing Machine (1908) –Alva Fisher

64 Electric Chair (1881) –Alfred Southwick / Harold Brown Skyscraper (1885) –William Jenney –Used steel frame construction –Chicago, Home Insurance Company Building Other Inventions of the Time

65 Adding Machine [Comptometer] (1887) –Dorr Felt Wireless Radio (1893) –Guglielmo Marconi

66 Other Inventions of the Time Assembly Line –Developed by Henry Ford & Ford Motor Co. –Developed from

67 Alexander Graham Bell ( ) Invented the telephone (1876)

68 Inventions of the Time Impact on American life

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