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Original 13 Colonies Unit One: Colonial Era.

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1 Original 13 Colonies Unit One: Colonial Era

2 English Colonies England developed three types of colonies in North America Royal colony – a colony controlled by king or queen. Proprietary colony – a colony owned by a person or family. Corporate colony – a colony controlled by a joint stock company.

3 GPS SSUSH1 The student will describe European settlement in North America during the 17th century. a. Explain Virginia’s development; include the Virginia Company, tobacco cultivation, and relationships with Native Americans such as Powhatan, development of the House of Burgesses, Bacon’s Rebellion, and the development of slavery.

4 Virginia’s Development
Jamestown (1607) King James I granted the Virginia company (also known as the London Company) a charter. Joint stock companies were the forerunners of corporations. They established Jamestown, the first permanent English colony in North America.

5 The colony faced severe hardships
Location- was swampy along the James River. They faced Indian attacks, famine, and disease. Many were gentlemen from England with no skills Law of Primogeniture – only the first son could inherit their father’s wealth. Small food supplies causing colonists to nearly starve.

6 John Smith Starving time
Under the leadership of John Smith, the colony started to survive but John Smith left the colony because of battle injuries in 1609. Starving time In the winter of , Jamestown settlers faced a harsh winter. They eat dogs, cats, and sometimes each other in order to survive. By spring, the settlers were preparing to abandon the colony when supplies and more settlers arrived. Only 63 of the original settlers survived the “starving time.”

7 Tobacco Cultivation Tobacco – Cash crop
For two year, the colony barely survived until John Rolfe discovered a way to cure tobacco to make it profitable for the Virginia company. Parliament and the Commonwealth forbade the colonist for selling their tobacco to anyone but England.

8 Problems with Tobacco Cultivation
Tobacco is labor intensive and there were labor shortages Solutions Indentured servitude Head right system Slavery

9 Development of slavery
Tobacco required a lot of labor/Problem there was a labor shortage.

10 Development of Slavery in Jamestown
In 1619, a Dutch ship presented 20 African Americans to Jamestown selling them as indentured servants – people who work for 7 to 10 years in the hopes of receiving a new start or land at the end of the contract.

11 However, African were slowly placed into slavery.
In 1630 – some Africans were enslaved while others were indentured. By 1640 – African-Americans were not allowed to carry guns. By 1692 – blacks no longer could own horses or cattle. By the 1700s – ½ the labor force in Jamestown was either indentured servants or slaves.

12 1619 – House of Burgesses Also, the House of Burgesses was formed in Virginia in It was the first representative assembly in America.

13 Bacon’s Rebellion, 1676 The first stirring of “revolutionary feeling” in the New World.

14 William Berkeley Settlers of the western frontier faced attack from Native Americans and complained to the Governor William Berkeley. Berkeley ordered an investigation, but little was done.

15 Picture of Nathaniel Bacon
Nathaniel Bacon – a farmer and landowner – was angry with his poor efforts and raised a loose army to attack largely peaceful Native American settlements.

16 Results of Bacon’s Rebellion
The rebellion ended when Bacon died of fever. This showed the divisions between the poor and the rich in the colony. Sharp class differences were exposed between wealthy planters and poor frontiers men or the landless. Colonial resistance to royal control. Versus

17 Native Americans and Jamestown
England’s pattern of conquest with the Native Americans involved their relationship with Ireland. Therefore, they developed a harsh attitude towards the Native Americans.

18 Relationship with the Native Americans

19 Jamestown lost its charter
In 1624, the bankrupt Virginia Company lost its charter and Jamestown became a royal colony.

20 GPS SSUSH1b Describe the settlement of New England including religious reasons, relations with Native Americans including King Philip’s War, the establishment of town meetings and development of a legislature, religious tensions that led to colonies such as Rhode Island, the half-way covenant, Salem Witch Trials, and the loss of Massachusetts charter.

21 Describe the settlement of New England including religious reasons
Puritans Puritans believed they had to purify the Anglican Church (Church of England) of Catholic practices Their original colonies were Plymouth and the second was Massachusetts Bay colony. Puritan were viewed by King James I of England as a threat to his religious and political authority. He ordered many of them jailed.

22 Plymouth Colony, 1620 Those who settled the Plymouth Colony wanted to do more than purify the Anglican church from within they formed a completely separate church.

23 Separatists They were also called Separatists because they separated from the Anglican Church and moved to the Netherlands before establishing Plymouth Colony in what is now Massachusetts.

24 Voyage of the Mayflower
Worried that their children were becoming “Dutchified” They received permission from the Virginia Company to establish a colony in America. In 1620, a small group set sail on the Mayflower. The ship was blown off course and landed not in Virginia but off the Massachusetts coast.

25 Plymouth Colony, 1621

26 Mayflower Compact Mayflower Compact was written when the Pilgrim created and signed a document pledging they would make a decision to follow majority rule.

27 Separatists AKA Pilgrims.
Their first winter was difficult. Native Americans help them settle at Plymouth. Under the leadership of Miles Standish and Governor William Bradford, the colony grew slowly.

28 Plymouth colony Fish, furs, and lumber became the important parts of its economy. The colony would eventually be overtaken by Massachusetts Bay colony.

29 Massachusetts Bay Colony, 1630
In 1629, a group of English Puritan (not Separatists) gained a royal charter to establish a colony. In 1630, they established the Massachusetts Bay Colony and founded Boston and several other towns.

30 John Winthrop was their leader
Unlike the other colonies, their charter stated that their government would be in colonies. A Great Migration occurred when the English Civil War ( ) drove people to Massachusetts Bay Colony

31 England allowed its American colonies a certain degree of self-rule Majority rule in Plymouth
Mayflower Compact Town meeting were encouraged where all white landowning and Protestant males had a voice in politics. Representative Governments in Massachusetts

32 Massachusetts Bay Colony and Plymouth Colony merged

33 Limitations to democracy
Only (white) male property owners could vote. Religious restrictions were in place in many places. Females and those that were landless had practically no rights. Slaves and Indentured servants had no rights. Governors often ruled with absolute power answering only to the monarch or those who paid their salary. There was wide spread misuse of Native Americans.

34 Salem Witch Trials In 1692, several young women claimed that the devil had possessed them and blamed several elderly women in the community. The trials called the Salem Witch Trials occurred to determine the women’s guilt.

35 Salem Witch Trials (cont.)
Twenty men and women were executed. After a few months, the people lost their excitement over the trials. However, the damage was done. The Puritan church would suffer because of the trials.

36 Half-Way Covenant To be member of the Puritan church, a person had to give a verbal testimony to an “experience of grace.” Even if you were baptized, a person had to have an experience of faith.

37 Those who were not members of the church, could not vote or baptize their children. Therefore the size of the church remained small. The Half-Way Covenant was offered by some preachers (clergy) to those who professed limited religious commitment.

38 In other words, people could take part in the church service without formally declaring their total belief in God. Many hated this practice, but as time passed the strict Puritan ways began to weaken. Also, church size increased.

39 King Philip’s War In ( ), Metacom (aka King Philip) united a group of Native Americans to fight the New England settlers whose increasing population had been slowly taking their lands. Thousands on both sides were killed. The New Englanders won, killed King Philip, and basically ended Native American resistance in New England.

40 Rhode Island Roger Williams:
Believed one should not be punished for worshipping or not worshiping. Help to found Providence, RI

41 New England: Led to colonies such as Rhode Island
Anne Hutchinson: One does not need a minister or church to talk to God. Help to found Rhode Island.

42 New England Colonies: The loss of the Massachusetts charter.
Charter-document granting an area/group specific rights; laws

43 Loss of Charter: Cont. The British King took the charter away
Massachusetts – losses its independent colony. Reason: to gain more control over trade. Combined all of New England colonies into one territory. Colonist did not like the loss of their charter.

44 c. Explain the development of the mid-Atlantic colonies; include the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam and subsequent English takeover, and the settlement of Pennsylvania.

45 Explain the development of the mid-Atlantic colonies
The Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam and subsequent English takeover The Dutch controlled New Netherlands (today New York) New York City was called New Amsterdam (Amsterdam is the capital of the Netherlands.) Owners: Dutch, then French, then English aka British. The Dutch accepted diversity (other religions)


47 Mid-Atlantic Colonies: Pennsylvania

48 Founded by William Penn, a wealthy Quaker
A Quaker AKA Society of Friends They were Protestants who believed that men and women were equal in God’s eyes Later, many will become abolitionists.

49 Analyze the impact of location and place for the southern, middle, and New England colonies regarding their colonies settlement, transportation, economic development Southern colonies Geography Long growing seasons Good harbors Accessible rivers Economy Depended on cash crop/stable crop Virginia, 1607 Maryland, 1636 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, 1733

50 Southern colonies: Virginia
1st permanent English colony in North American Business venture by Virginia Company Poor relations with Native Americans/Powhatan Economic Tobacco

51 Maryland, 1636 Founded by the two Lord Baltimores
Cecilius and George Baltimore Created as a haven for Catholics Eventually, Act of Toleration was created to ensure the rights of Catholics because more protestant lived in Maryland than Catholics.

52 The Act of Toleration (Cont.)
The Act of Toleration is a part of the foundation for religious freedom in the Constitution.

53 Georgia, 1733 Last of the 13 colonies Trusteeship
James Oglethorpe settled Savannah, GA Created as a buffer colony betw. Spanish Florida and South Carolina At 1st did not allow slavery Also used as a debtors’ haven (safe place Grew slowly

54 Middle Colonies/Mid-Atlantic Colonies (Bread Basket Colonies)
New York New Jersey Pennsylvania Delaware Geography Good harbors Decent growing seasons Economy Diverse agriculture Diverse economy/business

55 New England Colonies New England Colonies Geography Massachusetts
Water ways Mainly rivers, harbors, bays, and ocean. Subsequent farming Economics Fur trade Shipping/trade Poor farming land New England Colonies Massachusetts Connecticut New Hampshire Rhode Island

56 Life in the American Colonies

57 Events that effected the colonies between 1642-1688
English Civil War, ( ) King Charles I was beheaded by Parliament Oliver Cromwell established a Commonwealth Restoration Period ( ) King Charles II restored to the throne. Glorious Revolution, (1688) King James II peacefully removed from power and replaced by William and Mary, his Protestant son-in-law and daughter.

58 GPS: SSUSH2 TSWBA: Trace the ways that economy and society of British North America developed. a. Explain the development of Mercantilism and the Trans-Atlantic trade.

59 Mercantilism Theory of Mercantilism
A country should try to get and keep as much bullion, or gold and silver, as possible. To achieve this, a country’s balance of trade, or the difference between imports and exports, should show more exports than imports.

60 Effects on War and Politics
The Navigation Act tightened English control over colonial trade by requiring the colonies to sell certain goods only to England. If colonists wanted to sell goods to other parts of the world, they had to pay a duty, or tax, on it.

61 Effects on Trade Laws European countries fought over territory and trade routes. British rulers tightened controls over the American colonies. King James II tried to take direct control over New York and New England by creating the Dominion of New England.

62 Anger in the Colonies Colonists resented James’s grab for power and hated the governor appoint by James II. King James lost in throne in the Glorious Revolution.

63 Tradition of Self Government
Magna Carta, 1215 English Bill of Rights, 1689 House of Burgesses, (1619) Town meeting (New England colonies) Colonial assemblies had a lot of power Often paid governors salaries Created local laws concerning defense and taxation.

64 Salutary Neglect Britain allowed its colonies more freedom to govern themselves than other European nations did. This British policy, known as salutary neglect, had three causes: England had a long tradition of strong local government and weak central power. British government lacked the resources to enforce its wishes. Britain gave the colonies freedom because the existing economy and politics served the British interests.

65 The trans-Atlantic Trade
Triangular Trade Explanation Triangular trade involved several routes including the continents of Africa (slaves), Europe (manufactured goods), and the Americas (raw materials – rum, naval stores, tobacco, etc. ) The routes were varied but essential to the survival of the colonies and mercantilism.

66 Middle Passage The Middle Passage was one route of the triangular trade that occurred between the Americas, Europe, and Africa. It also refers to the forced transportation of slaves. It is believed that between 10 to 40 percent of the Africans on slave ship typically died in the crossing.

67 Describe the Middle Passage

68 Growth of African Population
Slavery Experience of slaves varied greatly in colonial times It was legal everywhere. In the Northeast the population of slaves was small/In the South it was high. In South Carolina, slaves made up a majority of the slaves. In South Carolina and Georgia, slaves had a difficult life because they lived along the coastal areas growing the labor intensive crops of indigo and rice.

69 SSUSH2c TSWBA: Identify Benjamin Franklin as a symbol of social mobility and individualism.

70 Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin was a famous printer in Pennsylvania. He was a famous printer who was known for Poor Richard’s Almanac – an almanac is a book containing information such as colanders, weather predictions, wise sayings, and advice. He retired from his career by his early 40s. He then worked in politics, science, and would later work in the cause of the American Revolution.

71 Benjamin Franklin He invented: Bifocals Lightening rod
The Franklin stove

72 Social Mobility and Individualism
In the colonies wealth meant land. Most land owners were white males. A small group of elite, landowning men dominated politics. However, there were more social mobility (movement from one social class to another) in the colonies than in Europe.

73 Individualism Most colonial households worked to be self-sufficient – able to make everything they needed. “Yankee ingenuity” – was important!

74 SSUSH2d TSWBA: Explain the significance of the Great Awakening.

75 Great Awakening In the early 1700s, many ministers, mostly Congregationalists, believed that the Puritans had become unfaithful to their original beliefs. Between 1730s to 1740s, there was a series religious rival to renew enthusiasm and commitment. The movement sought to remind people of the power of God.

76 Great Awakening (cont.)
Important people – Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield. Result Spread democratic ideals because the new ministers focused on faith and sincerity as oppose to education. “Sinners in the hands of an angry God”

77 New churches grew out of these ministers efforts – Baptists and the Methodists.
Baptists and Methodists claimed that individuals could act on their own faith, w/o relying on preachers (clergy) or other authority, they were indirectly attacking the ideal some people were better than others. Other denominations split

78 By the mid 1700s The colonies’ population was growing and pushing westward. The problem was the French and Native Americans lived in the area west of the Appalachian Mountains called the Ohio River Valley.

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