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1 World History Junior Blitz

2 Day 1 Agenda Welcome Expectations Review of the Renaissance

3 Test Taking Tips #1 Read everything Carefully- many of the GHSGT questions involve short articles, tables, charts, and graphs. All test questions require careful reading of the directions and the questions and four answers.

4 Test Taking Tip # 2 There are NO Trick Questions- while it is important to read each question carefully, we have not included any trick questions. You should not spend too much time trying to figure out what we really mean. If you read the entire questions (including all accompanying material), then the real meaning should be clear. We do not consider requiring a careful reading of the entire question to be a trick.

5 Test Taking Tip # 3 Consider Every Question- You must choose, from the four alternatives, the answer that best addresses the question. Some of the alternatives (distractors) will be attractive because they include an irrelevant detail, a common misconception, or apply the right information in the wrong way.

6 Practice Question While both Italian and Northern Renaissance writers held humanist views, Northern Renaissance writers such as Desiderius Erasmus focused more on nature. politics. religion. science.

7 Correct Answer: C Northern Renaissance writers such as Erasmus focused more on religion than on other worldly ideas. Erasmus, for example, believed that people should study the Bible and wrote The Praise of Folly, an essay which ends with an outline of true Christian ideals.

8 Practice Question What was an important impact of the astrolabe in Europe during the 1500s and 1600s? It helped engineers use Newton’s laws to invent new machines. It improved the ability of explorers to navigate across far distances. It increased the efficiency of book printing through the use of movable type. It provided new evidence that supported Kelper’s laws of planetary motion.

9 Correct Answer B The astrolabe is an astronomical instrument used by European explorers during the 1500s and 1600s to determine the ships latitude. This improved the ability of explores to navigate far distances during this time.

10 SSWH13. The student will examine the intellectual, political, social, and economic factors that changed the world view of Europeans. [QCC standards WH10, WH12, WH13]

11 What Was the Renaissance?
1 The Renaissance was a time of creativity and change in many areas–political, social, economic, and cultural. Perhaps most important, however, were the changes that took place in the way people viewed themselves and their world. Renaissance thinkers explored the human experience in the here and now. They emphasized individual achievement. The Renaissance ideal was the person with talent in many fields.

12 a. Explain the social, economic, and political changes that contributed to the rise of Florence and the ideas of Machiavelli.

13 1 Renaissance Italy

14 Why Did the Renaissance Begin in Italy?
1 Why Did the Renaissance Begin in Italy? The Renaissance was marked by a new interest in the culture of ancient Rome. Italy had been the center of the Roman empire. The cities of Italy had survived the Middle Ages and grown into prosperous centers of trade and manufacturing. A wealthy merchant class in the Italian city-states stressed education and individual achievement and spent lavishly on the arts. Florence produced an amazing number of gifted poets, artists, architects, scholars, and scientists.

15 Machiavelli The Prince is an intensely practical guide to the exercise of raw political power over a Renaissance principality. Allowing for the unpredictable influence of fortune, Machiavelli argued that it is primarily the character or vitality or skill of the individual leader that determines the success of any state. The book surveys various bold means of acquiring and maintaining the principality and evaluates each of them solely by reference to its likelihood of augmenting the glory of the prince while serving the public interest. It is this focus on practical success by any means, even at the expense of traditional moral values, that earned Machiavelli's scheme a reputation for ruthlessness, deception, and cruelty.

16 b. Identify artistic and scientific achievements of Leonardo da Vinci, the “Renaissance man,” and Michelangelo.

17 Three Geniuses of Renaissance Art
1 LEONARDO MICHELANGELO Renaissance Man Made sketches of nature and of models Dissected corpses to learn how the human body worked Masterpieces include Mona Lisa and The Last Supper Studied botany, anatomy, optics, music, architecture, and engineering Made sketches for flying machines and undersea boats Talented sculptor, engineer, painter, architect, and poet Sculpted the Pieta and statue of David Painted huge mural to decorate the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome Designed the dome for St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome Renaissance Man and, less commonly, Homo Universalis (Latin for "universal man" or "man of the world") are related and used to describe a person who is well educated or who excels in a wide variety of subjects or fields.

18 c. Explain the main characteristics of humanism; include the ideas of Petrarch, Dante, and Erasmus.

19 1 Humanism At the heart of the Italian Renaissance was an intellectual movement known as humanism. Humanism was based on the study of classical culture and focused on worldly subjects rather than on religious issues. Humanists studied the humanities, the subjects taught in ancient Greece and Rome. They believed that education should stimulate creativity.

20 Northern Humanists 2 Like their Italian counterparts, northern humanists stressed education and classical learning. At the same time, they believed that the revival of ancient learning should be used to bring about religious and moral reforms. Desiderius Erasmus called for reform of the church and for the bible to be translated from Latin into the vernacular, or language of ordinary people.

21 The writings of Dante, and particularly the doctrines of Petrarch and humanists like Machiavelli, emphasized the virtues of intellectual freedom and individual expression.

22 d. Analyze the impact of the Protestant Reformation; include the ideas of Martin Luther and John Calvin.

23 The Protestant Reformation
3 In the 1500s, calls for reform unleashed forces that would shatter Christian unity. The movement is known as the Protestant Reformation. People who joined the movement for reform called themselves Protestants, for those who “protested” papal authority.

24 3 Abuses in the Church Beginning in the late Middle Ages, the Church had become increasingly caught up in worldly affairs. Popes competed with Italian princes for political power. Popes fought long wars to protect the Papal States against invaders. Some clergy promoted the sale of indulgences. Popes led lavish lifestyles and spent a great deal of money on the arts. The Church increased fees for services such as weddings and baptisms to finance worldly projects.

25 The Teachings of Martin Luther
3 The Teachings of Martin Luther Salvation is achieved through faith alone. Luther rejected Church doctrine that good deeds were necessary for salvation. The Bible is the sole source of religious truth. Luther denied other authorities, such as Church councils or the pope. All Christians have equal access to God through faith and the Bible. Luther rejected the idea that priests and Church officials had special powers.

26 Luther’s ideas spread quickly in northern Germany and Scandinavia.
3 Why Did Lutheranism Receive Widespread Support? Luther’s ideas spread quickly in northern Germany and Scandinavia. Many clergy saw Luther’s reforms as the answer to Church corruption. German princes hoped to throw off the rule of both the Church and the Holy Roman emperor. Germans supported Luther because of feelings of national loyalty. Peasants hoped that Luther would support social and economic change.

27 3 John Calvin The most important Protestant reformer to follow Martin Luther was John Calvin. Calvin followed most of the teachings of Martin Luther. He also preached predestination, the idea that God had long ago determined who would gain salvation. In 1541, Calvin set up a theocracy in Geneva. A theocracy is a government run by Church leaders. By the late 1500s, Calvinism had taken root in Germany, France, the Netherlands, England, and Scotland. In several of these countries, Calvinists faced opposition and persecution from other religious groups.

28 Causes and Effects of the Protestant Reformation
4 Causes and Effects of the Protestant Reformation Immediate Effects Long-Term Effects Peasants’ Revolt Founding of Lutheran, Calvinist, Anglican, Presbyterian, and other Protestant churches Weakening of Holy Roman Empire Luther calls for Jews to be expelled from Christian lands Religious wars in Europe Catholic Reformation Strengthening of the Inquisition Jewish migration to Eastern Europe Increased anti-Semitism

29 Widespread Persecution
4 During this period of heightened religious passion, both Catholics and Protestants fostered intolerance. Catholics killed Protestants and Protestants killed Catholics. Between 1450 and 1750, tens of thousands of people, mostly women, died as victims of witch hunts. In some places, Jews were forced to live in ghettos, or separate quarters of the city. In other places, they were expelled from Christian lands and their books and synagogues were burned.

30 e. Describe the Counter Reformation at the Council of Trent and the role of the Jesuits.

31 The Catholic Reformation
4 The Catholic Reformation Pope Paul III led a vigorous reform movement within the Catholic Church. Pope Paul III set out to revive the moral authority of the Church and roll back the Protestant tide. To accomplish these goals, he: Called the Council of Trent to establish the direction that reform should take; Strengthened the Inquisition; Recognized a new religious order, the Jesuits, to combat heresy and spread the Catholic faith.

32 f. Describe the English Reformation and the role of Henry VIII and Elizabeth I.

33 England and the Church 4 In 1528, King Henry VIII asked the pope to annul, or cancel, his marriage. The pope refused Henry’s request. Henry took the Church from the pope’s control and created the Church of England. Protestant King Edward VI brought Protestant reforms to England. Queen Mary wanted to restore Catholicism to England. She had hundreds of English Protestants burned at the stake. Queen Elizabeth forged a compromise between Protestants and Catholics.

34 g. Explain the importance of Gutenberg and the invention of the printing press.

35 The Printing Revolution
2 A printing revolution took place when: In 1456, Johann Gutenberg printed the Bible using the first printing press and printing inks. Movable type was developed twenty years later. IMPACT: Printed books were cheaper and easier to produce. With books more readily available, more people learned to read. Readers gained access to a broad range of knowledge and ideas.

36 Jacques Cartier and Samuel de Champlain are MOST associated with the exploration and settling of
A) Quebec and New France. B) Jamestown and Roanoke. C) Haiti and New Orleans. D) St. Augustine and Miami.

37 Correct Answer A Though their time periods span a range of nearly 100 years, Jacques Cartier and Samuel de Champlain are MOST associated with the foundation of French settlements in Quebec and New France. They were active in the 1530s, and early 1600s respectively.

38 Correct Answer A The work by people such as Nicolaus Copernicus, Andreas Vesalius, and William Harvey in the Scientific Revolution was made possible by advances during the A) Renaissance.   B) Enlightenment. C) Age of Exploration. D) Protestant Reformation

39 The advances of the Scientific Revolution would not have been possible if not for the work of people like Galileo in the Renaissance. Scholars of the Renaissance rediscovered the works of Greek and Roman scientists and began improving upon them. This led to the period that historians eventually called the Scientific Revolution.

40 SSWH10. The student will analyze the impact of the age of discovery and expansion into the Americas, Africa, and Asia. [QCC standard WH11]

41 Why Did Europeans Cross the Seas?
1 As Europe’s population recovered from the Black Death, the demand for trade goods grew. Europeans wanted spices. European merchants wanted to gain direct access to the riches of Asia. Some voyagers still wanted to crusade against the Muslims. Others were inspired by the Renaissance spirit to learn about distant lands.

42 Early Voyages of European Exploration, 1487–1609

43 a. Explain the roles of explorers and conquistadors; include Vasco da Gama, Christopher Columbus, Ferdinand Magellan, and Samuel de Champlain.

44 Portugal’s Voyages to the East
1 In 1497, Vasco da Gama reached the spice port of Calicut in India. In 1502, da Gama forced a treaty on Calicut. The Portuguese seized key ports around the Indian Ocean to create a vast trading empire.

45 Columbus’s Voyages to the West
1 Backed by Spain, Christopher Columbus tried to reach the Indies, in Southeast Asia, by sailing west across the Atlantic. Columbus believed that the land that he reached was the Indies. In fact, he had found a route to continents previously unknown to Europeans. These lands later became known as the West Indies.

46 When Columbus returned, Spain and Portugal both rushed to claim the lands Columbus had explored.
Pope Alexander VI set a Line of Demarcation, giving to Spain rights to any land west of the line and to Portugal, rights to any land east of the line.

47 Exploring the Americas
1 Exploring the Americas Europeans continued to seek new routes around or through the Americas. Ferdinand Magellan charted a passage around the southern tip of South America and gave the Pacific Ocean its name. His crew became the first people to circumnavigate, or sail around, the world. Samuel de Champlain founded New France in the Americas. In modern times New France is called Quebec.

48 b. Define the Columbian Exchange and its global economic and cultural impact.

49 The Columbian Exchange
5 When Columbus returned to Spain in 1493, he brought with him “new” plants and animals. Later that year, he returned to the Americas with some 1,200 settlers and a collection of European animals and plants. In this way, Columbus began a vast global exchange that would have a profound effect on the world.

50 A Commercial Revolution
5 The opening of direct links with Asia, Africa, and the Americas had far-reaching economic consequences for Europeans. Prices began to rise in Europe, as part of the cycle of inflation. European inflation had several causes: As the population grew, the demand for goods and services rose. Because goods were scarce, sellers could raise their prices. The increased flow of gold and silver from the Americas led to more money in circulation. Expanded trade and the push for overseas empires spurred the growth of European capitalism, the investment of money to make a profit. Entrepreneurs and capitalists made up a new business class. Together they helped change the local European economy into an international trading system.

51 5 Mercantilism European monarchs adopted a new economic policy, known as mercantilism, aimed at strengthening their national economies. According the mercantilism, a nation’s real wealth is measured in its gold and silver treasure. To build its supply of gold and silver, a nation must export more goods than it imports. Overseas empires and colonies existed for the benefit of the parent nation. Rulers needed to adopt policies to increase national wealth and government revenues.

52 To achieve these goals, European governments
passed strict laws regulating trade with their colonies. exploited natural resources, built roads, and backed new industries. sold monopolies to large producers in certain areas. imposed tariffs, or taxes on imported goods.

53 How Did Economic Changes Affect Europeans?
5 How Did Economic Changes Affect Europeans? The impact of economic change depended on a person’s social class. Merchants who invested in overseas ventures acquired wealth. Nobles, whose wealth was in land, were hurt by the price revolution. Hired workers in towns and cities faced poverty and discontent when their wages did not keep up with inflation. Peasants, the majority of Europeans, were not affected until centuries later. Within Europe’s growing cities, there were great differences in wealth and power.

54 c. Explain the role of improved technology in European exploration; include the astrolabe.

55 Tools of Ocean Navigation
1 Tools of Ocean Navigation Astrolabe  This device was used to measure the angles of the sun and stars above the horizon. It was difficult to use accurately in rough seas. Caravel  This ship combined the square sails of European vessels with the lateen (triangular) sails of their Arab counterparts. The new rigging made it easier to sail across and into the wind.

56 SSWH13. The student will examine the intellectual, political, social, and economic factors that changed the world view of Europeans. [QCC standards WH10, WH12, WH13]

57 a. Explain the scientific contributions of Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, and Newton and how these ideas changed the European world view.

58 These scientific discoveries called into question various religious teachings. Thus weakening the Roman Catholic Church Authority. In 1543, Nicolaus Copernicus proposed a heliocentric, or sun-centered, model of the universe. Johannes Keppler proposed that each planet moved around the sun in an oval-shaped orbit called an ellipse. Galileo Galilei built a telescope and confirmed the heliocentric model. This discovery caused an uproar and Galileo was tried before the Inquisition. Isaac Newton proposed the law of gravity.

59 b. Identify the major ideas of the Enlightenment from the writings of Locke and Rousseau and their relationship to politics and society.

60 Political Thinkers of the Enlightenment
1 Political Thinkers of the Enlightenment ROUSSEAU JOHN LOCKE Believed that people were basically good. Argued that government controls should be minimal and should only be imposed by a freely elected government. Felt the good of the community should be placed above individual interests. People are basically reasonable and moral. People have certain natural rights. A government has a duty to the people it governs. If a government fails, the people have the right to overthrow it.

61 SSWH14. The student will analyze the Age of Revolutions and Rebellions
SSWH14. The student will analyze the Age of Revolutions and Rebellions. [QCC standards WH13, WH14]

62 England 1689

63 The Glorious Revolution
3 When James II angered his subjects and clashed with Parliament, parliamentary leaders invited William and Mary to become rulers of England. When William and Mary landed in England, James II fled to France. This bloodless overthrow of a king became known as the Glorious Revolution. Before they could be crowned, William and Mary had to accept the English Bill of Rights, which: ensured superiority of Parliament over the monarchy. gave the House of Commons “power of the purse.” prohibited a monarch from interfering with Parliament. barred any Roman Catholic from sitting on the throne. restated the rights of English citizens. The Glorious Revolution did not create democracy, but a type of government called limited monarchy, in which a constitution or legislative body limits the monarch’s powers.

64 US Revolution

65 The 13 Colonies 4 By the mid 1700s, the colonies were home to diverse religious and ethnic groups. The colonists felt entitled to the rights of English citizens, and their colonial assemblies exercised much control over local affairs. Although the ways of life between the colonists of New England and those in the south differed, the colonists shared common values, respect for individual enterprise, and an increasing sense of their own identity separate from that of Britain.

66 4 Growing Discontent After 1763, relations between Britain and the 13 colonies grew strained. George III wanted the colonists to help pay for the Seven Years’ War and troops still stationed along the frontier. “No taxation without representation.” The colonists protested that since they had no representation in Parliament, the British had no right to tax them. British troops fired on a crowd of colonists in the “Boston Massacre.” Colonists protested by dumping British tea into Boston Harbor in the Boston Tea Party. Representatives from each colony met in a Continental Congress. War broke out between Britain and the colonists. The Second Continental Congress declared independence from Britain and issued the Declaration of Independence.

67 The American Revolution in the East
4 The American Revolution in the East

68 4 A New Constitution The new constitution reflected the Enlightenment ideas of Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau. The framers of the Constitution saw government in terms of a social contract. They provided for an elective legislature and an elected president. The Constitution created a federal republic, with power divided between the federal government and the states. The federal government was separated among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches. Each branch was provided with checks and balances on the other branches. The Bill of Rights, the first 10 amendments to the Constitution, recognized that people had basic rights that the government must protect.

69 France

70 Causes and Effects of the French Revolution
4 Causes and Effects of the French Revolution Long-Term Causes Immediate Causes Huge government debt Poor harvests and rising price of bread Failure of Louis XVI to accept financial reforms Formation of National Assembly Storming of Bastille Corrupt, inconsistent, and insensitive leadership Prosperous members of Third Estate resent privileges of First and Second estates Spread of Enlightenment ideas Immediate Effects Long-Term Effects Napoleon gains power Napoleonic Code established French public schools set up French conquests spread nationalism Revolutions occur in Europe and Latin America Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen adopted France adopts its first written constitution Monarchy abolished Revolutionary France fights coalition of European powers Reign of Terror

71 Haiti 1791

72 HAITI 1791 Haiti was the first republic in modern history led by people of African descent. It went directly from being a French colony to governing itself. The pattern established under colonial rule had powerful and long-lasting effects, though, having established a model of minority rule over the illiterate poor using violence and threats. Colonialism and slavery were outlived by the racial prejudice that they had contributed to; the new post-rebellion racial elite (referred to as mulattoes) had African ancestry, but many were also of European ancestry as descendants of white planters. Some had received educations, served in the military, and accumulated land and wealth.

73 RESULTS The Haitian Revolution was influential in slave rebellions in America and British colonies. The loss of a major source of western revenue shook Napoleon's faith in the promise of the western world, encouraging him to unload other French assets in the region including the territory known as Louisiana. In the early 1800s, many refugees, including free people of color and white planters, of whom some in both categories had owned slaves, settled in New Orleans, adding many new members to both its French-speaking mixed-race population and African population. In 1807 Britain became the first major power to permanently abolish the slave trade. The Haitian Revolution stood as a model for achieving emancipation for slaves in the United States who attempted to mimic Toussaint Louverture's actions. Louverture remains a hero to this day.

74 Latin America

75 The Hispanic American wars of independence refer to the numerous wars against Spanish rule in Hispanic America that took place during the early 19th century, from 1808 until 1829 and resulted in the creation of a chain of newly independent countries stretching from Argentina and Chile in the south to Mexico in the north.

76 c. Explain Napoleon’s rise to power, and his defeat; and explain the consequences for Europe.

77 The Rise of Napoleon 1769 Born on island of Corsica
4 The Rise of Napoleon 1769 Born on island of Corsica 1793 Helps capture Toulon from British; promoted to brigadier general 1795 Crushes rebels opposed to the National Convention 1796–1797 Becomes commander in chief of the army of Italy; wins victories against Austria 1798–1799 Loses to the British in Egypt and Syria 1799 Overthrows Directory and becomes First Consul of France 1804 Crowns himself emperor of France

78 4 France Under Napoleon Napoleon consolidated his power by strengthening the central government. Order, security, and efficiency replaced liberty, equality, and fraternity as the slogans of the new regime. Napoleon instituted a number of reforms to restore economic prosperity. Napoleon developed a new law code, the Napoleonic Code, which embodied Enlightenment principles.

79 Napoleon undid some of the reforms of the French Revolution:
Women lost most of their newly gained rights. Male heads of household regained complete authority over their wives and children.

80 Building an Empire 4 As Napoleon created a vast French empire, he redrew the map of Europe. He annexed, or added outright, some areas to France. He abolished the Holy Roman Empire. He cut Prussia in half.

81 Napoleon controlled much of Europe through forceful diplomacy.
He put friends and relatives on the thrones of Europe. He forced alliances on many European powers. Britain alone remained outside Napoleon’s empire.

82 Napoleon’s Power in Europe, 1812
4 Napoleon’s Power in Europe, 1812

83 Challenges to Napoleon’s Empire
5 The impact of nationalism Many Europeans who had welcomed the ideas of the French Revolution nevertheless saw Napoleon and his armies as foreign oppressors. Resistance in Spain Napoleon had replaced the king of Spain with his own brother, but many Spaniards remained loyal to their former king. Spanish patriots conducted a campaign of guerrilla warfare against the French. War with Austria Spanish resistance encouraged Austria to resume hostilities against the French. Defeat in Russia Nearly all of Napoleon’s 400,000 troops sent on a campaign in Russia died, most from hunger and the cold of the Russian winter.

84 Downfall of Napoleon 1812—Napoleon’s forces were defeated in Russia.
5 1812—Napoleon’s forces were defeated in Russia. Russia, Britain, Austria, and Prussia form a new alliance against a weakened France. 1813—Napoleon was defeated in the Battle of Nations in Leipzig. 1814—Napoleon abdicated, or stepped down from power, and was exiled to Elba, an island in the Mediterranean Sea. 1815—Napoleon escaped his exile and returned to France. Combined British and Prussian forces defeated Napoleon at Waterloo. Napoleon was forced to abdicate again, and was this time exiled to St. Helena, an island in the South Atlantic. 1821—Napoleon died in exile. .

85 5 Legacy of Napoleon The Napoleonic Code consolidated many changes of the revolution. Napoleon turned France into a centralized state with a constitution. Elections were held with expanded, though limited, suffrage. Many more citizens had rights to property and access to education. French citizens lost many rights promised to them during the Convention. On the world stage, Napoleon’s conquests spread the ideas of the revolution and nationalism.

86 Napoleon failed to make Europe into a French empire.
The abolition of the Holy Roman Empire would eventually contribute to the creation of a new Germany. Napoleon’s decision to sell France’s Louisiana Territory to America doubled the size of the United States and ushered in an age of American expansion.

87 What Were the Goals of the Congress of Vienna?
5 The chief goal of the Congress was to create a lasting peace by establishing a balance of power and protecting the system of monarchy. To achieve this goal, the peacemakers did the following: They redrew the map of Europe. To contain French ambition, they ringed France with strong countries. They promoted the principle of legitimacy, restoring hereditary monarchies that the French Revolution or Napoleon had unseated. To protect the new order, Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Great Britain extended their wartime alliance into the postwar era.

88 Europe After the Congress of Vienna, 1815

89 The Columbian Exchange was
A) the first great banking and trading house in South America. B) the exchange of precious metals between the old and new worlds. C) the exchange of plants, animals, and diseases between the old and new worlds. D) the movement of the army of Simon Bolivar across Gran Columbia, exchanging Spanish prisoners for valuable weapons he would later use to free most of Latin America.

90 Correct Answer C The Columbian Exchange was the exchange of plants, animals, people, and diseases between the "old" and "new" worlds. This saw such things as potatoes and tobacco introduced to Europe and horses, coffee, and small pox introduced to the "new world."

91 Which of these had the GREATEST impact on the success of the Northern Renaissance?
A) funding from wealthy patrons B) approval of the Catholic Church C) the works of da Vinci and Michelangelo D) the discoveries resulting from Columbus’ voyage

92 Correct Answer A The Northern Renaissance would not have been possible without funding from wealthy patrons. The artists, writers, and philosophers of the day would not have had time to "do their thing" had people with money not funded them.

93 SSWH16. The student will demonstrate an understanding of long-term causes of World War I and its global impact. [QCC standards WH19, WH21, WH22]

94 a. Identify the causes of the war; include Balkan nationalism, entangling alliances, and militarism.

95 4 Balkan Nationalism A complex web of competing interests contributed to a series of crises and wars in the Balkans. Serbia and Greece had won independence in the early 1800s. However, there were still many Serbs and Greeks living in the Balkans under Ottoman rule. The Ottoman empire was home to other national groups, such as Bulgarians and Romanians. During the 1800s, various subject people staged revolts against the Ottomans, hoping to set up their own independent states. European powers stepped in to divide up Ottoman lands, ignoring the nationalist goals of various Balkan peoples.

96 4 The Balkans, 1878

97 Nationalism and International Rivalries
1 Nationalism and International Rivalries Aggressive nationalism was one leading cause of international tensions. Nationalist feelings were strong in both Germany and France. In Eastern Europe, Pan-Slavism held that all Slavic peoples shared a common nationality. Russia felt that it had a duty to lead and defend all Slavs.

98 Imperial rivalries divided European nations.
In 1906 and again in 1911, competition for colonies brought France and Germany to the brink of war. The 1800s saw a rise in militarism, the glorification of the military. The great powers expanded their armies and navies, creating an arms race that further increased suspicions and made war more likely.

99 Causes and Effects of European Alliances
1 Causes and Effects of European Alliances Distrust led the great powers to sign treaties pledging to defend one another. These alliances were intended to create powerful combinations that no one would dare attack. The growth of rival alliance systems increased international tensions.

100 1 European Alliances, 1914

101 b. Describe conditions on the war front for soldiers.

102 The Western Front German forces swept through Belgium toward Paris.
3 German forces swept through Belgium toward Paris. Russia mobilized more quickly than expected. Germany shifted some troops to the east to confront Russia, weakening German forces in the west. British and French troops defeat Germany in the Battle of the Marne. The battle of the Marne pushed back the German offensive and destroyed Germany’s hopes for a quick victory on the Western Front. The result was a long, deadly stalemate, a deadlock in which neither side is able to defeat the other. Battle lines in France remained almost unchanged for four years.

103 3 Europe at War, 1914–1918

104 3 World War I Technology Modern weapons added greatly to the destructiveness of the war. Airplane A one- or two-seat propeller plane was equipped with a machine gun. At first the planes were used mainly for observation. Later, “flying aces” engaged in individual combat, though such “dogfights” had little effect on the war. Automatic machine gun A mounted gun that fired a rapid, continuous stream of bullets made it possible for a few gunners to mow down waves of soldiers. This helped create a stalemate by making it difficult to advance across no man’s land. Submarine These underwater ships, or U-boats, could launch torpedoes, or guided underwater bombs. Used by Germany to destroy Allied shipping, U-boat attacks helped bring the United States into the war.

105 How Did the War Become a Global Conflict?
3 EASTERN EUROPE SOUTHERN EUROPE In August 1914, Russian armies pushed into eastern Germany. After Russia was defeated in the battle of Tannenburg, armies in the east fought on Russian soil. In 1915, Bulgaria joined the Central Powers and helped crush Serbia. OUTSIDE EUROPE THE COLONIES Japan, allied with Britain, tried to impose a protectorate on China. The Ottoman empire joined the Central Powers in 1914. Arab nationalists revolted against Ottoman rule. The Allies overran German colonies in Africa and Asia. The great powers turned to their own colonies for troops, laborers, and supplies.

106 c. Explain the major decisions made in the Versailles Treaty; include German reparations and the mandate system that replaced Ottoman control.

107 Campaign to Victory 4 In 1917, The United States declared war on Germany. By 1918, about two million American soldiers had joined the Allies on the Western Front. The Germans launched a huge offensive, pushing the Allies back. The Allies launched a counteroffensive, driving German forces back across France and Germany. Germany sought an armistice, or agreement to end fighting, with the Allies. On November 11, 1918, the war ended.

108 Wilson’s Fourteen Points
4 Wilson’s Fourteen Points President Woodrow Wilson issued the Fourteen Points, a list of his terms for resolving World War I and future wars. He called for: freedom of the seas free trade large-scale reductions of arms an end to secret treaties self-determination, or the right of people to choose their own form of government, for Eastern Europe the creation of a “general association of nations” to keep the peace in the future

109 5 The Costs of War More than 8.5 million people died. Twice that number had been wounded. Famine threatened many regions. Across the European continent, homes, farms, factories, roads, and churches had been shelled to rubble. People everywhere were shaken and disillusioned. Governments had collapsed in Russia, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman empire.

110 Casualties of World War I
5 Casualties of World War I Deaths Wounded in Battle in Battle Allies France 1,357,800 4,266,000 British empire 908,371 2,090,212 Russia 1,700,000 4,950,000 Italy 462, ,886 United States 50, ,690 Others 502, ,585 Central Powers Germany 1,808,546 4,247,143 Austria-Hungary 922,500 3,620,000 Ottoman empire 325, ,000

111 The Paris Peace Conference
5 The delegates to the Paris Peace Conference faced many difficult issues: The Allied leaders had different aims. The Italians insisted that the Allies honor their secret agreement to gain Austria-Hungary. Such secret agreements violated Wilson’s principle of self-determination. Many people who had been ruled by Russia, Austria-Hungary, or the Ottoman empire now demanded national states of their own. The territories claimed by these people often overlapped, so it was impossible to satisfy them all.

112 The Treaty of Versailles
5 The Treaty: forced Germany to assume full blame for causing the war. imposed huge reparations upon Germany. The Treaty aimed at weakening Germany by: limiting the size of the German military, returning Alsace and Lorraine to France, removing hundreds of miles of territory from Germany, stripping Germany of its overseas colonies. The Germans signed the treaty because they had no choice. But German resentment of the Treaty of Versailles would poison the international climate for 20 years and lead to an even deadlier world war.

113 Europe in 1914 and 1920 5 1914

114 Europe in 1914 and 1920 5 1920

115 Summary World War I

116 World War I: Cause and Effect
5 World War I: Cause and Effect Long-Term Causes Immediate Causes Imperialist and economic rivalries among European powers European alliance system Militarism and arms race Nationalist tensions in Balkans Austria-Hungary’s annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Fighting in the Balkans Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand German invasion of Belgium Immediate Effects Long-Term Effects Enormous cost in lives and money Russian Revolution Creation of new nations in Eastern Europe Requirement that Germany pay reparations German loss of its overseas colonies Balfour Declaration League of Nations Economic impact of war debts on Europe Emergence of United States and Japan as important powers Growth of nationalism in colonies Rise of fascism World War II

117 d. Analyze the destabilization of Europe in the collapse of the great empires; include the Romanov and Hapsburg dynasties.

118 Hapsburgs Oldest ruling house in Europe
Conservative government suppresses liberal demands Growing urban discontent Nationalist unrest in a multinational empire Military defeats led to growing demands from liberals and nationalist Arrangement of dual monarchy satisfied Hungarians, angered other nationalist

119 SSWH17. The student will be able to identify the major political and economic factors that shaped world societies between World War I and World War II. [QCC standards WH19, WH21, WH22]

120 b. Determine the causes and results of the Russian Revolution from the rise of the Bolsheviks under Lenin to Stalin’s first Five Year Plan.

121 Why Did Revolution Occur in Russia in March 1917?
Czars had made some reforms, but too few to ease the nation’s tensions. Much of the majority peasant population endured stark poverty. Revolutionaries worked to hatch radical plots. World War I was producing disasters on the battlefield for the Russian army, and food and fuel shortages on the home front. Rasputin’s influence in domestic affairs weakened confidence in the government.

122 Why Did Lenin and the Bolsheviks Launch the November Revolution?
1 Lenin adapted Marxist ideas to fit Russian conditions. He called for an elite group to lead the revolution and set up a “dictatorship of the proletariat.” Conditions were ripe for Lenin and the Bolsheviks to make their move: The provisional government continued the war effort and failed to deal with land reform. In the summer of 1917, the government launched a disastrous offensive against Germany. The army was in terrible shape and growing numbers of troops mutinied. Peasants seized land and drove off fearful landlords.

123 Russian Civil War 1 How did the Communists defeat their opponents in Russia’s civil war? Lenin quickly made peace with Germany so that the Communists could focus all their energy on defeating enemies at home. The Communists adopted a policy called “war communism.” They took over banks, mines, factories, and railroads, took control of food produced by peasants, and drafted peasant laborers into military or factory work. Trotsky turned the Red Army into an effective fighting force. When the Allies intervened to support the Whites, the Communists appealed to nationalism and urged Russians to drive out the foreigners.

124 Turning Points in Russia, 1914–1921
August World War I begins. 1917 March Revolution forces the czar to abdicate. A provisional government is formed. April Lenin returns to Russia. July Russians suffer more than 50,000 casualties in battle against German and Austro-Hungarian forces. November A second revolution results in Bolshevik takeover of government. December Bolshevik government seeks peace with Germany. 1918 March Russia signs treaty of Brest-Litovsk, losing a large amount of territory. July Civil war between the Reds and Whites begins The czar and his family are executed. August British, American, Japanese, and other foreign forces intervene in Russia. 1921 March Communist government is victorious. Only sporadic fighting continues.

125 The Communist State Under Lenin
2 The Communist State Under Lenin The Communists produced a new constitution that: set up an elected legislature, later called the Supreme Soviet gave all citizens over 18 the right to vote placed all political power, resources, and means of production in the hands of the workers and peasants The new government united much of the old Russian empire in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), or Soviet Union. Lenin adopted the New Economic Policy, or NEP. It allowed some capitalist ventures. The state kept control of banks, foreign trade, and large industries. Small businesses were allowed to reopen for private profit.

126 2 Soviet Union, 1917–1938

127 Stalin’s Five-Year Plans
2 Stalin’s Five-Year Plans Once in power, Stalin set out to make the Soviet Union a modern industrial power. He put into place several “five-year plans” aimed at building heavy industry, improving transportation, and increasing farm output. Stalin brought all economic activity under government control. The Soviet Union developed a command economy, in which government officials made all basic economic decisions. Stalin also brought agriculture under government control. He forced peasants to give up their land and live on either state-owned farms or collectives, large farms owned and operated by peasants as a group. Overall, standards of living remained poor. Wages were low, and consumer goods were scarce.

128 2 The Great Purge Stalin harbored obsessive fears that rival party leaders were plotting against him. In 1934, he launched the Great Purge. At least four million people were purged during the Stalin years. The purges increased Stalin’s power. The victims of the purges included most of the nation’s military leadership. This loss of military leadership would weigh heavily on Stalin in 1941, when Germany invaded the Soviet Union.

129 2 Soviet Foreign Policy Between 1917 and 1939, the Soviet Union pursued two very different goals in foreign policy. As Communists, both Lenin and Stalin wanted to bring about the worldwide revolution that Marx had predicted. Lenin formed the Communist International, or Comintern, which aided revolutionary groups around the world. As Russians, they wanted to guarantee their nation’s security by winning the support of other countries. The Soviet Union sought to join the League of Nations. The Comintern’s propaganda against capitalism made western powers highly suspicious of the Soviet Union.

130 c. Describe the rise of fascism in Europe and Asia by comparing the policies of Benito Mussolini in Italy, Adolf Hitler in Germany, and Hirohito in Japan.

131 What Is Fascism? 3 In the 1920s and 1930s, fascism meant different things in different countries. All forms of fascism, however, shared some basic features: extreme nationalism glorification of action, violence, discipline, and, above all, blind loyalty to the state rejection of Enlightenment faith in reason and the concepts of equality and liberty rejection of democratic ideas pursuit of aggressive foreign expansion glorification of warfare as a necessary and noble struggle for survival

132 Benito Mussolini in Italy

133 How Did Conditions in Italy Favor the Rise of Mussolini?
3 How Did Conditions in Italy Favor the Rise of Mussolini? Italian nationalists were outraged by the Paris peace treaties. Inspired by the revolution in Russia, Italian peasants seized land, and workers went on strike or seized factories. Returning veterans faced unemployment. Trade declined and taxes rose. The government was split into feuding factions and seemed powerless to end the crisis.

3 POLITICAL STRUCTURE ECONOMIC POLICY SOCIAL POLICIES By 1925, Mussolini had assumed the title Il Duce, “The Leader.” In theory, Italy remained a parliamentary monarchy. In fact, it became a dictatorship upheld by terror. The Fascists relied on secret police and propaganda. Mussolini brought the economy under state control. Unlike socialists, Mussolini preserved capitalism. Workers received poor wages and were forbidden to strike. The individual was unimportant except as a member of the state. Men were urged to be ruthless warriors. Women were called on to produce more children. Fascist youth groups toughened children and taught them to obey strict military discipline.

135 Adolf Hitler in Germany

136 4 The Weimar Republic In 1919, German leaders set up a democratic government known as the Weimar Republic. The republic faced severe problems from the start. The government was weak because Germany had many small parties. The government came under constant fire from both the left and the right. Germans of all classes blamed the Weimar Republic for the hated Versailles treaty. When Germany fell behind in reparations payments, France occupied the coal-rich Ruhr Valley. Runaway inflation spread misery and despair.

137 Adolf Hitler’s Rise to Power
4 Hitler fought in the German army in World War I. In 1919, he joined a small group of right-wing extremists. Within a year, he was the leader of the National Socialist German Workers, or Nazi, party. In 1923, he made a failed attempt to seize power in Munich. He was imprisoned for treason. In prison, Hitler wrote Mein Kampf (“My Struggle”). It would later become the basic book of Nazi goals and ideology. Nazi membership grew to almost a million. In 1933, Hitler was made chancellor of Germany. Within a year, Hitler was master of Germany. He made Germany a one-party state and purged his own party.

4 POLITICAL POLICIES ECONOMIC POLICIES Hitler repudiated, or rejected, the hated Treaty of Versailles. Hitler organized a system of terror, repression, and totalitarian rule. Hitler launched a large public works program. Hitler began to rearm Germany, in violation of the Versailles treaty. SOCIAL POLICIES CULTURAL POLICIES The Nazis indoctrinated young people with their ideology. Hitler spread his message of racism. The Nazis sought to limit women’s roles. School courses and textbooks were written to reflect Nazi racial views. The Nazis sought to purge, or purify, German culture. Hitler sought to replace religion with his racial creed.

139 Hitler’s Campaign Against the Jews
4 Hitler’s Campaign Against the Jews Hitler set out to drive Jews from Germany. In 1935, the Nuremberg Laws placed severe restrictions on Jews. Many German Jews fled Germany and sought refuge in other countries. In 1938, Nazi-led mobs attacked Jewish communities all over Germany in what came to be called Kristallnacht, or the “Night of Broken Glass.” Hitler sent tens of thousands of Jews to concentration camps, detention centers for civilians considered enemies of the state. Hitler planned the “final solution”—the extermination of all Jews.

140 Hirohito Japan

141 The Army and the Navy are in command, that militarism is lauded to the skies, that ‘dangerous thought’ is suppressed, that there is persecution of Socialists and Communists and that the political parties have little power.  They refer to the assassination of Cabinet Ministers by groups of ‘Young Officers’ in whom they see the nucleus of a coming Fascist regime. 

142 e. Describe the nature of totalitarianism and the police state that existed in Russia, Germany, and Italy and how they differ from authoritarian governments.


144 A Totalitarian State 3 Stalin turned the Soviet Union into a totalitarian state. In this form of government, a one-party dictatorship attempts to regulate every aspect of the lives of its citizens. To ensure obedience, Stalin used secret police, censorship, violent purges, and terror. The party bombarded the public with relentless propaganda. The Communists replaced religion with their own ideology.

145 Changes in Soviet Society
3 The Communists transformed Russian life. They created a society where a few elite groups emerged as a new ruling class. The state provided free education, free medical care, day care for children, inexpensive housing, and public recreation. Women were granted equality under the law.

146 State Control and the Arts
3 Stalin forced artists and writers to conform to a style called socialist realism. Its goal was to boost socialism by showing Soviet life in a positive light. Government controlled what books were published, what music was heard, and which works of art were displayed. Writers, artists, and composers faced government persecution.

147 f. Explain the aggression and conflict leading to World War II in Europe and Asia.

148 How Did Dictators Challenge World Peace?
1 Throughout the 1930s, dictators took aggressive action but met only verbal protests and pleas for peace from the democracies. Mussolini and Hitler viewed that desire for peace as weakness and responded with new acts of aggression. Hitler built up the German military in defiance of the Versailles treaty. Then, in 1936, he sent troops into the demilitarized Rhineland bordering France — another treaty violation. In 1935, Mussolini invaded Ethiopia. The League of Nations voted sanctions, or penalties, but had no power to enforce the sanctions.

149 Test Taking Tip # 4 Try to stay awake- Rememeber that this is a timed test. There will be time afterwards to sleep. Get a good nights sleep the night before, and be refreshed for the morning exam.

150 The period of European history that began at the close of the Middle Ages and was characterized by a cultural revival is known as the A) Reformation. B) Renaissance. C) Baroque Period. D) Classical Period.

151 Correct Answer B The Renaissance was the period in Europe that was characterized by a radical development in the arts, medicine, politics, and sciences. An intense development of art and literature is associated with this time.

152 According to the Treaty of Versailles, what country was expected to pay for the damages in World War I? A) Austria-Hungary B) France C) Germany D) Russia

153 Correct Answer C Germany was blamed for the war and all the damage. In the long run, this led to massive resentment by the German people and was a major cause of World War II.

154 The Spanish Civil War 1 Although the Spanish Civil War was a local struggle, it drew other European powers into the fighting. Hitler and Mussolini sent arms and forces to help Franco. Volunteers from Germany, Italy, the Soviet Union, and the western democracies joined the International Brigade and fought alongside the Loyalists against fascism. By 1939, Franco had triumphed. Once in power, he created a fascist dictatorship like those of Hitler and Mussolini.

155 German Aggression 1 In 1938, Hitler used force to unite Austria and Germany in the Anschluss. The western democracies took no action. Hitler annexed the Sudetenland, a region in western Czechoslovakia. At the Munich Conference, British and French leaders again chose appeasement. In 1939, Hitler claimed the rest of Czechoslovakia. The democracies realized that appeasement had failed. They promised to protect Poland, most likely Hitler’s next target. Hitler formed a Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact with Stalin. German forces invaded Poland. Britain and France immediately declared war on Germany.

156 Aggression in Europe to 1939

157 Why War Came 1 Historians see the war as an effort to revise the 1919 peace settlement. The Versailles treaty had divided the world into two camps. The western democracies might have been able to stop Hitler. Unwilling to risk war, however, they adopted a policy of appeasement, giving in to the demands of an aggressor in hope of keeping the peace.

158 SSWH18. The student will demonstrate an understanding of the global political, economic, and social impact of World War II. [QCC standards WH21, WH22, WH25]

159 a. Describe the major conflicts and outcomes; include Pearl Harbor and D-Day.

160 2 Early Axis Gains By 1941, the Axis powers or their allies controlled most of Western Europe. Germany and Russia conquered and divided Poland. Stalin’s armies pushed into Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Soviet forces seized Finland. Hitler conquered Norway and Denmark. Hitler took the Netherlands and Belgium. France surrendered to Hitler. Axis armies pushed into North Africa and the Balkans. Axis armies defeated Greece and Yugoslavia. Bulgaria and Hungary joined the Axis alliance.

161 The Battle of Britain and Operation Barbarossa
2 THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN OPERATION BARBAROSSA In 1941, Hitler embarked on Operation Barbarossa, the conquest of the Soviet Union. The Nazis smashed deep into Russia, but were stalled before they could take Moscow and Leningrad. Thousands of German soldiers froze to death in Russia’s winter. Russians also suffered appalling hardships. Stalin urged Britain to open a second front in Western Europe. In 1940, Hitler ordered Operation Sea Lion, the invasion of Britain. The Germans first bombed military targets, then changed tactics to the blitz, or bombing, of London and other cities. London did not break under the blitz. The bombing only strengthened British resolve to turn back the enemy. Operation Sea Lion was a failure.

162 Growing American Involvement
2 When the war began in 1939, the United States declared its neutrality. Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act, which allowed the President to supply arms to those who were fighting for democracy. Roosevelt and Churchill issued the Atlantic Charter, which called for the “final destruction of the Nazi tyranny.” Japan advanced into French Indochina and the Dutch East Indies. To stop Japanese aggression, the United States banned the sale of war materials to Japan. Japan attacked Pearl Harbor. The United States declared war on Japan. Germany and Italy, as Japan’s allies, declared war on the United States.

163 3 Occupied Lands While the Germans rampaged across Europe, the Japanese conquered an empire in Asia and the Pacific. Each set out to build a “new order” in the occupied lands. Hitler set up puppet governments in countries that were peopled by “Aryans.” Eastern Europeans were considered an inferior “race,” and were thus shoved aside to provide “living space” for Germans. To the Nazis, occupied lands were an economic resource to be looted and plundered. German leaders worked to accomplish the “final solution of the Jewish problem” — the genocide, or deliberate murder, of all European Jews. Japan’s self-proclaimed mission was to help Asians escape imperial rule. In fact, its real goal was a Japanese empire in Asia. The Japanese treated conquered people with great brutality.

164 b. Identify Nazi ideology, policies, and consequences that led to the Holocaust.

3 Turning Points During 1942 and 1943, the Allies won several victories that would turn the tide of battle and push back the Axis powers. EL ALAMEIN INVASION OF ITALY The British stopped Rommel’s advance and drove the Axis forces back across Libya into Tunisia. (late 1942) From North Africa, the Allies invaded Italy. The invasion weakened Hitler by forcing him to fight on another front. (mid-1943) STALINGRAD INVASION OF FRANCE The Red Army took the offensive and drove the Germans out of the Soviet Union entirely. Hitler’s forces suffered irreplaceable losses of troops and equipment. (late 1942) The Allies opened a second front in Europe with the invasion of Paris. They freed France and were then able to focus on defeating Germany and Japan. (mid-1944)

166 World War II in Europe and North Africa
3 World War II in Europe and North Africa

167 Strategies in the Pacific
4 Strategies in the Pacific At first, the Japanese won an uninterrupted series of victories. Soon, however, the tide of the Pacific war began to turn. The United States began an “island-hopping” campaign. The goal of the campaign was to recapture some Japanese-held islands while bypassing others. The captured islands served as steppingstones to the next objective. In this way, American forces gradually moved north to Japan itself.

168 World War II in the Pacific
4 World War II in the Pacific

169 Defeating Nazi Germany
4 Defeating Nazi Germany To win the assault on Germany, the Allies had to use devastating force. As Allied armies advanced into Belgium in 1944, Germany launched a massive counterattack. Both sides suffered terrible losses at the Battle of the Bulge. Hitler’s support in Germany was declining. Germany faced round-the-clock bombing. The Allies crossed the Rhine into western Germany. Soviet troops closed in on Berlin. Hitler committed suicide, and Germany surrendered.

170 4 The Atomic Bomb Dropping the atomic bomb brought a quick end to the war. It also unleashed terrifying destruction. Why did President Truman use the bomb? Truman was convinced that Japan would not surrender without an invasion that would result in enormous losses of both American and Japanese lives. Truman also may have hoped that the bomb would impress the Soviet Union with American power.

171 The Cold War 5 As the United States and the Soviet Union became superpowers, they also became tense rivals in an increasingly divided world. The Cold War was a state of tension and hostility among nations, without armed conflict between the major rivals. At first, the focus of the Cold War was Eastern Europe, where Stalin and the western powers had very different goals.

172 Casualties of World War II
5 Casualties of World War II Military Military Civilian Dead Wounded Dead Allies Britain , , ,000 France , , ,000 Soviet Union 7,500,000 14,102,000 15,000,000 United States , , ** Axis Powers Germany 2,850,000 7,250,000 5,000,000 Italy , , ,000 Japan 1,576, , ,000 ** Very small number of civilian dead. Source: Henri Michel, The Second World War

173 c. Explain the military and diplomatic negotiations between the leaders of Great Britain (Churchill), the Soviet Union (Stalin), and the United States (Roosevelt/Truman) from Teheran to Yalta and Potsdam and the impact on the nations of Eastern Europe.

174 Teheran The key Allied leaders—Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill—were known as the "Big Three" because of the might of the nations they represented and their peaceful collaboration during World War II. The chief discussion was centered on the opening of a second front in Western Europe. Most importantly the conference was organized to plan the final strategy for the war against Nazi Germany and its allies.

175 Major Decisions An agreement was made stating that the Partisans of Yugoslavia should be supported by supplies and equipment and also by commando operations. It was agreed that it would be most desirable if Turkey should come into war on the side of the Allies before the end of the year. If Turkey found themselves at war, the Soviet Union was to support them. Took note on November 30 that Operation Overlord would be launched during May 1944, in conjunction with an operation against southern France. It was agreed that the military staff of the Three Powers should from then on keep in close touch with each other. Britain and the U.S. promised Stalin that they would send troops to Western Europe. It was agreed that they would arrive in the spring of 1944. At the insistence of Stalin, the borders of post-war Poland were determined along the Oder and Neisse rivers and the Curzon line. A United Nations Organization was tentatively agreed to. The Soviet Union agreed to wage war against Japan once Germany was defeated.

176 Yalta The Big Three (Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin) met in Yalta for the purpose of discussing Europe's postwar reorganization. Mainly, it was intended to discuss the re-establishment of nations conquered by Germany.

177 Major Decisions There was an agreement that the priority would be the unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany. After the war Germany would be split into four occupied zones. Stalin agreed that France might have a fourth occupation zone in Germany and Austria but it would have to be formed out of the American and British zones. Germany would undergo demilitarization and denazification. German reparations were partly to be in the form of forced labor of German soldiers, to be used to repair damage Germany inflicted on its victims.

178 Potsdam Stalin, Churchill, and Truman had gathered to decide how to administer the defeated Nazi Germany, which had agreed to unconditional surrender nine weeks earlier, on May 8 (V-E Day). The goals of the conference also included the establishment of post-war order, peace treaties issues, and countering the effects of war.

179 Potsdam Agreement Issuance of a statement of aims of the occupation of Germany by the Allies: demilitarization, denazification, democratization, decentralization and decartelization. Division of Germany and Austria respectively into four occupation zones (earlier agreed in principle at Yalta), and the similar division of each's capital, Berlin and Vienna, into four zones. Agreement on the prosecution of Nazi war criminals. Reversion of all German annexations in Europe, including Sudetenland, Alsace-Lorraine, Austria and the westernmost parts of Poland Germany's eastern border was to be shifted westwards to the Oder-Neisse line, effectively reducing Germany in size by approximately 25% compared to her 1937 borders. Expulsion of the German populations remaining beyond the new eastern borders of Germany. Agreement on war reparations to the Soviet Union from their zone of occupation in Germany. It was also agreed that 10% of the industrial capacity of the western zones unnecessary for the German peace economy should be transferred to the Soviet Union within 2 years. Stalin proposed and it was accepted that Poland was to be excluded from division of German compensation to be later granted 15% of compensation given to Soviet Union

180 d. Explain allied Post-World War II policies; include formation of the United Nations, the Marshall Plan for Europe, and McArthur’s plan for Japan.

181 The United Nations 5 World War II Allies set up an international organization to ensure peace. Under the UN Charter, each of the member nations had one vote in the General Assembly. A smaller body, the Security Council, was given greater power. Its five permanent members were the United States, the Soviet Union (today Russia), Britain, France, and China. The UN’s work would go far beyond peacekeeping. The organization would take on many world problems.

182 Marshall Plan The Marshall Plan is also called the European Recovery Plan. It was enacted by the US in 1947 as a way to help rebuild Europe after World War II.

183 McArthur’s Plan MacArthur oversaw the Occupation of Japan from 1945 to 1951. Although criticized for protecting Emperor Hirohito and the imperial family from prosecution for war crimes, MacArthur is credited with implementing far-reaching democratic reforms in that country. During the Allied occupation of Japan, he demilitarized the former enemy power and implemented a comprehensive policy of social, economic, and political reforms with the goal of liberalizing that nation.

184 SSWH19. The student will demonstrate an understanding of the global social, economic, and political impact of the Cold War and decolonization from 1945 to [QCC standards WH22, WH25, WH26]

185 a. Analyze the revolutionary movements in India (Gandhi) and China (Mao Zedong).

186 India (Gandhi)

187 Why Was India Partitioned?
1 After World War II, Britain finally agreed to Indian demand for independence. Muslims insisted on their own state, Pakistan. Riots between Hindus and Muslims persuaded Britain to partition, or divide, the subcontinent. In 1947, British officials created Hindu India and Muslim Pakistan. As Hindus and Muslims crossed the borders, violence erupted in Northern India. Ten million refugees fled their homes. At least a million people, including Mohandas Gandhi, were killed. Even after the worst violence ended, Hindu-Muslim tensions persisted.

188 1 Partition of India, 1947

189 Cause and Effect: Partition of India
1 Cause and Effect: Partition of India Long-Term Causes Short-Term Causes Effects Connections to Today Muslim conquest of northern India in 1100s British imperialism in India Nationalists organize the Indian National Congress in 1885 Muslim nationalists form separate Muslim League in 1906 World War II weakens European colonial empires Pressure from Indian nationalists increases Insistence by Muhammad Ali Jinnah and the Muslim League that Muslims have their own state Rioting between Hindus and Muslims throughout northern India Violence erupts as millions of Hindus and Muslims cross the border between India and Pakistan Gandhi is assassinated by Hindu extremists India and Pakistan become centers of Cold War rivalry Establishment of the state of Bangladesh Continuing clash between India and Pakistan over Kashmir Nuclear arms race as both India and Pakistan refuse to sign Non-Proliferation Treaty

190 India: Political, Economic, and Social Change
1 India: Political, Economic, and Social Change POLITICAL ECONOMIC SOCIAL India’s constitution set up a federal system. For 40 years after independence, the Nehru family led India. India’s size and diversity have contributed to religious and regional divisions. Today, India is the world’s largest democratic nation. India adopted a socialist model to expand agriculture and industry. Rapid population growth hurt efforts to improve living conditions. An economic slowdown forced India to privatize some industries and make foreign investment easier. Urbanization undermined some traditions, but most Indians continued to live in villages. The government tried to end discrimination based on caste. However, deep prejudice continued.

191 Pakistan and Bangladesh
1 Pakistan and Bangladesh PAKISTAN BANGLADESH After independence, military leaders seized power and ruled as dictators. When civilian leaders were finally elected, the military continued to intervene. The country lacked natural resources for industry. Ethnic rivalries fueled conflicts. Severe economic problems and corruption plagued the government. Forty percent of the nation’s budget goes to repaying foreign debt. In 1971, Bengalis declared independence for Bangladesh. Geography has made it difficult to rise out of poverty. Explosive population growth has further strained resources. Since the early 1990s, civilian governments have worked to encourage foreign investments.

192 How is South Asia Linked to World Affairs?
1 How is South Asia Linked to World Affairs? India and Pakistan achieved their independence as the Cold War began. Pakistan accepted military aid from the United States, while India signed a treaty of friendship with the Soviet Union. When the Cold War ended, both India and Pakistan sought aid from the western powers. Regional conflicts bred global concern after both India and Pakistan acquired nuclear weapons.

193 Mao Zedong- China

194 Mao Zedong (also Mao Tse-Tung) was the world's most prominent Chinese communist during the 20th century. Mao's Red Army overthrew Chiang Kai-Shek in 1949, and the communists seized power of mainland China. Ruthless and ambitious, Mao turned China into a world military power and created a cult of personality, forcing the distribution of his image and his "Little Red Book" (a collection of political maxims) upon the Chinese people. His campaign to export communism made China a threat to the West and led to confrontations in Southeast Asia and Korea

195 b. Describe the formation of the state of Israel.

196 The United Nations created Modern Israel by taking Palestine and partitioning it.
Fighting between the Arab and Jewish communities of Palestine began in November 1947, immediately after the UN decision to create a Jewish state. The Arab States declared they would greet any attempt to form a Jewish state with war.

197 c. Explain the arms race; include development of the hydrogen bomb (1954).

198 arms race, describes a competition between two or more parties for real or apparent military supremacy. Each party competes to produce larger numbers of weapons, greater armies, or superior military technology in a technological escalation. Nowadays the term is commonly used to describe any competition where there is no absolute goal, only the relative goal of staying ahead of the other competitors.

199 In the 20th century, the United States and the Soviet Union developed more and better nuclear weapons during the Cold War Immediately after World War II, the United States was behind the Soviet Union in the area of intermediate range missiles, but they managed to catch up with the help of German scientists. The Soviet Union committed their command economy to the arms race and, with the deployment of the SS-18 in the late 1970s, achieved first strike parity. However, the strain of competition against the great spending power of the United States created enormous economic problems during Mikhail Gorbachev's attempt at , the transition to a consumer based, mixed economy, and hastened the collapse of the Soviet Union. Because the two powers were competing with one another instead of aiming for a predefined goal, both nations soon acquired a huge capacity for overkill.

200 Hydrogen Bomb Both nations quickly began work on hydrogen bombs and the United States detonated the first such device on November 1, 1952. Again the Soviets surprised the Americans by exploding a deployable thermonuclear device of their own the next August, though it was not actually a "true" multi-stage hydrogen bomb (that would wait until 1955). The Soviet H-bomb was almost completely a product of domestic research, as their espionage sources in the USA had only worked on very preliminary (and incorrect) versions of the hydrogen bomb.

201 SSWH20. The student will examine change and continuity in the world since the 1960s. [QCC standard WH26]

202 a. Identify ethnic conflicts and new nationalisms. c
a. Identify ethnic conflicts and new nationalisms. c. Analyze terrorism in the 20th century and analyze the impact of terrorism on daily life; include travel, world energy supplies, and financial markets.

203 Europe After the Cold War
1 Russia and the nations of Eastern Europe turned to the West for loans and investments to build capitalist economies. Ethnic clashes, especially in the Balkans, created conflicts that threatened European peace. The nuclear peril, although reduced, still remained. NATO faced the debate as to whether it should become Europe’s peacekeeper and protector of human rights.

204 Economic and Political Trends
1 Economic and Political Trends Postwar governments in France, Italy, and Germany adopted many policies favored by the left. THE WELFARE STATE THE OIL SHOCK ECONOMIC SHIFTS After 1945, governments extended the welfare state. Governments took on a larger role in national economies. Conservatives condemned the drift from the free enterprise system toward socialism. In 1973, OPEC cut oil production and raised prices. The higher prices caused inflation and slowed economic growth. In 1979, OPEC again raised prices, triggering a severe recession, in which business slowed and unemployment rates rose. The West faced growing competition from other parts of the world, causing many factories to close. Economies changed when most new jobs were created in service industries. The gap between the rich and the poor grew.

205 Welfare-State Spending in Britain, 1975 – 1980

206 Toward European Unity 1 In 1952, six nations — France, West Germany, Belgium, Italy, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg — set up the European Coal and Steel Community. This agency set prices and regulated the coal and steel industries of member states. In 1957, the same six nations formed the European Community (EC) or Common Market. Its goal was free trade. It also set up the European Parliament. In 1973, Britain, Denmark, and Ireland were admitted to the Common Market. In the 1980s and 1990s, the Common Market expanded and took on the name European Union (EU). The EU pushed for complete economic unity and greater political unity.

207 1 European Union, 1957 – 2000

1 Social change speeded up after 1945. SOCIAL CLASSES ETHNIC DIVERSITY Class lines blurred as prosperity spread. More and more people joined the middle class. Most people faced greater opportunities. Since the 1950s, many immigrants from former colonies in Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean had settled in Europe. Some Europeans resented the newcomers. Many immigrants faced discrimination and segregation. WOMEN FAMILY LIFE Women in the West made progress toward legal and economic equality. Women narrowed the gender gap in hiring, promotion,and pay. Western families had fewer children than in the past. Children stayed in school longer. The divorce rate climbed.

209 Migration to Western Europe
1 Migration to Western Europe

210 Soviet Domination of Eastern Europe
5 Soviet Domination of Eastern Europe 1945 After World War II, Soviet armies occupy much of Eastern Europe. 1949 Most Eastern European countries are under communist rule. 1956 Hungary withdraws from Warsaw Pact and ends one- party rule; Soviet troops crush Hungarian uprising. 1968 Czechoslovakia introduces reforms; Soviets use force to restore communist dictatorship. 1980 Polish government, under Soviet pressure, cracks down on trade union movement and arrests its leaders.

211 Fall of Communist Governments
5 Eastern European countries withdrew from the Warsaw Pact and requested that Soviet troops leave. Eastern European nations set out to build stable governments and free-market economies. The many changes contributed to rising inflation, high unemployment, and crime waves. Consumer goods became more plentiful, but many people could not afford them. Former communists were sometimes returned to office when people became disillusioned with reform. In the 1990s, Eastern European nations looked to the West for aid. Ethnic tension arose is some areas.

212 New Nations in Eastern Europe

213 Civil War in Yugoslavia
5 CAUSES EFFECTS Tens of thousands of Bosnian Muslims were killed in a campaign of ethnic cleansing. The Balkan region remained unstable. New nations needed massive aid to rebuild. Large numbers of refugees remained in temporary shelter for years after the war. Ethnic feuds were hard to contain. Yugoslavia consisted of a broad mixture of ethnic and religious groups. Tito had silenced nationalist and religious unrest for decades. When he died, nationalism tore Yugoslavia apart. Communism fell. Four of the six republics declared independence.

214 The Role of World Organizations
1 The Role of World Organizations International organizations deal with issues of global concern. The UN was set up as a forum for settling world disputes. Its responsibilities have expanded greatly since UN agencies provide services for millions of people worldwide. Many nations formed regional groups to promote trade or meet common needs. Examples include the European Union and the North American Free Trade Association. The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) play a large role in the world economy. Other types of nongovernmental organizations have forged valuable global networks. Examples include the International Olympic Committee and the International Red Cross.

215 a. Describe the cultural and intellectual integration of countries into the world economy through the development of television, satellites, and computers.

216 Computers Creates new jobs Links people, businesses, nations
Makes more information available Threatens some jobs Available only to those who can afford equipment Widens gap between global north and global south

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