Presentation on theme: "European Settlement of North America (17th Century)"— Presentation transcript:
1European Settlement of North America (17th Century)
2SSUSH1 The student will describe European settlement in North America during the 17th century. a. Explain Virginia’s development; include the Virginia Company, tobacco cultivation, relationships with Native Americans such as Powhatan, development of the House of Burgesses, Bacon’s Rebellion, and the development of slavery.b. Describe the settlement of New England; include religious reasons, relations with Native Americans (e.g., King Phillip’s War), the establishment of town meetings and development of a legislature, religious tensions that led to the founding of Rhode Island, the half-way covenant, Salem Witch Trials, and the loss of the Massachusetts charter and the transition to a royal colony.c. Explain the development of the mid-Atlantic colonies; include the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam and subsequent English takeover, and the settlement of Pennsylvania.d. Explain the reasons for French settlement of Quebec.e. Analyze the impact of location and place on colonial settlement, transportation, and economic development; include the southern, middle, and New England colonies.
3Development of Virginia a. Explain Virginia’s development; include the Virginia Company, tobacco cultivation, relationships with Native Americans such as Powhatan, development of the House of Burgesses, Bacon’s Rebellion, and the development of slavery.
4Virginia Company Founded in 1606 as a joint-stock company Why? Profit Land ownershipTrade monopolyMonopoly: control over all or almost all trade or production of a goodJoint-stock company: trading venture that sold shares to divide cost and profitsSeal of the Virginia Company From
53. Provide supplies, settlers, etc. Virginia Companycharter: formal document granting right of self-ruleGiven a charter by King James IPurpose:1. Establish a new colony2. Be self-governingDID YOU KNOW: England’s need for timber and rising unemployment encouraged many to travel to the new colony.3. Provide supplies, settlers, etc.
6Virginia Company April 1607 – ships land at mouth of Chesapeake Bay Jamestown
91610: A Big Year “Starving Time” Tobacco 90% of residents died during winter ofColony was almost abandonedRescued by ships from BermudaTobaccoJohn Rolfe began planting tobaccoFirst exported in 1612DID YOU KNOW: Rolfe began planting Nicotiana rustica, a form of tobacco that has between 18-20% more nicotine than the more common Nicotiana tabacum
10Tobacco Cultivation Tobacco had been introduced to Europe by Columbus Was very popularProvided a cash crop for the colonyCash crop: farm product grown to be sold & traded
13Relationship w/ Native Americans Major neighbors = PowhatanRelationship was tense at firstFighting was off-and-onFort was built to protect the colonyAlgonquin Indians in the Tidewater region of VirginiaFort at Jamestown (1609), Drawing by Pedro de Zuniga, a Spanish ambassador and spy From
14The Powhatan Confederacy Empire had been formed by Chief Wahunsenacawh by 1607Lived in a village on the James R.≈ 14,000 under his controlLived in wooden longhousesAgriculturalmoved during Spring (gather shellfish) and Fall (hunt)“Powhatan”
15Relationship w/ Native Americans April 1613 – Pocahontas capturedFavorite daughter of PowhatanHostage for 1 yearMarried John Rolfe= 4 years of peaceAfter 1617:Continued warfarePowhatan had been permanently weakenedPocahontas and John Rolfe traveled to England in 1616 to attempt to gain more investors for the colony. She became sick and died in early 1617.
16Development of House of Burgesses First Representative Assembly in AmericaMet July 30, 1619 in the church at JamestownPurpose:Make laws for the colonyCould be vetoed by the governor and/or company directors in LondonFirst instance of limited self-government in America
18Development of Slavery First slaves in colony: April 19, 1619Sold from a Dutch warshipTreated as indentured servantsIndentured servantsWould work for free for a set period of time (4-7 years)Not paid, but would receive some $ at end of timeFreed at end of contractWhy?
22Bacon’s Rebellion (1676) Issues in Virginia: Led by Nathaniel Bacon Indentured servants/slaves had been treated poorlyIssues in Virginia:Class conflictHatred of nativesThirst for land / glory / goldLed by Nathaniel BaconAsked Gov. William Berkeley for permission to attack a group of nativesBerkeley refused, Bacon attacked anywayFrom past attacksNatives controlled much land that could be exploited
23Bacon’s Rebellion (1676)Gov. Berkeley ordered Bacon to stop attacking the nativesHe refused, marched on Jamestown and burned it to the ground on Sept. 19,1676“Bacon’s Castle”The home of Arthur Allen (a member of the House of Burgesses)Seized by Bacon’s followers and fortified
24Bacon’s Rebellion (1676) Why? Nathaniel Bacon died of dysentery on October 26, 1676Rebellion disappeared shortly afterSignificance:Move away from indentured servants towards slaves1,100 troops from England arrived at about the same time…English had taken over slave tradeNo economic benefit to indentured servantsEasier to controlNow, Race-based servitudeWhy?LeadsTo
31Carolina Founded for profit Charter issued in 1663 In return for political supportCapital at Charles Town = Charleston, SCEventually separated into North Carolina and South CarolinaBecame royal colonies in 1729Royal Colony: Colony governed directly by the king & Parliament.Founded for profit
32Georgia Goal of King Goal of Founders Founded 1733 Purpose: Buffer colony between Spanish Florida and CarolinaRefuge for criminals, poorGoal of KingGoal of Founders
34Georgia Goal: Colony with no large landowners, rum, slaves “and the example of a whole Colony, who shall behave in a just, moral, and religious manner, will contribute greatly towards the conversion of the Indians”- Some Account of the Designs of the Trustees for Establishing the Colony of Georgia in America
35Settlement of New England b. Describe the settlement of New England; include religious reasons, relations with Native Americans (e.g., King Phillip’s War), the establishment of town meetings and development of a legislature, religious tensions that led to the founding of Rhode Island, the half-way covenant, Salem Witch Trials, and the loss of the Massachusetts charter and the transition to a royal colony.
36New England Colonies Massachusetts Bay (1620) Connecticut (1640) New Hampshire (1629)Rhode Island & Providence Plantations (1636)
38Religious Reasons for Settlement Pilgrims founded Plymouth Colony (1620)Religious separatistsSought freedom to practice their brand of ChristianityMayflower, Squanto, Plymouth Rock, etc.Puritans quickly followedWanted to “purify” Church of Englandi.e. get rid of all Catholic-like observancesDifference: Pilgrims wanted to leave Church of England
41Religious Reasons for Settlement Puritan RuleUsed government to enforce religious beliefsMust be a church member to participate in gov’tCaused division:Anne Hutchison & Roger Williams – Rhode IslandThomas Hooker – Connecticut
43Relations with Native Americans Began peacefully, but tensions began to mountWhy?More settlers = more territoryMore territory = more pressure on Native AmericansDiseaseConversion to Christianity
44King Philip’s War Warned Massachusetts Bay of attack Tensions increaseMurder of a Native American convert to Christianity by the Wampanoag tribe.Why?Response:Warned Massachusetts Bay of attackNatives attack frontier towns
45King Philip’s War Results: Native Americans defeated All of New England open for English colonizationThe beginning of the development of a greater American identity. The trials and tribulations suffered by the colonists gave them a group identity separate and distinct from subjects of the English Crown
47Establishment of Town Meetings Developed out of Puritan church meetingsDirect democracy
48Development of Legislatures Gradually developed out of town meeting structuresColonies were basically self-governingEngland was occupiedColonies elected their own leadersGenerally ignored laws from England they didn’t like (i.e. Navigation Acts)
50Founding of Rhode Island Religious TensionsRoger Williams banished from Mass. Bay (1636)Why?Sheltered by Native Americans, founded new colony of “Providence Plantations”1636Preached separation of church and state and better treatment of Native Americans
54Founding of Rhode Island 1644 – granted charterNotable for:Religious toleranceGood relations w/ Native AmericansProgressive laws (Slavery, debtors prisons, etc.
55Founding of Connecticut Thomas HookerTook 100 settlers and founded HartfordLeft Mass. Bay over voting rights disputeFundamental Order of ConnecticutJanuary 24th, 1639First written Constitution in AmericaBelieved that all free men should be able to vote, not just church members
60Salem Witch Trials June-September 1692 DID YOU KNOW: 19 of the 20 were hung, while one man was crushed to death under rocks for refusing to go to trail for witchcraft.June-September 169220 killed on charges of witchcraftHundreds of others arrestedAccusations made because of property disputes, religious disagreements
63Massachusetts’ Transition to Royal Colony Dominion of New England ( )Union of Mass. Bay, Plymouth, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Haven, New York, New JerseySir Edmund AndrosPromoted Church of England/ (religious freedom)Banned town meetingsRevoked some land grantsRaised taxes
64Massachusetts’ Transition to Royal Colony BAD!!!Reaction to AndrosAndros appointed by King James IIGlorious Revolution (1689)End of the Dominion of New EnglandMassachusetts becomes a royal colonyUnion of Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, MaineLegislatures are reappointed/written constitutions honored again
65Development of Mid-Atlantic Colonies c. Explain the development of the mid-Atlantic colonies; include the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam and subsequent English takeover, and the settlement of Pennsylvania.
66Dutch Settlement of New Amsterdam Claimed:Henry HudsonDutch West India Company Founded (1621):Forts at Manhattan Island and Long Island, Fort Orange (Albany) & Fort Nassau on Delaware R.
68Dutch Settlement of New Amsterdam Peter Minuit ( )Director-General of New NetherlandBought Manhattan Is. from natives for $24.00Peter Stuyvesant ( )Conquered New Sweden (Delaware)Defeated by the British
69English Takeover of New Amsterdam 1664 –Four English warships sailing for the Duke of York enter into New Amsterdam and demanded it accept English rule.Duke of York gets his authority from King James IINew York becomes a royal colony
70Settlement of Pennsylvania The “Holy Experiment”Colony granted by King Charles II to William Penn as repayment for a debt1681Purpose: safe haven for QuakersPhiladelphia – planned city, made on a grid, center of trade, second-largest English-speaking city of the Empire
72d. Explain the reasons for French settlement of Quebec. The French in Canadad. Explain the reasons for French settlement of Quebec.
73Quebec Founded 1608 Main purpose of French colonization: Samuel de ChamplainQuebecFounded 1608By Samuel de ChamplainMain purpose of French colonization:Controlling the fur tradeFishing/WhalingHow?Control Mississippi River, CanadaDifferences: less people, more emphasis of relationship w/ Native Americans
75Location and Place in the Colonies e. Analyze the impact of location and place on colonial settlement, transportation, and economic development; include the southern, middle, and New England colonies.
76Location Where is it? One of the 5 Themes of Geography Absolute location – latitude and longitudeRelative location – described by landmarks, time, direction or distance from one place to another
77Place One of the 5 Themes of Geography Includes: Human Characteristics Who lives there?What about buildings, roads, clothing, and food habits?Physical CharacteristicsWhat is it like?What about mountains, rivers, soil, beaches, wildlife, soil?