Raising an Army and a Navy The United States was not prepared to enter WWI. However, because of the draft, more than 3 million US soldiers were in uniform by 1918. Over 2 million soldiers went to France and served in the American Expeditionary Force, or the AEF.
Approximately 400,000 black soldiers served in the military. Despite serving valiantly and heroically, the black soldiers were still segregated and separated into all-black units that were commanded by white officers. Four all-black infantry units served with distinction in the war. They were the 369 th, 370 th, 371 st, and 372 nd Infantry Regiments. The 369 th Infantry Regiment spend more time on the front lines in combat than any other American unit.
American Troops Enter the War! When the American Doughboys entered the fighting, Europe had been at war for three years. But by May of 1918, over 1 million fresh American troops were ready for action against the Germans.
The American soldiers smashed headlong into the German Army at Chateau-Thierry, Cantigny, and Belleau Wood. The fighting was fierce and the casualties heavy, but the Doughboys held their ground and beat back the German onslaught.
At the Second Battle of the Marne in July of 1918, the Germans were decisively defeated. From this point until November, the German Armies were pushed back across France. It was now only a matter of time before the entire German infrastructure collapsed.
Sergeant Alvin C. York Medal of Honor Captain Eddie Rickenbacker Medal of Honor
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The End! On November 11, 1918, the German Imperial Armies, unable to fight on, signed an armistice and surrendered to the Allies. The war to end all wars finally came to an end. In January, 1919, representatives from more than 32 nations met in Paris to discuss the peace. The Treaty became known as, The Treaty of Versailles and it placed all the blame for the war on Germany and her people. It was even forced to pay all debts for the war!
The 30 th Infantry Division The 30 th ID became one of the most well-known Army units to fight during WWI. Composed largely of North Carolinians, the division covered itself in glory and fame on September 29 th, 1918 when the men of the 30 th smashed through the nearly impregnable Hidenburg Line. When the 30 th did so, it helped to speed up the German collapse along the Western Front.
Effects of World War I on the World and in North Carolina The effects of the First World War were tremendous and far-reaching. -8.5 million soldiers were killed. -Over 21 million were wounded physically or mentally. -Millions of civilians across the world died from disease and starvation. Nearly 86,000 North Carolinians served in the military during the war and the military presence within the state grew with the addition of three major army bases. Fort Bragg would become the largest.
Effects of the war on Europe 1.Revolution in Russia 2.Allies are victorious. 3.Widespread death and destruction across Europe. 4.Breakup of Empires. 5.Formation of the League of Nations. 6.Resentment and hard feelings that led to World War II.
Making Peace After the Treaty of Versailles, U.S. President Woodrow Wilson asked the countries of the world to form a League of Nations. It was hoped that this organization would work together to avoid future conflicts. The United States, however, believed that the best possible choice to avoid war was to remain neutral and isolated from world affairs. As a result, the United States refused to join the League of Nations and ratify the Versailles Treaty.
The Spanish Flu Epidemic 1917-1919 Another deadly result of the war was the deadly flu epidemic that swept the globe during this time. The flu killed more than 20 million people on six continents. It disappeared in 1919 with no known cure. An estimated one million or more people in the United States died from the illness.