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The Early Cold War: 1947-1960 Chapter 26.

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Presentation on theme: "The Early Cold War: 1947-1960 Chapter 26."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Early Cold War: Chapter 26

2 1945—A Critical Year Chapter 26, Section 1 As the end of World War II approached, relations between the Communist Soviet Union and its wartime allies, the United States and Great Britain, grew increasingly tense. At a meeting at Yalta in February, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin agreed on the postwar division of Germany. In April, representatives of 50 countries, including the United States, adopted the charter for the United Nations, an organization dedicated to cooperation in solving international problems. On April 12, Roosevelt died unexpectedly, making Vice President Truman the new President. Truman continued Roosevelt’s negotiations with Stalin at the Potsdam Conference in July.

3 Conflicting Postwar Goals American and Soviet Goals
Chapter 26, Section 1 American Goals Wanted conquered European nations to experience the democracy and economic opportunity that the United States had fought for during the war Wanted to develop strong capitalist economies, which would provide good markets for American products Soviet Goals Wanted to rebuild Europe in ways that would help the Soviet Union recover from the huge losses it suffered during the war Wanted to establish Soviet satellite nations, countries subject to Soviet domination and sympathetic to Soviet goals Wanted to promote the spread of communism throughout the world

4 The Iron Curtain Chapter 26, Section 1 Churchill coined the phrase iron curtain to describe the geographic and political divisions between Communist and capitalist nations in Europe.

5 Containment and the Truman Doctrine
Chapter 26, Section 1 The competition between the United States and the Soviet Union for world influence came to be known as the Cold War. The American containment policy accepted the fact that Eastern Europe was under Communist control, but sought to prevent Communist governments from forming elsewhere in the world. The Truman Doctrine, which applied the principles of containment, stated that the United States would support free peoples who resist attempted conquest. The Truman Doctrine was first applied in the cases of Greece and Turkey.

6 Origins of the Cold War—Assessment
Chapter 26, Section 1 Which of these choices best describes the primary goal of the United States for postwar Europe? (A) Protect the Soviet Union from future invasion (B) Build economically strong democracies (C) Add more members to the United Nations (D) Ensure further cooperation with Stalin Which of these events directly inspired the Truman Doctrine? (A) Soviet threats in Greece and Turkey (B) The division of Germany into four zones (C) The arrest of anti-Communist leaders in Hungary (D) Churchill’s “iron curtain” speech

7 Origins of the Cold War—Assessment
Chapter 26, Section 1 Which of these choices best describes the primary goal of the United States for postwar Europe? (A) Protect the Soviet Union from future invasion (B) Build economically strong democracies (C) Add more members to the United Nations (D) Ensure further cooperation with Stalin Which of these events directly inspired the Truman Doctrine? (A) Soviet threats in Greece and Turkey (B) The division of Germany into four zones (C) The arrest of anti-Communist leaders in Hungary (D) Churchill’s “iron curtain” speech

8 The Ideological Struggle
Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [“Iron Curtain”] US & the Western Democracies GOAL  spread world-wide Communism GOAL  “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. [George Kennan] METHODOLOGIES: Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] Arms Race [nuclear escalation] Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]

9 The Marshall Plan Chapter 26, Section 2 The United States wanted to help European nations recover from the war and become economically strong democracies. It also wanted to prevent Communists from continuing to gain power in Europe. The Marshall Plan was created in 1947 by U.S. Secretary of State George C. Marshall as a means to achieve these goals. According to the Marshall Plan, participating nations would design recovery programs and would receive financial aid from the United States. Seventeen Western European nations joined the plan, receiving a total of $13 billion in aid.

10 The Berlin Airlift Chapter 26, Section 2 As part of the postwar division of Germany, the city of Berlin, located in Communist East Germany, was divided into West Berlin (capitalist) and East Berlin (Communist). In June 1948, Stalin banned all shipments to West Berlin through East Germany, creating a blockade which threatened to cut off supplies to the city. In response, Allied nations began the Berlin airlift, which delivered thousands of tons of food and other supplies to West Berlin via air. Although the Soviet blockade ended in May 1949, Berlin remained a focal point of Cold War conflict.

11 Post-War Germany

12 Berlin Blockade & Airlift (1948-49)

13 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949)
United States Belgium Britain Canada Denmark France Iceland Italy Luxemburg Netherlands Norway Portugal 1952: Greece & Turkey 1955: West Germany 1983: Spain

14 Warsaw Pact (1955) U. S. S. R. Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia
East Germany Hungary Poland Rumania

15 Communist Advances The Soviet Atomic Threat
Chapter 26, Section 2 The Soviet Atomic Threat In September 1949, Truman announced that the Soviet Union had successfully tested an atomic bomb. In response, the United States began developing the even more powerful hydrogen bomb. This began the nuclear arms race between the US and USSR. The newly formed Federal Civil Defense Administration distributed information on how to survive a nuclear attack; this information was ridiculed by experts. China Falls to the Communists During World War II, competing factions in China had cooperated, but fighting between them resumed towards the end of the war. After the war, hostilities between the Nationalists and Communists started up again. The US supported the Nationalists and the Soviets backed the Communists. By 1949, Communist leader Mao Tse-tung (Mao Zedong) won control of China. The US refused to recognize the new govt, and used its veto power to prevent the UN from formally recognizing Mao’s govt.

16 The Arms Race: A “Missile Gap?”
The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in 1949. Now there were two nuclear superpowers!

17 The Cold War at Home Chapter 26, Section 2 During the late 1940s, fear of Communist spies created a climate of suspicion in the United States. Truman established a federal employee loyalty program in 1947, checking the backgrounds of all new and existing federal employees. The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) began investigating Hollywood personalities who the committee claimed, had Communist leanings. When one group, known as the Hollywood Ten, refused to answer HUAC’s questions, they were cited for contempt of Congress and imprisoned. Hollywood studios compiled a blacklist, a list circulated to employers naming persons who should not be hired. Blacklisted individuals came from all sections of the industry and included anyone who seemed subversive.

18 The Cold War Heats Up—Assessment
Chapter 26, Section 2 Which of these phrases best describes NATO? (A) A collective security pact between the United States, Canada, and Western European nations (B) A military alliance between the USSR and its satellite nations (C) A U.S.-sponsored program for postwar recovery (D) A regional group within the United Nations Which of these was a result of HUAC’s investigation of the movie industry? (A) Hollywood approved many scripts that dealt with controversial social problems. (B) Many Hollywood personalities were blacklisted. (C) The McCarran-Walter Act was passed. (D) Pro-Soviet movies became popular.

19 The Cold War Heats Up—Assessment
Chapter 26, Section 2 Which of these phrases best describes NATO? (A) A collective security pact between the United States, Canada, and Western European nations (B) A military alliance between the USSR and its satellite nations (C) A U.S.-sponsored program for postwar recovery (D) A regional group within the United Nations Which of these was a result of HUAC’s investigation of the movie industry? (A) Hollywood approved many scripts that dealt with controversial social problems. (B) Many Hollywood personalities were blacklisted. (C) The McCarran-Walter Act was passed. (D) Pro-Soviet movies became popular.

20 Communist Expansion in Asia
Chapter 26, Section 3 The Division of Korea World War II ended before a plan could be made for Korean independence from Japan. Korea was temporarily divided at the thirty-eighth parallel, the latitude line running through approximately the midpoint of the peninsula. A pro-American government formed in South Korea, while a Communist government formed in North Korea. In June 1950, the Korean War broke out when North Korean troops invaded South Korea, aiming to reunite the nation by force

21 The Korean Conflict Chapter 26, Section 3 A UN resolution, which passed because the Soviets were not there to veto it, called on member states to defend South Korea and restore peace, thus beginning the Korean War. Roughly 80 percent of the troops who served in the resulting UN police action were American. By attacking North Korean supply lines, General Douglas MacArthur was able to gain an advantage and push north. However, a stalemate developed after China helped the North Koreans push the UN forces back into South Korea. A truce signed in 1953 left Korea again divided near the thirty eighth parallel.

22 The Korean War—Assessment
Chapter 26, Section 3 What was the significance of the thirty-eighth parallel? (A) It formed Korea’s border with China. (B) It was the place to which Chinese Nationalists fled. (C) It divided Korea into two halves, North and South. (D) It was the location of Korean War peace talks. Why did the United Nations send troops to Korea? (A) To support South Korea and restore peace (B) To install a Communist government in South Korea (C) To help China defend its border (D) To put an end to Japanese rule of Korea

23 The Korean War—Assessment
Chapter 26, Section 3 What was the significance of the thirty-eighth parallel? (A) It formed Korea’s border with China. (B) It was the place to which Chinese Nationalists fled. (C) It divided Korea into two halves, North and South. (D) It was the location of Korean War peace talks. Why did the United Nations send troops to Korea? (A) To support South Korea and restore peace (B) To install a Communist government in South Korea (C) To help China defend its border (D) To put an end to Japanese rule of Korea

24 The Korean War: A “Police Action” (1950-1953)
Kim Il-Sung Syngman Rhee “Domino Theory”

25 The McCarthy Era McCarthy’s Rise to Power
Chapter 26, Section 4 McCarthy’s Rise to Power Wisconsin Senator Joseph McCarthy, up for reelection raised the specter of Communist conspiracies within the United States. McCarthy produced a list of 250 names of presumed Communist-supporting government employees. Later, when scrutinized, this list was reduced to 57. Although McCarthy’s accusations were usually baseless and unprovable, few were willing to risk their reputations by speaking out against him. McCarthy’s Fall In early 1954, McCarthyism, the name given to McCarthy’s crusade, reached the army. Democrats asked that the hearings between McCarthy and the army be televised, hoping to swing popular opinion against McCarthy. By mid-June 1954, McCarthy had lost even his strongest supporters. The Senate formally condemned him for his actions.

26 The Arms Race Chapter 26, Section 4 Throughout the 1950s, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in an arms race, a struggle to gain weapons superiority. Deterrence, the policy of maintaining a military arsenal so strong that no enemy will attack for fear of retaliation, resulted in the escalating development of powerful nuclear weapons.

27 The Arms Race in the Skies
Chapter 26, Section 4 To carry bombs to their targets, the Soviet Union developed long-range rockets known as intercontinental ballistic missiles, or ICBMs. In 1957, one of these rockets was used to launch the Soviet satellite Sputnik, the first artificial satellite to orbit Earth..

28 The Continuing Cold War—Assessment
Chapter 26, Section 4 Why did the United States choose not to support uprisings in Eastern Europe? (A) It appeared that these uprisings would succeed on their own. (B) The Soviet Union supported the uprisings. (C) Senator McCarthy was against such support. (D) Eisenhower felt that doing so would risk war with the Soviets. What was the significance of the U-2 incident? (A) It motivated the United States to increase the technological development of its military. (B) It provided the first test of Soviet ICBMs. (C) It led to the development of the hydrogen bomb. (D) It began the Cold War.

29 The Continuing Cold War—Assessment
Chapter 26, Section 4 Why did the United States choose not to support uprisings in Eastern Europe? (A) It appeared that these uprisings would succeed on their own. (B) The Soviet Union supported the uprisings. (C) Senator McCarthy was against such support. (D) Eisenhower felt that doing so would risk war with the Soviets. What was the significance of the U-2 incident? (A) It motivated the United States to increase the technological development of its military. (B) It provided the first test of Soviet ICBMs. (C) It led to the development of the hydrogen bomb. (D) It began the Cold War.

30 Sputnik I (1957) The Russians have beaten America in space—they have the technological edge!

31 The Berlin Wall Goes Up (1961)
Checkpoint Charlie

32 President Kennedy tells Berliners that the West is with them!
Ich bin ein Berliner! (1963) President Kennedy tells Berliners that the West is with them!

33 Khruschev Embraces Castro, 1961

34 Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)

35 Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)

36 Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)

37 Vietnam War:


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