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Warm-up #27 Friday, Sept.23rd 1. One of the reasons given for the colonization of GA was to serve as a buffer colony. This meant that GA was a. A colony.

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Presentation on theme: "Warm-up #27 Friday, Sept.23rd 1. One of the reasons given for the colonization of GA was to serve as a buffer colony. This meant that GA was a. A colony."— Presentation transcript:

1 Warm-up #27 Friday, Sept.23rd 1. One of the reasons given for the colonization of GA was to serve as a buffer colony. This meant that GA was a. A colony for settlement by the poor. b. An outpost for pirates attacking Spanish galleons. c. A military protective zone between English and Spanish settlements. d. An agricultural station experimenting with new strains of cotton plants. 2. Why did James Oglethorpe suggest a colony for the poor? a. England wanted to get rid of debtors permanently. b. The homeless would readily come to the New World. c. Oglethorpe had a friend who died in a debtors prison. d. The poor were mostly well-educated people who had fallen on hard times.

2 Warm-up #26 Thursday, September 22 Copy and answer 1. The trade policy of Great Britain during Colonization was called: A. Free trade. B. Mercantilism. C. Merchandising. D. Raw Materialism 2. What reason for settlement was unique to Georgia? a. Protection of other colonies b. To grow sugar cane c. Because it had a mild climate d. For religious freedom

3 Warm-Up #24 (September 20 th ) Write out questions and answers: What would you do with the overcrowding problem in prisons today? Who (if anyone) should be given a fresh start in life?

4 Student Council Election Vote for 2 student council representatives. Erin Newark Tariq Raines Tate Oglesby Adeeb Khon Sara Weaver Sharice Griffin Marcus Brown Ashley Wiliams

5 Warm-up #25:September 21 Seal of Georgia Based on your reading of Chapter 9, Section 1 of your textbook. What are the 3 reasons for the settling of Georgia?

6 GPS SS8H2 The student will analyze the colonial period of Georgias history. SS8H2a Explain the importance of James Oglethorpe, the Charter of 1732, reasons for settlement (charity, economics, and defense) Tomochichi, Mary Musgrove, and the city of Savannah. SS8G1d Evaluate the impact of climate on Georgias development. ** Open your to your GPS section in your binder and highlight to verbs and nouns in both of the above GPSs.

7 Essential questions * What were the reasons for the establishment of Georgia? *What persons were instrumental in the establishment of the Georgia colony? *What goods and materials did the English king and the Georgia trustees feel that the Georgia colony could provide for England?

8 Chapter 9 Georgia in the Trust Period

9 By the early 1700s, Great Britain had 12 Colonies (exclude GA. for the moment). Oldest-Virginia Youngest-Pennsylvania King Charles II gave a tract of land for a colony to a group of proprietors (owners) south of Virginia. Later called Carolina. Northern Carolinasettled by small farmers from VA Southern Carolinaplanters from the English sugar colony of Barbados set up plantations around Charleston. The two areas were very different and operated separately1729 became a royal colony under control of the king.

10 James Oglethorpe James Oglethorpe was born in England in At age 25, Oglethorpe was elected to Parliament and learned about numerous problems facing his country. One of Oglethorpes friends, Robert Castell, was put in prison for being a debtor (a person who owes someone money that they can not pay back). Castell later died in prison. Oglethorpe and 20 other influential men in Great Britain made a plan to create a colony for the working poor (debtors). They envisioned a colony for people who faced jail time for bad debts.

11 Reasons for Settling Georgia

12 Charity 1.Charity– The working poor would be able to work in Georgia to help pay off their debts while contributing to Englands Economy. Gave persecuted Protestants living in Catholic areas a new start in the colony. Debtors Prison

13 Military Defense 2.Military Defense--- Georgia would serve as a military buffer between the British colony of South Carolina and Spanish controlled Florida. Having British colonists in that region (south of the Savannah River) would make it more difficult for Spain to attack South Carolina. By the 1720s South Carolina was a successful colony producing a major product that Great Britain wanted---rice. Rice

14 3. Economics – Georgia would help to increase Englands trade and wealth (mercantilism). Oglethorpe promised that silk, dyes, wine, spices, and semi-tropical fruit would be sent from Georgia back to England. Mercantilism: a trade policy in which a country exported more than it imports (favorable balance of trade); colonists are expected to supply raw materials to the mother county. Economics Spices Plant Dyes Semitropical fruit

15 Silk Production

16 Mercantilism

17 The Charter of 1732 Trustees for the Establishing of the Colony of Georgia in America Charter: a legal document that grants special rights and sets up the rules under which something operates. Trustee: people who hold responsibility and act on behalf of others. In 1732, King George II created a charter allowing 21 Trustees, including Oglethorpe, to create a Georgia colony and oversee it for 21 years.

18 The Charter of 1732 The Charter of 1732 placed numerous limits on the colonists. Georgia would have freedom of religion except for Catholics. Catholics, blacks, liquor dealers, and lawyers were not admitted to the colony. Slavery, alcohol, and gambling were also prohibited in Georgia. It included the land between the Savannah and Altamaha rivers and extended west to the Pacific Ocean. The name of the colony was to be Georgia in honor of King George.

19 The Charter of 1732 TheThe The trustees could not make a profit in any way and could not get any land or money for serving on the trust. The trustees were Trying to do a good deed. Their motto was: Non Sibi Sed Aliis, Latin for not for self, but for others. The Georgia Seal

20 The Charter of 1732 Regulations: Each male who went to GA as a charity colonist received 50 acres of land along with tools and a years supply of food and other necessities. Male citizens must join the militia (a force of citizen-soldiers). Women were not permitted to own land. Colonists must plant mulberry trees on some of their land. Colonists that paid for their passage were given up to 500 acres, but they had to have a male live on every 50 acres.

21 The Charter of 1732 The Charter of 1732 placed numerous limits on the colonists. Georgia would have freedom of religion except for Catholics. Catholics, blacks, liquor dealers, and lawyers were not admitted to the colony. Slavery, alcohol, and gambling were also prohibited in Georgia.

22 Few debtors, former prisoners, or working poor ever made it to Georgia Between 114 and 125 settlers sailed from England on the ship Ann in The Settlers of the Georgia Colony Who went to the Georgia colony? People considered deserving, which meant they were poor for reasons out of their control. 44 of the first 114 colonists were female, most either wives or daughters of male settlers. Later they realized that they needed more single women of marriageable age. The Ann

23 Savannah The First Settlement James Oglethorpe befriended Tomochichi, chief of the Yamacraw Indians. James Oglethorpe befriended Tomochichi, chief of the Yamacraw Indians. Tomochichi led the settlers to Yamacraw Bluff overlooking the Savannah River. This became the city of Savannah, the first settlement of the new Georgia colony. Tomochichi led the settlers to Yamacraw Bluff overlooking the Savannah River. This became the city of Savannah, the first settlement of the new Georgia colony. February 12, 1733, now celebrated as Georgia Day, Oglethorpe brought the settlers to the future Savannah. February 12, 1733, now celebrated as Georgia Day, Oglethorpe brought the settlers to the future Savannah.

24 Settlers Arriving on Yamacraw Bluff on February 12 th 1733 Georgia DayFebruary 12th

25 Tomochichi and Mary Musgrove Oglethorpe befriended Tomochichi, chief of the Yamacraw Indians. Oglethorpe befriended Tomochichi, chief of the Yamacraw Indians. The Yamacraw Indians were struggling to survive and had became dependent on European goods. Tomochichi believed that befriending Oglethorpe would benefit his people and form a new trading partnership. The Yamacraw Indians were struggling to survive and had became dependent on European goods. Tomochichi believed that befriending Oglethorpe would benefit his people and form a new trading partnership. Tomochichi led the settlers to Yamacraw Bluff overlooking the Savannah River. This became the first settlement of the new Georgia colony. Tomochichi led the settlers to Yamacraw Bluff overlooking the Savannah River. This became the first settlement of the new Georgia colony. Mary Musgrove and her husband John had created a trading post near the Yamacraw Bluff where they would trade British goods to the Native Americans. Mary Musgrove and her husband John had created a trading post near the Yamacraw Bluff where they would trade British goods to the Native Americans. Tomochichi spoke very little English so Mary Musgrove served as the interpreted between Oglethorpe and Tomochichi. Tomochichi spoke very little English so Mary Musgrove served as the interpreted between Oglethorpe and Tomochichi.

26 Mary Musgrove and Tomochichi Chief of the Yamacraw Interpreter for Oglethorpe and Tomochichi

27 Savannah 40 settlers died the first year, probably from what they called fevers or typhoid. 40 settlers died the first year, probably from what they called fevers or typhoid. Public buildings were built. The first was the courthouse that also served as the church. Colonist defended themselves since no lawyers were permitted. Public buildings were built. The first was the courthouse that also served as the church. Colonist defended themselves since no lawyers were permitted. A guardhouse was located on the east end of town with a pillory (wooden stocks in which a persons head and hands were locked). A guardhouse was located on the east end of town with a pillory (wooden stocks in which a persons head and hands were locked). A storehouse, a mill for grinding grain into flour, and a large public over for baking bread. A storehouse, a mill for grinding grain into flour, and a large public over for baking bread. Grist Mill Pillory Public Oven

28 Savannah William Bull from S. Carolina, helped lay out the streets and squares. Savannah began with 4 squares. William Bull from S. Carolina, helped lay out the streets and squares. Savannah began with 4 squares. Each square have 20 lots on the north side and 20 lots on the south side. Each square have 20 lots on the north side and 20 lots on the south side. Each lot was 60ft. X 90 ft. Each lot was 60ft. X 90 ft. Each square with its 40 lots was called a ward Each square with its 40 lots was called a ward Each male head of a household received his 50 acres of land, which included one of these town lots on a square, a garden ot on the edge of town, and a 45 acre farm lot further out. Each male head of a household received his 50 acres of land, which included one of these town lots on a square, a garden ot on the edge of town, and a 45 acre farm lot further out. James Oglethorpe supervised the building. He did not have the official title of governor, but was the only trustee on site. James Oglethorpe supervised the building. He did not have the official title of governor, but was the only trustee on site.

29 Savannah

30

31 Jews in Georgia 42 Arrived in Arrived in 1733 the only reason Gen. Oglethorpe admitted the Jewish settlers was because of a doctor on board who could help cure a yellow fever epidemic. (Dr. Samuel Nunez) the only reason Gen. Oglethorpe admitted the Jewish settlers was because of a doctor on board who could help cure a yellow fever epidemic. (Dr. Samuel Nunez) His medical attention saved a colony from complete loss to Yellow Fever His medical attention saved a colony from complete loss to Yellow Fever Settled in Savannah, Monterey Square is the site of the Jewish Synagogue built and is still in use today, 3 rd oldest synagogue in the nation. Settled in Savannah, Monterey Square is the site of the Jewish Synagogue built and is still in use today, 3 rd oldest synagogue in the nation.

32 New Laws Oglethorpes Return in 1736 Rum Lawmade the sale and use of rum and other spirits illegal in GA. Settlers could drink beer, wine, and cider. Rum Lawmade the sale and use of rum and other spirits illegal in GA. Settlers could drink beer, wine, and cider. Anyone trading with the Indians in GA must have a license. Trustees wanted to keep good relations with the Indians by making sure they were treated fairly. GA didnt want them to become allies( a person, group, or country who joins with another for a common interest.) Anyone trading with the Indians in GA must have a license. Trustees wanted to keep good relations with the Indians by making sure they were treated fairly. GA didnt want them to become allies( a person, group, or country who joins with another for a common interest.) Slavery is illegal. Indentured servants (people who sold their labor for a period of years in return for passage to the colony, usually for 7 years). Slavery is illegal. Indentured servants (people who sold their labor for a period of years in return for passage to the colony, usually for 7 years).

33 ROLE OF THE SALZBURGERS AND HIGHLAND SCOTS WHO: SALZBURGERS WHO: SALZBURGERS WHAT: WHAT: WHEN: WHEN: WHERE: WHERE: WHY: WHY: WHO: HIGHLAND SCOTS WHAT: WHEN: WHERE: WHY:

34 SALZBURGERS The Georgia Salzburgers, a group of German- speaking Protestant colonists, founded the town of Ebenezer in what is now Effingham County. Arriving in 1734, the group received support from King George II of England and the Georgia Trustees after being expelled from its home in the Catholic principality of Salzburg (in present-day Austria). The Salzburgers survived extreme hardships in both Europe and Georgia to establish a prosperous and culturally unique community. - New Georgia EncyclopediaThe Georgia Salzburgers, a group of German- speaking Protestant colonists, founded the town of Ebenezer in what is now Effingham County. Arriving in 1734, the group received support from King George II of England and the Georgia Trustees after being expelled from its home in the Catholic principality of Salzburg (in present-day Austria). The Salzburgers survived extreme hardships in both Europe and Georgia to establish a prosperous and culturally unique community. - New Georgia Encyclopedia

35 SALZBURGERS key points came to Georgia after being expelled from Germany / Austria for not being Catholic came to Georgia after being expelled from Germany / Austria for not being Catholic Protestants who wanted religious freedom Protestants who wanted religious freedom Created the town of Ebenezer, but was too swampy to survive Created the town of Ebenezer, but was too swampy to survive Relocated to the town of New Ebenezer along Savannah River – became a very religious community, also had silk mills Relocated to the town of New Ebenezer along Savannah River – became a very religious community, also had silk mills Trustees liked the hard working Salzburgers because they did not like slavery or alcohol which were rules the colonists had to live by Trustees liked the hard working Salzburgers because they did not like slavery or alcohol which were rules the colonists had to live by Very successful farmers Very successful farmers

36 Rincon, Georgia is where the town of New Ebenezer was located.

37 Sketch of Ebenezer, Georgia Print from Von Reck Archive, Royal Library of Denmark, Copenhagen Sketch of Ebenezer, Georgia Print from Von Reck Archive, Royal Library of Denmark, Copenhagen

38 MAP OF THE SALZBURGER SETTLEMENT OF NEW EBENEZER ON THE SAVANNAH RIVER

39 SALZBURGERS Whatever you forget about the Salzburgers between now and the CRCT, at least remember this… The Salzburgers were Protestant Christians who were kicked out of Catholic controlled Germany and wanted religious freedom in Georgia.

40 ROLE OF THE SALZBURGERS AND HIGHLAND SCOTS WHO: SALZBURGERS WHO: SALZBURGERS WHAT: GROUP OF PROTESTANT PEOPLE FROM EUROPE (GERMANY / AUSTRIA) WHO HELPED COLONIZE GEORGIA WHAT: GROUP OF PROTESTANT PEOPLE FROM EUROPE (GERMANY / AUSTRIA) WHO HELPED COLONIZE GEORGIA WHEN: 1734 WHEN: 1734 WHERE: BUILT THE TOWN OF NEW EBENEZER NORTHWEST OF SAVANNAH ALONG THE SAVANNAH RIVER. WHERE: BUILT THE TOWN OF NEW EBENEZER NORTHWEST OF SAVANNAH ALONG THE SAVANNAH RIVER. WHY: ESCAPED RELIGIOUS PERSECUTION FROM CATHOLIC CONTROLLED GERMANY / AUSTRIA WHY: ESCAPED RELIGIOUS PERSECUTION FROM CATHOLIC CONTROLLED GERMANY / AUSTRIA WHO: HIGHLAND SCOTS WHAT: WHEN: WHERE: WHY:

41 HIGHLAND SCOTS James Oglethorpe wanted to protect the Georgia colony from possible attacks from Spanish Florida. The men of Scotland had the reputation of being good soldiers, and so Oglethorpe recruited a group of about 175 Highland Scots to settle in the area south of Savannah. The group arrived at the Altamaha River in 1736 and established a settlement they originally called New Inverness. Later, they changed the name to Darien.James Oglethorpe wanted to protect the Georgia colony from possible attacks from Spanish Florida. The men of Scotland had the reputation of being good soldiers, and so Oglethorpe recruited a group of about 175 Highland Scots to settle in the area south of Savannah. The group arrived at the Altamaha River in 1736 and established a settlement they originally called New Inverness. Later, they changed the name to Darien. - Dr. Glen Blankenship and Vicki Wood

42 HIGHLAND SCOTS key points Came to Georgia in 1736 from Scotland Came to Georgia in 1736 from Scotland Built the town / fort of Darien south of Savannah along the Altamaha River Built the town / fort of Darien south of Savannah along the Altamaha River Reputation of hard working people who were good soldiers Reputation of hard working people who were good soldiers Protected the Georgia colony from Spanish Florida – helped Oglethorpe push the Spanish out of Georgia in the Battle of Bloody Marsh Protected the Georgia colony from Spanish Florida – helped Oglethorpe push the Spanish out of Georgia in the Battle of Bloody Marsh Changed from farming to cattle raising and harvesting timber Changed from farming to cattle raising and harvesting timber Opposed slavery in the colony Opposed slavery in the colony

43 Darien: Where the Highland Scots built a fort and settlement to protect the colony from Spanish Florida.

44 HIGHLAND SCOTS SUMMARY Whatever you forget about the Highland Scots between now and the CRCT, at least remember this… The Highland Scots were soldiers who colonized Georgia by creating the town of Darien and helped defend the colony from the Spanish during the Battle of Bloody Marsh.

45 ROLE OF THE SALZBURGERS AND HIGHLAND SCOTS WHO: SALZBURGERS WHO: SALZBURGERS WHAT: GROUP OF PROTESTANT PEOPLE FROM EUROPE (GERMANY / AUSTRIA) WHO HELPED COLONIZE GEORGIA WHAT: GROUP OF PROTESTANT PEOPLE FROM EUROPE (GERMANY / AUSTRIA) WHO HELPED COLONIZE GEORGIA WHEN: 1734 WHEN: 1734 WHERE: BUILT THE TOWN OF NEW EBENEZER NORTHWEST OF SAVANNAH ALONG THE SAVANNAH RIVER. WHERE: BUILT THE TOWN OF NEW EBENEZER NORTHWEST OF SAVANNAH ALONG THE SAVANNAH RIVER. WHY: ESCAPED RELIGIOUS PERSECUTION FROM CATHOLIC CONTROLLED GERMANY / AUSTRIA WHY: ESCAPED RELIGIOUS PERSECUTION FROM CATHOLIC CONTROLLED GERMANY / AUSTRIA WHO: HIGHLAND SCOTS WHAT: GROUP OF SOLDIERS FROM SCOTLAND WHO HELP COLONIZE GEORGIA AND DEFEND THE COLONY FROM THE SPANISH WHEN: 1736 WHERE: BUILT THE TOWN & FORT CALLED DARIEN ALONG THE ALTAMAHA RIVER AND RAISED CATTLE AND TIMBER WHY: OGLETHORPE NEEDED THEIR MILITARY HELP TO DEFEAT THE SPANISH DURING THE BATTLE OF BLOODY MARSH

46 Moravians German-speaking Protestants (religious sect: Unity of Brethren). German-speaking Protestants (religious sect: Unity of Brethren). Worked to educate the Indians and convert them to Christianity. Worked to educate the Indians and convert them to Christianity. Most lived in Savannah, but some lived nearby in Irene, located about 5 miles up the Savannah River where there Most lived in Savannah, but some lived nearby in Irene, located about 5 miles up the Savannah River where there was an Indian school. They were pacifists and believed that any kind of fighting or violence was wrong. They had difficulty being accepted in Georgia. Most fled to Pennsylvania. was an Indian school. They were pacifists and believed that any kind of fighting or violence was wrong. They had difficulty being accepted in Georgia. Most fled to Pennsylvania.

47 Malcontents Complaints Land Problems – poor soil, too many restrictions on selling, leasing and inheriting land, & difficulty growing what England wanted Land Problems – poor soil, too many restrictions on selling, leasing and inheriting land, & difficulty growing what England wanted Slavery – Many of the crops were labor-intensive. They wanted slaves like S.C. Slavery – Many of the crops were labor-intensive. They wanted slaves like S.C. Rum – Rum was cheap to buy and could be traded as well. They wanted to be able to drink. Rum – Rum was cheap to buy and could be traded as well. They wanted to be able to drink. By some of the loudest malcontents fled to South Carolina. The discontent did not go away. By some of the loudest malcontents fled to South Carolina. The discontent did not go away.

48 Spanish Threat from Florida After the explorations of Hernando DeSoto and other Spanish conquistadors, Florida was colonized by Spain. After the explorations of Hernando DeSoto and other Spanish conquistadors, Florida was colonized by Spain. The Spanish were interested in the land north of their colony that later became Georgia. The Spanish were interested in the land north of their colony that later became Georgia. The British built Fort Frederica in Georgia in an effort to protect the colony. The British built Fort Frederica in Georgia in an effort to protect the colony. Georgian soldiers led an attack on St. Augustine, Florida in Two years later the Spanish attacked Fort Frederica. Georgian soldiers led an attack on St. Augustine, Florida in Two years later the Spanish attacked Fort Frederica. The Battle of Bloody Marsh was the main battle between British Georgia and Spanish Florida. James Oglethorpe led the Georgia soldiers to victory (though he did not capture St. Augustine) and Spain never again attacked a British colony on the eastern coast. The Battle of Bloody Marsh was the main battle between British Georgia and Spanish Florida. James Oglethorpe led the Georgia soldiers to victory (though he did not capture St. Augustine) and Spain never again attacked a British colony on the eastern coast.

49 End of the Trustee Period In 1743, Oglethorpe was called to Great Britain to answer charges that he had not acted correctly when he failed to capture St. Augustine. In 1743, Oglethorpe was called to Great Britain to answer charges that he had not acted correctly when he failed to capture St. Augustine. Oglethorpe was cleared of the charges but he did not return to Georgia. Oglethorpe was cleared of the charges but he did not return to Georgia. Georgia still had many problems. People were also allowed to begin buying and selling rum (alcohol) in Georgia still had many problems. People were also allowed to begin buying and selling rum (alcohol) in People still wanted to own more land and slaves. By 1750 laws against land ownership (each person could only own 500 acres of land) and slavery were repealed. People were now able to own as much land and as many slaves as they could afford. People still wanted to own more land and slaves. By 1750 laws against land ownership (each person could only own 500 acres of land) and slavery were repealed. People were now able to own as much land and as many slaves as they could afford. In 1752, one year before the end of the Charter of 1732, the trustees returned Georgia to the authority of King George II and Georgia enters the Royal Period. In 1752, one year before the end of the Charter of 1732, the trustees returned Georgia to the authority of King George II and Georgia enters the Royal Period.


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