Presentation on theme: "Warm-up #27 Friday, Sept.23rd"— Presentation transcript:
1Warm-up #27 Friday, Sept.23rd One of the reasons given for the colonization of GA was to serve as a buffer colony. This meant that GA wasA colony for settlement by the poor.An outpost for pirates attacking Spanish galleons.A military protective zone between English and Spanish settlements.An agricultural station experimenting with new strains of cotton plants.Why did James Oglethorpe suggest a colony for the poor?England wanted to get rid of debtors permanently.The homeless would readily come to the New World.Oglethorpe had a friend who died in a debtor’s prison.The poor were mostly well-educated people who had fallen on hard times.
2Warm-up #26 Thursday, September 22 Copy and answer 1. The trade policy of Great Britain during Colonization was called:Free trade.Mercantilism.Merchandising.Raw Materialism2. What reason for settlement was unique to Georgia?a. Protection of other coloniesb. To grow sugar canec. Because it had a mild climated. For religious freedom
3Warm-Up #24 (September 20th) Write out questions and answers: What would you do with the “overcrowding” problem in prisons today? Who (if anyone) should be given a fresh start in life?
4Student Council Election Vote for 2 student council representatives.Erin Newark Tariq RainesTate Oglesby Adeeb KhonSara Weaver Sharice GriffinMarcus Brown Ashley Wiliams
5Warm-up #25:September 21Based on your reading of Chapter 9, Section 1 of yourtextbook. What are the 3 reasons for the settling ofGeorgia?Seal of Georgia
6GPS SS8H2 The student will analyze the colonial period of Georgia’s history. SS8H2a Explain the importance of James Oglethorpe, the Charter of 1732, reasons for settlement (charity, economics, and defense) Tomochichi, Mary Musgrove, and the city of Savannah.SS8G1d Evaluate the impact of climate on Georgia’s development.** Open your to your GPS section in your binder and highlight to verbs and nouns in both of the above GPS’s.
7Essential questions*What were the reasons for the establishment of Georgia?*What persons were instrumental in the establishment of the Georgia colony?*What goods and materials did the English king and the Georgia trustees feel that the Georgia colony could provide for England?
8Georgia in the Trust Period Chapter 9Georgia in the Trust Period
9By the early 1700’s, Great Britain had 12 Colonies (exclude GA. for the moment).Oldest-VirginiaYoungest-PennsylvaniaKing Charles II gave a tract ofland for a colony to a group of proprietors (owners) south ofVirginia. Later called “Carolina”.Northern Carolina—settled bysmall farmers from VASouthern Carolina—planters from the English sugar colonyof Barbados set up plantationsaround Charleston.The two areas were verydifferent and operated separately—1729 became a royal colony under control of the king.
10James Oglethorpe James Oglethorpe was born in England in 1696. At age 25, Oglethorpe was elected to Parliament and learned about numerous problems facing his country.One of Oglethorpe’s friends, Robert Castell, was put in prison for being a debtor (a person who owes someone money that they can not pay back). Castell later died in prison.Oglethorpe and 20 other influential men in Great Britain made a plan to create a colony for the working poor (debtors). They envisioned a colony for people who faced jail time for bad debts.
12Charity Charity– The working poor would be able to work in Georgia to help pay off their debts while contributing to England’sEconomy. Gave persecuted Protestants living in Catholic areasa new start in the colony.Debtor’s Prison
13Military DefenseMilitary Defense--- Georgia would serve as a military buffer between the Britishcolony of South Carolina and Spanish controlled Florida. Having British colonistsin that region (south of the Savannah River) would make it more difficult for Spain toattack South Carolina. By the 1720’s South Carolina was a successful colonyproducing a major product that Great Britain wanted---rice.Rice
14Economics3. Economics – Georgia would help to increase England’s trade and wealth (mercantilism). Oglethorpe promised that silk, dyes, wine, spices, and semi-tropical fruit would be sent from Georgia back to England.Mercantilism: a trade policy in which a country exported more than it imports (favorable balance of trade); colonists are expected to supply raw materials to the mother county.SpicesSemi—tropicalfruitPlant Dyes
17The Charter of 1732“Trustees for the Establishing of the Colony of Georgia in America”In 1732, King George II created a charter allowing 21 Trustees, includingOglethorpe, to create a Georgia colony and oversee it for 21 years.Charter: a legal document that grants special rights and sets up the rulesunder which something operates.Trustee: people who hold responsibility and act on behalf of others.
18The Charter of 1732The Charter of 1732 placed numerous limits on the colonists. Georgia would have freedom of religion except for Catholics. Catholics, blacks, liquor dealers, and lawyers were not admitted to the colony. Slavery, alcohol, and gambling were also prohibited in Georgia.It included the land between the Savannah and Altamaha rivers and extended west to the Pacific Ocean.The name of the colony was to be “Georgia” in honor of KingGeorge.
19The Charter of 1732The trustees could not make a profit in any way and could notget any land or money for serving on the trust. The trustees wereTrying to do a good deed.Their motto was: “Non Sibi Sed Aliis,” Latin for “not for self,but for others.”TheThe Georgia Seal
20The Charter of 1732 Regulations: Each male who went to GA as a charity colonist received 50 acres ofland along with tools and a year’s supply of food and other necessities.Male citizens must join the militia (a force of citizen-soldiers).Women were not permitted to own land.Colonists must plant mulberry trees on some of their land.Colonists that “paid” for their passage were given up to 500 acres, butthey had to have a male live on every 50 acres.
21The Charter of 1732The Charter of 1732 placed numerous limits on the colonists.Georgia would have freedom of religion except for Catholics.Catholics, blacks, liquor dealers, and lawyers were not admitted to thecolony.Slavery, alcohol, and gambling were also prohibited in Georgia.
22The Settlers of the Georgia Colony Who went to the Georgia colony?People considered “deserving”, which meant they were poor for reasonsout of their control.44 of the first 114 colonists were female, most either wives or daughtersof male settlers.Later they realized that they needed more single women of marriageableage.Few debtors, former prisoners, or working poor ever made it to GeorgiaBetween 114 and 125 settlers sailed from England on the ship Ann in 1732.The Ann
23Savannah The First Settlement James Oglethorpe befriended Tomochichi, chief of the Yamacraw Indians.Tomochichi led the settlers to Yamacraw Bluff overlooking the Savannah River. This became the city of Savannah, the first settlement of the new Georgia colony.February 12, 1733, now celebrated as Georgia Day, Oglethorpe brought the settlers to the future Savannah.
24Georgia Day—February 12th Settlers Arriving on Yamacraw Bluffon February 12th 1733Georgia Day—February 12th
25Tomochichi and Mary Musgrove Oglethorpe befriended Tomochichi, chief of the Yamacraw Indians.The Yamacraw Indians were struggling to survive and had became dependent on European goods. Tomochichi believed that befriending Oglethorpe would benefit his people and form a new trading partnership.Tomochichi led the settlers to Yamacraw Bluff overlooking the Savannah River. This became the first settlement of the new Georgia colony.Mary Musgrove and her husband John had created a trading post near the Yamacraw Bluff where they would trade British goods to the Native Americans.Tomochichi spoke very little English so Mary Musgrove served as the interpreted between Oglethorpe and Tomochichi.
26Mary Musgrove and Tomochichi Chief of the YamacrawInterpreter for Oglethorpe and Tomochichi
27Savannah Grist Mill Pillory 40 settlers died the first year, probably from what they called “fevers” or typhoid.Public buildings were built. The first was the courthouse that also served as the church. Colonist defended themselves since no lawyers were permitted.A guardhouse was located on the east end of town with a “pillory” (wooden stocks in which a person’s head and hands were locked).A storehouse, a mill for grinding grain into flour, and a large public over for baking bread.Grist MillPublic OvenPillory
28SavannahWilliam Bull from S. Carolina, helped lay out the streets and squares. Savannah began with 4 squares.Each square have 20 lots on the north side and 20 lots on the south side.Each lot was 60ft. X 90 ft.Each square with its 40 lots was called a “ward”Each male head of a household received his 50 acres of land, which included one of these town lots on a square, a garden ot on the edge of town, and a 45 acre farm lot further out.James Oglethorpe supervised the building. He did not have the official title of governor, but was the only trustee on site.
31Jews in Georgia 42 Arrived in 1733 the only reason Gen. Oglethorpe admitted the Jewish settlers was because of a doctor on board who could help cure a yellow fever epidemic. (Dr. Samuel Nunez)His medical attention saved a colony from complete loss to Yellow FeverSettled in Savannah, Monterey Square is the site of the Jewish Synagogue built and is still in use today, 3rd oldest synagogue in the nation.
32New Laws Oglethorpe’s Return in 1736 Rum Law—made the sale and use of rum and other “spirits” illegal in GA. Settlers could drink beer, wine, and cider.Anyone trading with the Indians in GA must have a license. Trustees wanted to keep good relations with the Indians by making sure they were treated fairly. GA didn’t want them to become allies( a person, group, or country who joins with another for a common interest.)Slavery is illegal. Indentured servants (people who sold their labor for a period of years in return for passage to the colony, usually for 7 years).
33ROLE OF THE SALZBURGERS AND HIGHLAND SCOTS WHO: SALZBURGERSWHAT:WHEN:WHERE:WHY:WHO: HIGHLAND SCOTSWHAT:WHEN:WHERE:WHY:
34SALZBURGERS“The Georgia Salzburgers, a group of German-speaking Protestant colonists, founded the town of Ebenezer in what is now Effingham County. Arriving in 1734, the group received support from King George II of England and the Georgia Trustees after being expelled from its home in the Catholic principality of Salzburg (in present-day Austria). The Salzburgers survived extreme hardships in both Europe and Georgia to establish a prosperous and culturally unique community.” - New Georgia Encyclopedia
35SALZBURGERS key points came to Georgia after being expelled from Germany / Austria for not being CatholicProtestants who wanted religious freedomCreated the town of Ebenezer, but was too swampy to surviveRelocated to the town of New Ebenezer along Savannah River – became a very religious community, also had silk millsTrustees liked the hard working Salzburgers because they did not like slavery or alcohol which were rules the colonists had to live byVery successful farmers
36Rincon, Georgia is where the town of New Ebenezer was located.
37Sketch of Ebenezer, Georgia Print from Von Reck Archive, Royal Library of Denmark, Copenhagen
38MAP OF THE SALZBURGER SETTLEMENT OF NEW EBENEZER ON THE SAVANNAH RIVER
39SALZBURGERSWhatever you forget about the Salzburgers between now and the CRCT, at least remember this…The Salzburgers were Protestant Christians who were kicked out of Catholic controlled Germany and wanted religious freedom in Georgia.
40ROLE OF THE SALZBURGERS AND HIGHLAND SCOTS WHO: SALZBURGERSWHAT: GROUP OF PROTESTANT PEOPLE FROM EUROPE (GERMANY / AUSTRIA) WHO HELPED COLONIZE GEORGIAWHEN: 1734WHERE: BUILT THE TOWN OF NEW EBENEZER NORTHWEST OF SAVANNAH ALONG THE SAVANNAH RIVER.WHY: ESCAPED RELIGIOUS PERSECUTION FROM CATHOLIC CONTROLLED GERMANY / AUSTRIAWHO: HIGHLAND SCOTSWHAT:WHEN:WHERE:WHY:
41HIGHLAND SCOTS“James Oglethorpe wanted to protect the Georgia colony from possible attacks from Spanish Florida. The men of Scotland had the reputation of being good soldiers, and so Oglethorpe recruited a group of about 175 Highland Scots to settle in the area south of Savannah. The group arrived at the Altamaha River in 1736 and established a settlement they originally called New Inverness. Later, they changed the name to Darien.”- Dr. Glen Blankenship and Vicki Wood
42HIGHLAND SCOTS key points Came to Georgia in 1736 from ScotlandBuilt the town / fort of Darien south of Savannah along the Altamaha RiverReputation of hard working people who were good soldiersProtected the Georgia colony from Spanish Florida – helped Oglethorpe push the Spanish out of Georgia in the Battle of Bloody MarshChanged from farming to cattle raising and harvesting timberOpposed slavery in the colony
43Darien: Where the Highland Scots built a fort and settlement to protect the colony from Spanish Florida.
44HIGHLAND SCOTS SUMMARY Whatever you forget about the Highland Scots between now and the CRCT, at least remember this…The Highland Scots were soldiers who colonized Georgia by creating the town of Darien and helped defend the colony from the Spanish during the Battle of Bloody Marsh.
45ROLE OF THE SALZBURGERS AND HIGHLAND SCOTS WHO: SALZBURGERSWHAT: GROUP OF PROTESTANT PEOPLE FROM EUROPE (GERMANY / AUSTRIA) WHO HELPED COLONIZE GEORGIAWHEN: 1734WHERE: BUILT THE TOWN OF NEW EBENEZER NORTHWEST OF SAVANNAH ALONG THE SAVANNAH RIVER.WHY: ESCAPED RELIGIOUS PERSECUTION FROM CATHOLIC CONTROLLED GERMANY / AUSTRIAWHO: HIGHLAND SCOTSWHAT: GROUP OF SOLDIERS FROM SCOTLAND WHO HELP COLONIZE GEORGIA AND DEFEND THE COLONY FROM THE SPANISHWHEN: 1736WHERE: BUILT THE TOWN & FORT CALLED DARIEN ALONG THE ALTAMAHA RIVER AND RAISED CATTLE AND TIMBERWHY: OGLETHORPE NEEDED THEIR MILITARY HELP TO DEFEAT THE SPANISH DURING THE BATTLE OF BLOODY MARSH
46MoraviansGerman-speaking Protestants (religious sect: Unity of Brethren).Worked to educate the Indians and convert them to Christianity.Most lived in Savannah, but some lived nearby in Irene, located about 5 miles up the Savannah River where therewas an Indian school. They were pacifists and believed that any kind of fighting or violence was wrong. They had difficulty being accepted in Georgia. Most fled to Pennsylvania.
47Malcontents “Complaints” Land Problems – poor soil, too many restrictions on selling, leasing and inheriting land, & difficulty growing what England wantedSlavery – Many of the crops were labor-intensive. They wanted slaves like S.C.Rum – Rum was cheap to buy and could be traded as well. They wanted to be able to drink.By some of the loudest malcontents fled to South Carolina. The discontent did not go away.
48Spanish Threat from Florida After the explorations of Hernando DeSoto and other Spanish conquistadors, Florida was colonized by Spain.The Spanish were interested in the land north of their colony that later became Georgia.The British built Fort Frederica in Georgia in an effort to protect the colony.Georgian soldiers led an attack on St. Augustine, Florida in Two years later the Spanish attacked Fort Frederica.The Battle of Bloody Marsh was the main battle between British Georgia and Spanish Florida. James Oglethorpe led the Georgia soldiers to victory (though he did not capture St. Augustine) and Spain never again attacked a British colony on the eastern coast.48
49End of the Trustee Period In 1743, Oglethorpe was called to Great Britain to answer charges that he had not acted correctly when he failed to capture St. Augustine.Oglethorpe was cleared of the charges but he did not return to Georgia.Georgia still had many problems. People were also allowed to begin buying and selling rum (alcohol) in 1742.People still wanted to own more land and slaves. By 1750 laws against land ownership (each person could only own 500 acres of land) and slavery were repealed. People were now able to own as much land and as many slaves as they could afford.In 1752, one year before the end of the Charter of 1732, the trustees returned Georgia to the authority of King George II and Georgia enters the Royal Period.49