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Causes of the Civil War Georgia Performance Standards: SSUSH8a-e; SSUSH9a.

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Presentation on theme: "Causes of the Civil War Georgia Performance Standards: SSUSH8a-e; SSUSH9a."— Presentation transcript:

1 Causes of the Civil War Georgia Performance Standards: SSUSH8a-e; SSUSH9a

2 SSUSH8 The student will explain the relationship between growing north-south divisions and westward expansion. a. Explain how slavery became a significant issue in American politics; include the slave rebellion of Nat Turner and the rise of abolitionism (William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglass, and the Grimke sisters). b. Explain the Missouri Compromise and the issue of slavery in western states and territories. c. Describe the Nullification Crisis and the emergence of states rights ideology; include the role of John C. Calhoun and development of sectionalism. d. Describe the war with Mexico and the Wilmot Proviso. e. Explain the Compromise of SSUSH9 The student will identify key events, issues, and individuals relating to the causes, course, and consequences of the Civil War. a. Explain the Kansas-Nebraska Act, the failure of popular sovereignty, Dred Scott case, and John Browns Raid.

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5 Background: –Slave States v. Free States Controversy Representation in Congress Results: –Entrance of Maine (1820) as free state –Entrance of Missouri (1821) as slave state –Banned slavery north of 36°30' N Missouri Compromise Missouri Compromise (1820) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r

6 Missouri Compromise (1820) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r Interactive Population Map DID YOU KNOW: The Missouri Compromise was only a temporary fix for the issue of slavery. However, it did delay the outbreak of large scale combat and violence for another 30 years.

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8 Slave Rebellion in Virginia – 60 white slave-owners killed –Rebellion put down by local militia, perhaps up to 56 slaves executed & 200 killed by mobs Results: –Widespread fear amongst whites in South –Stricter laws placed on slaves and free blacks Nat Turners Rebellion Missouri Comp. (1820) Nat Turners Rebellion (1831) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r

9 Missouri Comp. (1820) Nat Turners Rebellion (1831) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r DID YOU KNOW: Nat Turner was well educated and was known for being very religious. He believed that God chose him to lead a rebellion to end slavery. Some of his followers even referred to him as The Prophet. The Capture of Nat Turner, by Benjamin Phipps, Colored engraving DID YOU KNOW: Nat Turner was influenced by two previous slave revolts (those organized by Gabriel Prosser and Denmark Vesey), both of which were almost successful.

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11 Cause: –Tariff of 1828 – the "Tariff of Abominations Raised taxes on imported manufactured goods Southern Response: –South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification (1832) Nullification Crisis Missouri Comp. (1820) Nat Turners Rebellion (1831) Nullification Crisis (1832) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r

12 Congress, exceed[ed] its just power to impose taxes and collect revenue…[The taxes are] unauthorized by the constitution of the United States, and violate[s] the true meaning and intent thereof and are null, void, and no law, nor binding upon this State, its officers or citizens…it shall not be lawful…to enforce the payment of duties imposed by the [Tariff of 1828]… South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification (1832) Missouri Comp. (1820) Nat Turners Rebellion (1831) Nullification Crisis (1832) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r

13 President Jacksons Response –threatens to use military to force SC to obey Result: –Compromise – Tariff of 1833 Role of Henry Clay Nullification Crisis Missouri Comp. (1820) Nat Turners Rebellion (1831) Nullification Crisis (1832) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r

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15 Causes: –American annexation of Texas (1845) –Manifest Destiny –Border dispute Zachary Taylors invasion of Mexico Mexican War Missouri Comp. (1820) Nat Turners Rebellion (1831) Nullification Crisis (1832) Mexican War (1846-8) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r "Mexico… has invaded our territory and shed American blood upon American soil." – President James K. Polk

16 Taylor Border according to Mexico Border according to U.S.

17 Taylor Kearney Wool Doniphan To Los Angeles Scott Santa Anna

18 Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo (1848) –U–U.S. receives 500,000 square miles of new territory States: California, Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Colorado, Nevada, and Wyoming –M–Mexico received $15 million Results: –R–Rise of Sectionalism Mexican War Missouri Comp. (1820) Nat Turners Rebellion (1831) Nullification Crisis (1832) Mexican War (1846-8) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r Split of Democratic Party into North & South

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20 Rider on a bill passed by the House of Reps. –Goal: Ban slavery in the territories acquired from Mexico Failed to pass multiple times Wilmont Proviso Missouri Comp. (1820) Nat Turners Rebellion (1831) Nullification Crisis (1832) Mexican War (1846-8) Wilmont Proviso (1846) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r Rider = an additional provision attached to an unrelated bill in Congress Provided that, as an express and fundamental condition to the acquisition of any territory from the Republic of Mexico by the United States, by virtue of any treaty which may be negotiated between them, and to the use by the Executive of the moneys herein appropriated, neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said territory, except for crime, whereof the party shall first be duly convicted Angered Southerners

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22 Issue of Slavery –Admission of Texas (1845) –Rise of the Free-Soil Party (1848) Major Figures: Compromise of 1850 Missouri Comp. (1820) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r Nat Turners Rebellion (1831) Nullification Crisis (1832) Mexican War (1846-8) Wilmont Proviso (1846) Compromise of 1850 (1850)

23 Principal Features: –California admitted as a free state –Abolished slave trade in Washington, D.C. –Texas - $10 mil. & gave up New Mexico territory –Popular sovereignty to decide slavery issue in the New Mexico or Utah Territories –Fugitive Slave Act Compromise of 1850 Missouri Comp. (1820) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r Nat Turners Rebellion (1831) Nullification Crisis (1832) Mexican War (1846-8) Wilmont Proviso (1846) Compromise of 1850 (1850) Popular Sovereignty: the idea that the people would vote to decide an issue

24 Required enforcement of Article 4, Section II of the Constitution Made it a crime to assist runaway slaves and illegal to not arrest a runaway slave Fugitive Slave Act Missouri Comp. (1820) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r Nat Turners Rebellion (1831) Nullification Crisis (1832) Mexican War (1846-8) Wilmont Proviso (1846) Compromise of 1850 (1850) No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.

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26 Organized two territories: –Kansas –Nebraska Kansas-Nebraska Act Missouri Comp. (1820) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r Nat Turners Rebellion (1831) Nullification Crisis (1832) Mexican War (1846-8) Wilmont Proviso (1846) Comp. of 1850 (1850) Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)

27 Missouri Comp. (1820) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r Nat Turners Rebellion (1831) Nullification Crisis (1832) Mexican War (1846-8) Wilmont Proviso (1846) Comp. of 1850 (1850) Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) Kansas-Nebraska Act Both territories given the rights of popular sovereignty –Could vote on whether or not to have slavery Bleeding Kansas –Both abolitionists and pro-slavery settlers moved in quickly

28 Missouri Comp. (1820) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r Nat Turners Rebellion (1831) Nullification Crisis (1832) Mexican War (1846-8) Wilmont Proviso (1846) Comp. of 1850 (1850) Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) Kansas-Nebraska Act Bleeding Kansas –F–First legislature – pro-slavery Widespread voter fraud Illegal to criticize slavery, publish abolitionist papers –V–Violence: Burning of Lawrence Pottawatomie Massacre –J–John Brown

29 Missouri Comp. (1820) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r Nat Turners Rebellion (1831) Nullification Crisis (1832) Mexican War (1846-8) Wilmont Proviso (1846) Comp. of 1850 (1850) Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) Kansas-Nebraska Act Bleeding Kansas –Widespread debate throughout the nation Charles Sumner – Crime Against Kansas Brooks attacks Sumner

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31 Dred Scott –Slave of John Emerson, a U.S. Army surgeon –Lived in Illinois & Wisconsin Territory (both were free) –Sued to gain his freedom after Emersons death Dred Scott Decision Missouri Comp. (1820) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r Nat Turners Rebellion (1831) Nullification Crisis (1832) Mexican War (1846-8) Wilmont Proviso (1846) Comp. of 1850 (1850) Kansas- Nebraska Act (1854) Dred Scott Decision (1857)

32 Dred Scott Decision Missouri Comp. (1820) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r Nat Turners Rebellion (1831) Nullification Crisis (1832) Mexican War (1846-8) Wilmont Proviso (1846) Comp. of 1850 (1850) Kansas- Nebraska Act (1854) Dred Scott Decision (1857) Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) –S–Scott was not a citizen, therefore could not sue –F–Further, argued that both enslaved and free blacks "had no rights which the white man was bound to respect; and…[was] reduced to slavery for his benefit. He was bought and sold and treated as an ordinary article of merchandise and traffic, whenever profit could be made by it."

33 Dred Scott Decision Missouri Comp. (1820) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r Nat Turners Rebellion (1831) Nullification Crisis (1832) Mexican War (1846-8) Wilmont Proviso (1846) Comp. of 1850 (1850) Kansas- Nebraska Act (1854) Dred Scott Decision (1857) Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) –R–Ruled Missouri Compromise and Compromise of 1850 violated the 5 th Amendment Denial of property without due process of law –D–Decision written by Chief Justice Robert B. Taney

34 Attack on U.S. govt armory at Harpers Ferry, Virginia –G–Goal: Start a general slave revolt Raid failed, all of the men killed/executed –T–Threats of widespread violence growing… John Browns Raid Missouri Comp. (1820) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r Nat Turners Rebellion (1831) Nullification Crisis (1832) Mexican War (1846-8) Wilmont Proviso (1846) Comp. of 1850 (1850) Kansas- Nebraska Act (1854) Dred Scott Decision (1857) John Browns Raid (1859)

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36 Road to the Civil War Missouri Comp. (1820) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r Nat Turners Rebellion (1831) Nullification Crisis (1832) Mexican War (1846-8) Wilmont Proviso (1846) Comp. of 1850 (1850) Kansas- Nebraska Act (1854) Dred Scott Decision (1857) John Browns Raid (1859) Tension between North & South WARWAR More Tension?

37 Other Important Figures: William Lloyd Garrison –Abolitionist newspaper writer The Liberator Frederick Douglass –Freed slave, abolitionist newspaper writer Rochester North Star

38 Other Important Figures: The Grimke sisters –S–Sarah and Angelina –Q–Quakers –A–Abolitionists and fought for womens rights John C. Calhoun –V–Vice President of the United States under President Andrew Jackson –W–Wrote South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification (1832)


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