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Georgia Performance Standards: SSUSH8a-e; SSUSH9a

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1 Georgia Performance Standards: SSUSH8a-e; SSUSH9a
Section 1: Causes of the Civil War Georgia Performance Standards: SSUSH8a-e; SSUSH9a

2 SSUSH8 The student will explain the relationship between growing north-south divisions and westward expansion. a. Explain how slavery became a significant issue in American politics; include the slave rebellion of Nat Turner and the rise of abolitionism (William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglass, and the Grimke sisters). b. Explain the Missouri Compromise and the issue of slavery in western states and territories. c. Describe the Nullification Crisis and the emergence of states’ rights ideology; include the role of John C. Calhoun and development of sectionalism. d. Describe the war with Mexico and the Wilmot Proviso. e. Explain the Compromise of 1850. SSUSH9 The student will identify key events, issues, and individuals relating to the causes, course, and consequences of the Civil War. a. Explain the Kansas-Nebraska Act, the failure of popular sovereignty, Dred Scott case, and John Brown’s Raid.

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5 Missouri Compromise Background: Results:
Slave States v. Free States Controversy Representation in Congress Results: Entrance of Maine (1820) as free state Entrance of Missouri (1821) as slave state Banned slavery north of 36°30' N Missouri Compromise (1820) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r

6 Interactive Population Map
DID YOU KNOW: The Missouri Compromise was only a temporary fix for the issue of slavery. However, it did delay the outbreak of large scale combat and violence for another 30 years. Interactive Population Map Missouri Compromise (1820) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r

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8 Nat Turner’s Rebellion
Slave Rebellion in Virginia ≈ 60 white slave-owners killed Rebellion put down by local militia, perhaps up to 56 slaves executed & 200 killed by mobs Results: Widespread fear amongst whites in South Stricter laws placed on slaves and free blacks Missouri Comp. (1820) Nat Turner’s Rebellion (1831) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r

9 Nat Turner’s Rebellion (1831)
“The Capture of Nat Turner,” by Benjamin Phipps, Colored engraving DID YOU KNOW: Nat Turner was influenced by two previous slave revolts (those organized by Gabriel Prosser and Denmark Vesey), both of which were almost successful. DID YOU KNOW: Nat Turner was well educated and was known for being very religious. He believed that God chose him to lead a rebellion to end slavery. Some of his followers even referred to him as “The Prophet.” Missouri Comp. (1820) Nat Turner’s Rebellion (1831) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r

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11 Doctrine of Nullification
Nullification Crisis Cause: Tariff of 1828 – the "Tariff of Abominations“ Raised taxes on imported manufactured goods Southern Response: South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification (1832) Doctrine of Nullification Missouri Comp. (1820) Nat Turner’s Rebellion (1831) Nullification Crisis (1832) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r

12 South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification (1832)
Congress, exceed[ed] its just power to impose taxes and collect revenue…[The taxes are] unauthorized by the constitution of the United States, and violate[s] the true meaning and intent thereof and are null, void, and no law, nor binding upon this State, its officers or citizens…it shall not be lawful…to enforce the payment of duties imposed by the [Tariff of 1828]… Missouri Comp. (1820) Nat Turner’s Rebellion (1831) Nullification Crisis (1832) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r

13 Nullification Crisis President Jackson’s Response Result:
threatens to use military to force SC to obey Result: Compromise – Tariff of 1833 Role of Henry Clay Missouri Comp. (1820) Nat Turner’s Rebellion (1831) Nullification Crisis (1832) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r

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15 Mexican War Causes: American annexation of Texas (1845)
Manifest Destiny Border dispute Zachary Taylor’s “invasion” of Mexico "Mexico… has invaded our territory and shed American blood upon American soil." – President James K. Polk Missouri Comp. (1820) Nat Turner’s Rebellion (1831) Nullification Crisis (1832) Mexican War (1846-8) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r

16 Border according to Mexico
Taylor Border according to Mexico Border according to U.S.

17 Kearney To Los Angeles Doniphan Wool Scott Taylor Santa Anna

18 Mexican War Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo (1848) Results:
U.S. receives 500,000 square miles of new territory States: California, Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Colorado, Nevada, and Wyoming Mexico received $15 million Results: Rise of Sectionalism Split of Democratic Party into North & South Missouri Comp. (1820) Nat Turner’s Rebellion (1831) Nullification Crisis (1832) Mexican War (1846-8) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r

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20 Wilmont Proviso Rider on a bill passed by the House of Reps.
Rider = an additional provision attached to an unrelated bill in Congress Wilmont Proviso Rider on a bill passed by the House of Reps. Goal: Ban slavery in the territories acquired from Mexico Failed to pass multiple times Provided that, as an express and fundamental condition to the acquisition of any territory from the Republic of Mexico by the United States, by virtue of any treaty which may be negotiated between them, and to the use by the Executive of the moneys herein appropriated, neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said territory, except for crime, whereof the party shall first be duly convicted Angered Southerners Missouri Comp. (1820) Nat Turner’s Rebellion (1831) Nullification Crisis (1832) Mexican War (1846-8) Wilmont Proviso (1846) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r

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22 Compromise of 1850 Henry Clay Stephen Douglas Daniel Webster
Issue of Slavery Admission of Texas (1845) Rise of the Free-Soil Party (1848) Major Figures: Henry Clay Stephen Douglas Daniel Webster Missouri Comp. (1820) Nat Turner’s Rebellion (1831) Nullification Crisis (1832) Mexican War (1846-8) Wilmont Proviso (1846) Compromise of 1850 (1850) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r

23 Compromise of 1850 Principal Features:
Popular Sovereignty: the idea that the people would vote to decide an issue Principal Features: California admitted as a free state Abolished slave trade in Washington, D.C. Texas - $10 mil. & gave up New Mexico territory Popular sovereignty to decide slavery issue in the New Mexico or Utah Territories Fugitive Slave Act Missouri Comp. (1820) Nat Turner’s Rebellion (1831) Nullification Crisis (1832) Mexican War (1846-8) Wilmont Proviso (1846) Compromise of 1850 (1850) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r

24 Fugitive Slave Act Required enforcement of Article 4, Section II of the Constitution Made it a crime to assist runaway slaves and illegal to not arrest a runaway slave No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due. Missouri Comp. (1820) Nat Turner’s Rebellion (1831) Nullification Crisis (1832) Mexican War (1846-8) Wilmont Proviso (1846) Compromise of 1850 (1850) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r

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26 Kansas-Nebraska Act Organized two territories: Kansas Nebraska
Missouri Comp. (1820) Nat Turner’s Rebellion (1831) Nullification Crisis (1832) Mexican War (1846-8) Wilmont Proviso (1846) Comp. of 1850 (1850) Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r

27 Kansas-Nebraska Act Both territories given the rights of “popular sovereignty” Could vote on whether or not to have slavery “Bleeding Kansas” Both abolitionists and pro-slavery settlers moved in quickly Missouri Comp. (1820) Nat Turner’s Rebellion (1831) Nullification Crisis (1832) Mexican War (1846-8) Wilmont Proviso (1846) Comp. of 1850 (1850) Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r

28 Kansas-Nebraska Act “Bleeding Kansas” First legislature – pro-slavery
Widespread voter fraud Illegal to criticize slavery, publish abolitionist papers Violence: Burning of Lawrence Pottawatomie Massacre John Brown Missouri Comp. (1820) Nat Turner’s Rebellion (1831) Nullification Crisis (1832) Mexican War (1846-8) Wilmont Proviso (1846) Comp. of 1850 (1850) Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r

29 Kansas-Nebraska Act “Bleeding Kansas”
Widespread debate throughout the nation Charles Sumner – “Crime Against Kansas” Brooks attacks Sumner Missouri Comp. (1820) Nat Turner’s Rebellion (1831) Nullification Crisis (1832) Mexican War (1846-8) Wilmont Proviso (1846) Comp. of 1850 (1850) Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r

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31 Dred Scott Decision Dred Scott
Slave of John Emerson, a U.S. Army surgeon Lived in Illinois & Wisconsin Territory (both were free) Sued to gain his freedom after Emerson’s death Missouri Comp. (1820) Nat Turner’s Rebellion (1831) Nullification Crisis (1832) Mexican War (1846-8) Wilmont Proviso (1846) Comp. of 1850 (1850) Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) Dred Scott Decision (1857) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r

32 Dred Scott Decision Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)
Scott was not a citizen, therefore could not sue Further, argued that both enslaved and free blacks "had no rights which the white man was bound to respect; and…[was] reduced to slavery for his benefit. He was bought and sold and treated as an ordinary article of merchandise and traffic, whenever profit could be made by it." Missouri Comp. (1820) Nat Turner’s Rebellion (1831) Nullification Crisis (1832) Mexican War (1846-8) Wilmont Proviso (1846) Comp. of 1850 (1850) Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) Dred Scott Decision (1857) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r

33 Dred Scott Decision Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)
Ruled Missouri Compromise and Compromise of 1850 violated the 5th Amendment Denial of property without due process of law Decision written by Chief Justice Robert B. Taney Missouri Comp. (1820) Nat Turner’s Rebellion (1831) Nullification Crisis (1832) Mexican War (1846-8) Wilmont Proviso (1846) Comp. of 1850 (1850) Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) Dred Scott Decision (1857) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r

34 John Brown’s Raid Attack on U.S. gov’t armory at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia Goal: Start a general slave revolt Raid failed, all of the men killed/executed Threats of widespread violence growing… John Brown’s Raid (1859) Missouri Comp. (1820) Nat Turner’s Rebellion (1831) Nullification Crisis (1832) Mexican War (1846-8) Wilmont Proviso (1846) Comp. of 1850 (1850) Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) Dred Scott Decision (1857) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r

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36 Tension between North & South
Road to the Civil War WAR Tension between North & South More Tension? Missouri Comp. (1820) Nat Turner’s Rebellion (1831) Nullification Crisis (1832) Mexican War (1846-8) Wilmont Proviso (1846) Comp. of 1850 (1850) Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) Dred Scott Decision (1857) John Brown’s Raid (1859) C a u s e s o f t h e C i v i l W a r

37 Other Important Figures:
William Lloyd Garrison Abolitionist newspaper writer The Liberator Frederick Douglass Freed slave, abolitionist newspaper writer Rochester North Star Both encourage national conversation on slavery

38 Other Important Figures:
The Grimke sisters Sarah and Angelina Quakers Abolitionists and fought for women’s rights John C. Calhoun Vice President of the United States under President Andrew Jackson Wrote South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification (1832)


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