Presentation on theme: "What are the 4 branches of Science? 1. Biology Study of life 2. Chemistry Study of composition of matter 3. Physics Study of forces and motion 4. Earth."— Presentation transcript:
What are the 4 branches of Science? 1. Biology Study of life 2. Chemistry Study of composition of matter 3. Physics Study of forces and motion 4. Earth Science Study of the Earth and its surroundings
Four Branches of Earth Science Geology Study of the solid earth Oceanography Study of the oceans Meteorology Study of the atmosphere and weather Astronomy Study of the universe
Nebular Hypothesis The bodies in our solar system evolved from a huge rotating cloud Hydrogen and helium rotated and collapsed towards center cooling caused rocky/metallic materials collisions of materials makes em bigger outer planets are mostly gas and ice Inner planets made of rock and metal
4 Earths Spheres
1. Hydrosphere = all earths water…everywhere.
2. Atmosphere = all the air surrounding earth
3. Geosphere = all of the solid earth
4. Biosphere = all living things on earth
Plate Tectonics Theory Model to explain how earthquakes and volcanoes occur, and how continents move. Explains mountain range formation
Determining Location Latitude – distance N or S of equator measured in degrees Lines run east and west Oº = equator 90º = poles Longitude – distance E or W of equator measured in degrees Lines run N and S Oº = Prime Meridian 180º = International Date Line
Maps Projecting from a round earth/globe onto a flat map will always produce some type of distortion… Land & distances at the poles are greatly enlarged Land & distances at the equator are normal
Topographic Maps (Contour Maps) Represents the 3-D earth in 2-D. Shows elevations by contour lines (lines of equal elevation) Contour interval – elevation difference between adjacent lines Scale – a distance on the map = a distance on the surface (ratio, bar, verbal) Legend/key – explains symbols on the map
Rules of Contour Lines Never cross Vs point upstream Closely spaced lines = steep land Farther spaced lines = flatter land Form closed loops
Earth as a System Is a system of numerous interacting parts Our actions change other parts of earth Renewable resources Can be replaced in our lifetime wood, water, animals, plants Non-renewable resources Cannot be replaced quickly Oil, coal, natural gas
Population Doubling rate – the time it takes a population to double Population explosion – gets out of hand exponentially Environmental problems… Too many people to feed Not enough land to live on Resources not available to everyone
Reasons for Rapid Growth 1. Better medicine available to everyone 2. Better nutrition for everyone 3. Access to clean drinking water 4. Technology makes many things possible… 5. People are also living longer World Population = 7 billion!
Scientific Method 1. Identify problem 2. Make observations 3. Form a hypothesis (possible explanation for an occurrence) 4. Test the hypothesis 5. Accept, reject, or modify hypothesis.
Latitude and Longitude Written as follows: 118°0000 meaning 118 degrees, 0 minutes, and 0 seconds. 31°3015 = 31 degrees, 30 minutes, and 15 seconds. Remember that minutes and seconds only go to 60…not 100! Always connect the top/bottom and left/right lines of lat or long
Earths Layers The geosphere is layered into 3 sections…the crust, the mantle, and the core. Crust = thin outer covering Mantle = upper and lower Crust and upper part of upper = lithosphere Lower part of upper = asthenosphere Core = outer and inner Outer = liquid, Inner = solid