Presentation on theme: "What are the 4 branches of Science?"— Presentation transcript:
1What are the 4 branches of Science? 1. BiologyStudy of life2. ChemistryStudy of composition of matterPhysicsStudy of forces and motionEarth ScienceStudy of the Earth and its surroundings
2Four Branches of Earth Science GeologyStudy of the solid earthOceanographyStudy of the oceansMeteorologyStudy of the atmosphere and weatherAstronomyStudy of the universe
3Nebular HypothesisThe bodies in our solar system evolved from a huge rotating cloudHydrogen and helium rotated and collapsed towards centercooling caused rocky/metallic materialscollisions of materials makes em biggerouter planets are mostly gas and iceInner planets made of rock and metal
10Plate Tectonics Theory Model to explain how earthquakes and volcanoes occur, and how continents move.Explains mountain range formation
11Determining LocationLatitude – distance N or S of equator measured in degreesLines run east and westOº = equator90º = polesLongitude – distance E or W of equator measured in degreesLines run N and SOº = Prime Meridian180º = International Date Line
13MapsProjecting from a round earth/globe onto a flat map will always produce some type of distortion…Land & distances at the poles are greatly enlargedLand & distances at the equator are normal
14Topographic Maps (Contour Maps) Represents the 3-D earth in 2-D.Shows elevations by contour lines (lines of equal elevation)Contour interval – elevation difference between adjacent linesScale – a distance on the map = a distance on the surface (ratio, bar, verbal)Legend/key – explains symbols on the map
16Rules of Contour Lines Never cross “Vs” point upstream Closely spaced lines = steep landFarther spaced lines = flatter landForm closed loops
17Earth as a System Is a system of numerous interacting parts Our actions change other parts of earthRenewable resourcesCan be replaced in our lifetimewood, water, animals, plantsNon-renewable resourcesCannot be replaced quicklyOil, coal, natural gas
18Population Doubling rate – the time it takes a population to double Population explosion – gets out of hand exponentiallyEnvironmental problems…Too many people to feedNot enough land to live onResources not available to everyone
20Reasons for Rapid Growth Better medicine available to everyoneBetter nutrition for everyoneAccess to clean drinking waterTechnology makes many things possible…People are also living longer2012 World Population = 7 billion!
21Scientific Method Identify problem Make observations Form a hypothesis (possible explanation for an occurrence)Test the hypothesisAccept, reject, or modify hypothesis.
22Latitude and Longitude Written as follows: 118°00’00” meaning 118 degrees, 0 minutes, and 0 seconds.31°30’15” = 31 degrees, 30 minutes, and 15 seconds.Remember that minutes and seconds only go to 60…not 100!Always connect the top/bottom and left/right lines of lat or long
23Earth’s LayersThe geosphere is layered into 3 sections…the crust, the mantle, and the core.Crust = thin outer coveringMantle = upper and lowerCrust and upper part of upper = lithosphereLower part of upper = asthenosphereCore = outer and innerOuter = liquid,Inner = solid