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# What are the 4 branches of Science?

## Presentation on theme: "What are the 4 branches of Science?"— Presentation transcript:

What are the 4 branches of Science?
1. Biology Study of life 2. Chemistry Study of composition of matter Physics Study of forces and motion Earth Science Study of the Earth and its surroundings

Four Branches of Earth Science
Geology Study of the solid earth Oceanography Study of the oceans Meteorology Study of the atmosphere and weather Astronomy Study of the universe

Nebular Hypothesis The bodies in our solar system evolved from a huge rotating cloud Hydrogen and helium rotated and collapsed towards center cooling caused rocky/metallic materials collisions of materials makes em bigger outer planets are mostly gas and ice Inner planets made of rock and metal

4 Earth’s Spheres

1. Hydrosphere = all earth’s water…everywhere.

2. Atmosphere = all the air surrounding earth

3. Geosphere = all of the solid earth

4. Biosphere = all living things on earth

Plate Tectonics Theory
Model to explain how earthquakes and volcanoes occur, and how continents move. Explains mountain range formation

Determining Location Latitude – distance N or S of equator measured in degrees Lines run east and west Oº = equator 90º = poles Longitude – distance E or W of equator measured in degrees Lines run N and S Oº = Prime Meridian 180º = International Date Line

Maps Projecting from a round earth/globe onto a flat map will always produce some type of distortion… Land & distances at the poles are greatly enlarged Land & distances at the equator are normal

Topographic Maps (Contour Maps)
Represents the 3-D earth in 2-D. Shows elevations by contour lines (lines of equal elevation) Contour interval – elevation difference between adjacent lines Scale – a distance on the map = a distance on the surface (ratio, bar, verbal) Legend/key – explains symbols on the map

Rules of Contour Lines Never cross “Vs” point upstream
Closely spaced lines = steep land Farther spaced lines = flatter land Form closed loops

Earth as a System Is a system of numerous interacting parts
Our actions change other parts of earth Renewable resources Can be replaced in our lifetime wood, water, animals, plants Non-renewable resources Cannot be replaced quickly Oil, coal, natural gas

Population Doubling rate – the time it takes a population to double
Population explosion – gets out of hand exponentially Environmental problems… Too many people to feed Not enough land to live on Resources not available to everyone

Reasons for Rapid Growth
Better medicine available to everyone Better nutrition for everyone Access to clean drinking water Technology makes many things possible… People are also living longer 2012 World Population = 7 billion!

Scientific Method Identify problem Make observations
Form a hypothesis (possible explanation for an occurrence) Test the hypothesis Accept, reject, or modify hypothesis.

Latitude and Longitude
Written as follows: 118°00’00” meaning 118 degrees, 0 minutes, and 0 seconds. 31°30’15” = 31 degrees, 30 minutes, and 15 seconds. Remember that minutes and seconds only go to 60…not 100! Always connect the top/bottom and left/right lines of lat or long

Earth’s Layers The geosphere is layered into 3 sections…the crust, the mantle, and the core. Crust = thin outer covering Mantle = upper and lower Crust and upper part of upper = lithosphere Lower part of upper = asthenosphere Core = outer and inner Outer = liquid, Inner = solid

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