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Georgia between World Wars:

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Presentation on theme: "Georgia between World Wars:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Georgia between World Wars:
1919 to 1941

2 GPS SS8H8a Describe the impact of the boll weevil and drought on Georgia.

3 The Georgian Economy in 1920s
Although most of the country enjoyed great prosperity throughout the 1920s, Georgia and a number southern states (which were still predominantly farming states) suffered due to: Boll weevil Droughts Lost of farms Exodus of workers

4 1. Boll weevil ¼ inch long insect
Larvae feed off bolls of the cotton plant (fibers) Moved from Mexico into Georgia in 1915

5 What happened? Boll weevil larvae hatch and feed off cotton boll (white fibers)
Makes cotton plant useless Immediate effect? Thousands of acres of cotton field destroyed million bales produce in 1914 to only 600,000 bales in 1923. Long Term effects? Prices of cotton drops to only 15 cents per pound The failing Cotton harvest (the major crop of the South) negative effects on other parts of economy

6 2. Drought of 1924 What happened? Parched and sun-baked fields destroyed boll weevil along with more cotton and other crops Immediate effect? Farmers lost income due to lost of crops Long term effects? Farmers either lost farms or became deeper in debt

7 3. Lost of Farms What Happened?
Crop failures and debts caused many small farms to fail Immediate effect? 60,000 farms in operation were lost in 1920s Long-term effect? When farms failed, banks also lost money Many farm-related businesses (stores, equipment dealers, repairmen) closed

8 Exodus of Farm Workers or the “Great Migration”


10 What happened? Over 375,000 farm workers left Georgia between 1920 to 1925. Workers, mostly Blacks who left due to racial discrimination, moved to Northern cities to work in factories and assembly plants Immediate Effects? Blacks had opportunities for better paying jobs, education, health care, and civil rights in the North Long-term Effects? Blacks still faced segregation, unequal pay, hostile competition, and over-crowded cities

11 GPS SS8H8b Explain the economic factors of the Great Depression.

12 The Great Depression was:
From October 1929 to 1940 (World War II) Started on “Black Tuesday” when the New York Stock Market crashed. (Value of stocks fell $40 billion) {U.S. Steel $262 stocks dropped to $22, and Montgomery Ward fell from $138 to $4 a share} By 1932, 13 million (or 1 out of 4) Americans were unemployed Over 9,000 banks failed and millions lost their savings and cash People left homeless to live in “Hoovervilles” or wooden and cardboard shacks “Soup Kitchens” and “bread lines” feed the needy

13 7. Education and health care for children suffered, and most went hungry everyday and had no shoes for their feet. President Hoover appeared indifferent to people’s problems since he (and many others) believed that government was not the solution to the Depression but the economy itself will work it own problems out. When Americans wanted a new approach to economic recovery, they elected Franklin D. Roosevelt in a landslide victory in 1932.

14 Cause and Effect of The Great Depression
Stock Market Speculation Effect: Prices of stock rose higher than they were really worth

15 Effect: People borrowed (or given loans) more money than they could afford to repay. Loans could not be fulfilled thus banks could not make payments to businesses. Workers eventually laid off Cause #2 Over-borrowing

16 Cause #3 Personal Debt Effect: Americans bought too much “beyond their means.” Remained in debt when laid off and had to sell belongings.

17 Effect: Invested too much in stock market and lost money. “Runs on Banks” caused banks to fail when bank withdraws exceeded cash deposits. Cause #4 Unwise Bank Practices

18 Effect: Government officials and Americans believed that the economy will work itself out of the depression—YET it only created more problems Cause #5 Laissez-faire attitude of Government

19 Effect: Companies produce more than they could sell; businesses either slowed production or laid off workers to get rid of surplus Cause #6 Industrial Overproduction

20 Effect: Other countries had difficulties selling their products in U.S.; in turn, they will not be able to buy American goods and pay off wartime debts. Cause #7 High Tariffs

21 Effect: Droughts and overproduction caused prices to decline and farmer to lose income. Farmers could not pay off debts or buy goods. Farm communities in their own “depression” Cause #8 Depressed Agricultural Production

22 GPS SS8H8d Discuss the effect of the New Deal in terms of the impact of the Civilian Conservation Corps, Agricultural Adjustment Acts, rural electrification, and Social Security.

23 Franklin D. Roosevelt and The New Deal
During Roosevelt first “100 Days” as president in 1933, he introduced 15 programs which Congress to passed easily: 1. provide relief to the needy, such as Federal Relief Administration (FERA) 2. economic recovery, such as the Civilian Conservation Corp (CCC) and Public Works Administration (PWA) 3. Reform financial system, such as Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) and Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

24 Civilian Conservation Corps
(CCC) Provided jobs for young men to build trails and roads in forests, reforest lands, construct structure to control flooding, and building of national parks Each young man earned $30 per month and send most of it home to their families In Georgia, build facilities at Kennesaw Mountain National Park and Roosevelt State Park; ball fields, schools, and theaters; Grady Hospital; and Macon and St. Simon’s Airport

25 Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA)
1st Act in to help farmers will low prices for crops and reduce surplus, government set program to set market prices and provide farmers “subsidies” so they would produce less. 2nd Act in 1935—Rewarded farmers who practiced good conservation methods and reduce production on major crops such as cotton and wheat.

26 Rural Electrification Administration (REA)
When he experienced a large electricity bill at his Warm Springs cottage and finding out that his neighbors had no electricity, Roosevelt proposed the REA bill. $300 million given to rural areas nationwide to extend power lines to country and buy cheaper electricity Higher number of farmers in Georgia now had electric water pumps, lights in the homes, milking machines, and household appliances. Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Built dams on the Tennessee River to control flooding and generate electricity to northern Georgia and Tennessee

27 Social Security Act of 1935 Insured citizens over the age of retirement income Provided workers with unemployment compensation Provided assistance to citizens too disable to work, plus assistance for their spouse and children

28 Georgia Governors during the FDR Years (1932 to 1945)
SS8H8c Discuss the impact of the political career of Eugene Talmadge SS8H9b Evaluate the importance of Richard Russell SS8H10c Discuss the impact of Ellis Arnall

29 Richard Russell (1931 to 1932) View on New Deal and FDR:
Strong supporter of New Deal; Persuaded FDR to start programs beneficial to GA

30 Race Relations: Believed in segregation but spoke out against violence used towards Blacks Accomplishments: *reduced number of state offices (102 to 17) *Eased some financial problems caused by Great Depression *Served in Senate for 38 years and brought military contract to GA

31 Eugene Talmadge (1933 to 1936; 1941 to 1942)
Views on New Deal and FDR: *Disliked federal intervention and New Deal Programs

32 *Considered a conservative white supremacy.
Race Relations: *Considered a conservative white supremacy. *lost 1942 election due to firing officials who wanted to integrate schools Accomplishments: *Reduced property taxes, utility rates, and state fees *Large support from rural voters *Only GA governor elected four times

33 Ed Rivers (1937 to 1940) Views on New Deal and FDR:
Big supporter of New Deal Programs in GA

34 Race Relations: Supported programs to help out both poor whites and blacks Accomplishments: *Health services for all Georgians, old age pensions, raises for teachers, and seven-month school year *Expanded electrical services to rural area *Unemployment compensation

35 Ellis Arnall (1943 to 1946) Views on New Deal and FDR:
Strong supporter for Roosevelt's war time policies

36 Race Relations: Abolished poll tax and white primary (100,000 blacks voted in 1946 GA primary) Accomplishments: Created boards to monitor Board of Regents and Prison system *Supported GA to be first state to allow 18 year olds to vote * first governor to serve four-year term

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