Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Biochemistry of Cells 1. Carbon-based Molecules Although a cell is mostly water, the rest of the cell consists mostly of carbon-based molecules 2 Organic.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Biochemistry of Cells 1. Carbon-based Molecules Although a cell is mostly water, the rest of the cell consists mostly of carbon-based molecules 2 Organic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biochemistry of Cells 1

2 Carbon-based Molecules Although a cell is mostly water, the rest of the cell consists mostly of carbon-based molecules 2 Organic chemistry is the study of all compounds that contain C – C bonds

3 Uses of Organic Molecules Americans consume an average of 140 pounds of sugar per person per year 3 Cellulose, found in plant cell walls, is the most abundant organic compound on Earth

4 Uses of Organic Molecules A typical cell in your body has about 2 meters of DNA 4 A typical cow produces over 200 pounds of methane gas each year

5 Large Hydrocarbons: Are the main molecules in the gasoline we burn in our cars 5 The hydrocarbons of fat molecules provide energy for our bodies

6 Carbon is a Versatile Atom Two reasons why carbon is so important: 1. It has four electrons in an outer shell - so carbon can share its electrons with 4 OTHER atoms 6

7 2. Carbon can use its bonds to attach to other CARBONS to form an endless diversity of carbon skeletons 7

8 4 Major Groups of Organic Macromolecules Proteins 8 Lipids Carbohydrate Nucleic Acids

9 MACROMOLECULES giant molecules made from joining smaller units together = polymers Mono = one Poly = many 9

10 Make a chart like this in your notes: MacromoleculeExamplesMonomerFunction 10

11 Carbohydrates 11

12 Carbohydrates Living things use carbohydrates as their main source of energy. Plants and some animals use carbohydrates for structural purposes. Carbohydrates include: Small sugar molecules Long starch molecules 12

13 Monosaccharides = 1 Glucose is found in sports drinks 13 Fructose is found in fruits Honey contains both glucose & fructose Galactose is called milk sugar

14 Polysaccharides = many Complex carbohydrates 14 Composed of many sugar monomers linked together

15 Glycogen Glycogen is an example of a polysaccharide in animals 15 Animals store excess sugar in the form of glycogen

16 Cellulose Cellulose is an example of a polysaccharide in plants. 16 It is a major component of wood It is also known as dietary fiber

17 Lipids 17

18 Lipids - Include fats, waxes and oils - Lipids are hydrophobic –water fearing 18 They do NOT mix with water FAT MOLECULE

19 Function of Lipids -store energy -insulate the body -main component of cell membranes 19

20 Many lipids are fatty acids. 20

21 Nucleic Acids 21

22 Nucleic Acids Store hereditary information 22 Contain information for making all the bodys proteins DNA & RNA

23 Nucleic Acids 23 Nitrogenous base (A,G,C, or T) Phosphate group Thymine (T) Sugar (deoxyribose) Phosphate Base Suga r Monomer: nucleotide Nucleotide

24 Proteins monomers = amino acids (20 of them) 24 Proteins are used by the body in many ways: catalysts structure (building) transport contracting (muscles)

25 Some Types of Proteins 25 Structural Contractile Transport

26 Proteins as Enzymes (Catalyst) Many proteins act as catalysts or enzymes – they make chemical reactions go faster. 26 Thousands of different enzymes exist in the body. Enzymes fold into specific shapes so that they can recognize their substrate.

27 Chemical reactions involve breaking and reforming bonds 27 reactants substrate products

28 Substrates are the reactants that enzymes work on 28 Enzymes provide a site where reactants come together to react!

29 How the Enzyme Works 29

30 Enzyme Key Points: 30 Enzymes make reactions go FASTER Enzymes are NOT used up Enzymes are SPECIFIC Enzymes are sensitive to temperature and pH

31 Denaturating Proteins 31 Changes in temperature & pH can denature (unfold) a protein so it no longer works Cooking denatures protein in eggs Milk protein separates into curds & whey when it denatures

32 Effect of temperature and pH on enzymes 32

33 Summary of Key Concepts 33

34 Macromolecules 34

35 Macromolecules 35

36 Biochemistry Vocabulary Organic macromolecule carbohydrate saccharide (mono, di, poly) protein amino acid lipid nucleic acid nucleotide 36 Organic macromolecule carbohydrate saccharide (mono, di, poly) protein amino acid active site enzyme substrate catalyst lipid nucleic acid nucleotide

37 active site enzyme substrate catalyst 37


Download ppt "Biochemistry of Cells 1. Carbon-based Molecules Although a cell is mostly water, the rest of the cell consists mostly of carbon-based molecules 2 Organic."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google