2 Carbon-based Molecules Although a cell is mostly water, the rest of the cell consists mostly of carbon-based moleculesOrganic chemistry is the study of all compounds that contain C – C bonds
3 Uses of Organic Molecules Americans consume an average of 140 pounds of sugar per person per yearCellulose, found in plant cell walls, is the most abundant organic compound on Earth
4 Uses of Organic Molecules A typical cell in your body has about 2 meters of DNAA typical cow produces over 200 pounds of methane gas each year
5 The hydrocarbons of fat molecules provide energy for our bodies Large Hydrocarbons:Are the main molecules in the gasoline we burn in our carsThe hydrocarbons of fat molecules provide energy for our bodies
6 Carbon is a Versatile Atom Two reasons why carbon is so important:1. It has four electrons in an outer shell - so carbon can share its electrons with 4 OTHER atoms
7 2. Carbon can use its bonds to attach to other CARBONS to form an endless diversity of carbon skeletons
8 4 Major Groups of Organic Macromolecules ProteinsLipidsCarbohydrateNucleic Acids
9 MACROMOLECULES“giant” molecules made from joining smaller units together = polymersMono = onePoly = many
10 Make a chart like this in your notes: MacromoleculeExamplesMonomerFunction
12 CarbohydratesLiving things use carbohydrates as their main source of energy.Plants and some animals use carbohydrates for structural purposes.Carbohydrates include:Small sugar moleculesLong starch molecules
13 Monosaccharides = 1 Glucose is found in sports drinks Fructose is found in fruitsHoney contains both glucose & fructoseGalactose is called “milk sugar”
14 Polysaccharides = many Complex carbohydratesComposed of many sugar monomers linked together
15 Glycogen Glycogen is an example of a polysaccharide in animals Animals store excess sugar in the form of glycogen
16 Cellulose Cellulose is an example of a polysaccharide in plants. It is a major component of woodIt is also known as dietary fiber
22 Nucleic Acids Store hereditary information Contain information for making all the body’s proteinsDNA & RNA
23 Nucleic Acids Monomer: nucleotide Nucleotide Nitrogenous base (A,G,C, or T)Monomer: nucleotidePhosphategroupThymine (T)Sugar(deoxyribose)PhosphateBaseSugarNucleotide
24 Proteins monomers = amino acids (20 of them) Proteins are used by the body in many ways:catalystsstructure (building)transportcontracting (muscles)
25 Some Types of ProteinsStructuralTransportContractile
26 Proteins as Enzymes (Catalyst) Many proteins act as catalysts or enzymes – they make chemical reactions go faster.Thousands of different enzymes exist in the body.Enzymes fold into specific shapes so that they can “recognize” their substrate.
27 Chemical reactions involve breaking and reforming bonds productsreactantssubstrate
28 Substrates are the reactants that enzymes work on Enzymes provide a site where reactants come together to react!
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