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Biochemistry of Cells.

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Presentation on theme: "Biochemistry of Cells."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biochemistry of Cells

2 Carbon-based Molecules
Although a cell is mostly water, the rest of the cell consists mostly of carbon-based molecules Organic chemistry is the study of all compounds that contain C – C bonds

3 Uses of Organic Molecules
Americans consume an average of 140 pounds of sugar per person per year Cellulose, found in plant cell walls, is the most abundant organic compound on Earth

4 Uses of Organic Molecules
A typical cell in your body has about 2 meters of DNA A typical cow produces over 200 pounds of methane gas each year

5 The hydrocarbons of fat molecules provide energy for our bodies
Large Hydrocarbons: Are the main molecules in the gasoline we burn in our cars The hydrocarbons of fat molecules provide energy for our bodies

6 Carbon is a Versatile Atom
Two reasons why carbon is so important: 1. It has four electrons in an outer shell - so carbon can share its electrons with 4 OTHER atoms

7 2. Carbon can use its bonds to attach to other CARBONS to form an endless diversity of carbon skeletons

8 4 Major Groups of Organic Macromolecules
Proteins Lipids Carbohydrate Nucleic Acids

9 MACROMOLECULES “giant” molecules made from joining smaller units together = polymers Mono = one Poly = many

10 Make a chart like this in your notes:
Macromolecule Examples Monomer Function

11 Carbohydrates

12 Carbohydrates Living things use carbohydrates as their main source of energy. Plants and some animals use carbohydrates for structural purposes. Carbohydrates include: Small sugar molecules Long starch molecules

13 Monosaccharides = 1 Glucose is found in sports drinks
Fructose is found in fruits Honey contains both glucose & fructose Galactose is called “milk sugar”

14 Polysaccharides = many
Complex carbohydrates Composed of many sugar monomers linked together

15 Glycogen Glycogen is an example of a polysaccharide in animals
Animals store excess sugar in the form of glycogen

16 Cellulose Cellulose is an example of a polysaccharide in plants.
It is a major component of wood It is also known as dietary fiber

17 Lipids

18 Lipids - Include fats, waxes and oils
- Lipids are hydrophobic –”water fearing” They do NOT mix with water FAT MOLECULE

19 Function of Lipids store energy insulate the body
main component of cell membranes

20 Many lipids are fatty acids.

21 Nucleic Acids

22 Nucleic Acids Store hereditary information
Contain information for making all the body’s proteins DNA & RNA

23 Nucleic Acids Monomer: nucleotide Nucleotide Nitrogenous base
(A,G,C, or T) Monomer: nucleotide Phosphate group Thymine (T) Sugar (deoxyribose) Phosphate Base Sugar Nucleotide

24 Proteins monomers = amino acids (20 of them)
Proteins are used by the body in many ways: catalysts structure (building) transport contracting (muscles)

25 Some Types of Proteins Structural Transport Contractile

26 Proteins as Enzymes (Catalyst)
Many proteins act as catalysts or enzymes – they make chemical reactions go faster. Thousands of different enzymes exist in the body. Enzymes fold into specific shapes so that they can “recognize” their substrate.

27 Chemical reactions involve breaking and reforming bonds
products reactants substrate

28 Substrates are the reactants that enzymes work on
Enzymes provide a site where reactants come together to react!

29 How the Enzyme Works

30 Enzyme Key Points: Enzymes make reactions go FASTER
Enzymes are NOT used up Enzymes are SPECIFIC Enzymes are sensitive to temperature and pH

31 Denaturating Proteins
Changes in temperature & pH can denature (unfold) a protein so it no longer works Cooking denatures protein in eggs Milk protein separates into curds & whey when it denatures

32 Effect of temperature and pH on enzymes

33 Summary of Key Concepts

34 Macromolecules

35 Macromolecules

36 Biochemistry Vocabulary
Organic macromolecule carbohydrate saccharide (mono, di, poly) protein amino acid active site enzyme substrate catalyst lipid nucleic acid nucleotide Biochemistry Vocabulary Organic macromolecule carbohydrate saccharide (mono, di, poly) protein amino acid lipid nucleic acid nucleotide

37 active site enzyme substrate catalyst

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