3Impact on Native Americans Europeans were learning of the profitability of the plantation system – relying on what?Economic benefit of using local forced laborDisease – Europeans, unknowingly brought measles, mumps, chickenpox, smallpox, typhus and others.The local people had no built-up natural immunity to these diseases yet.
4Impact on AfricansWith decline of native work force, labor was needed from elsewhere.Slave trade exploded, especially in Western AfricaOver the next 300 years ( ) almost 10 million people were taken
5Impact on EuropeansEuropeans began to cross the Atlantic creating one of the largest voluntary migrations in world history.Overseas expansion inflamed national rivalries in Europe causing conflict.Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494Growth of trade markets completely changed the world FOREVER.
7The Introduction of New Diseases Native Americans had no natural resistance to European diseasesSmallpox, measles, influenza, malaria killed millionsPopulation of central Mexico may have decreased by more than 30 percent in the 10 years following first contact with EuropeansDevastating ImpactNative American population continued to decline for centuriesInca Empire decreased from 13 million in 1492 to 2 million in 1600North American population fell from 2 million in 1492 to 500,000 in 1900—but disease not only factor in decrease of populationIntermittent warfare, other violence also contributed
8Effects of the Columbian Exchange Different FoodsExchange of foods, animals had dramatic impact on later societiesOver time crops native to Americas became staples in diets of EuropeansFoods provided substantial nutrition, helped people live longerEconomics and GastronomicsActivities like Texas cattle ranching, Brazilian coffee growing not possible without Columbian Exchange; cows, coffee native to Old WorldTraditional cuisines changed because of Columbian ExchangeItalian Food Without Tomatoes?Until contact with Americas, Europeans had never tried tomatoesMost Europeans thought tomatoes poisonousBy late 1600s, tomatoes had begun to be included in Italian cookbooks
9The Columbian Exchange Voyages launched large-scale contact between Europe and Americas.Interaction with Native Americans led to sweeping cultural changes.Contact between the two groups led to the widespread exchange of plants, animals, and disease—the Columbian Exchange.Plants, animals developed in very different ways in hemispheresEuropeans—no potatoes, corn, sweet potatoes, turkeysPeople in Americas—no coffee, oranges, rice, wheat, sheep, cattleThe Exchange of GoodsArrival of Europeans in Americas changed all thisPreviously unknown foods taken back to EuropeFamiliar foods brought to Americas by colonistsSharing DiscoveriesThe introduction of beasts of burden to the Americas was a significant development from the Columbian Exchange. The introduction of the horse provided people in the Americas with a new source of labor and transportation.
11The Exchange can be positive or negative in its effects In the exchange that started along the coast of Newfoundland and was made widespread by Columbus, disease was the most negative for the Native American populationFatality rate over a period of two to three generations was 95% for many tribal groupsIn some cases, as in the Mohegans case, the fatality rate could be 100%
12Europeans believed that it was God’s will that Indians died No germ theory at the time of contact.Illness in Europe was considered to be the consequence of sinIndians, who were largely “heathen” or non-Christian were regarded as sinners thus subject to illness as a punishment
13New World MicrobesNot all pathogens traveled from Europe to the AmericasSyphilis, polio, hepatitis and encephalitis were new world diseasesAfrican slaves were less vulnerable to European diseases than were IndiansEuropeans succumbed to Malaria easily
14Old World Diseases European disease was particularly virulent Smallpox, measles, diphtheria, whooping cough, chicken pox, bubonic plague, scarlet fever and influenza were the most common diseasesNearly all of the European diseases were communicable by air and touch.The pathway of these diseases was invisible to both Indians and Europeans
16Disease raced ahead of people In most cases, Indian peoples became sick even before they had direct contact with EuropeansTrade goods that traveled from tribe to tribe though middlemen were often the sourceThere is little or no evidence to think that Europeans intentionally infected trade items for trade with Indians to kill them
17Mainland outbreaksDiseases, especially smallpox, were transported from the Caribbean to the mainland by the Cortez expedition in the 1630sA sick African infected the Aztecs of Mexico CityIncubation of smallpox is 14 days—this causes the disease to spread over great distancesSmallpox killed half the Iroquois populations in 1738 and again in 1759Entire tribe of Mandans died during the winter of
18ConclusionAll of these exchanges then, of microbes, plants and animals had a dramatic effect on the environment of the New World, and by extension, a dramatic, and often negative effect on the economies and cultures of Indian peoples.
19Mercantilism New Economic Policy Intense Competition Founding of colonies, new goods in Europe led to significant changes1500s, Europeans developed new economic policy, mercantilismNation’s strength depended on its wealthWealthy nation had power for military and expanded influenceNew Economic PolicyWealth measured by amount of gold, silver possessed by nationMercantilists believed there was fixed amount of wealth in worldFor one nation to become wealthier, more powerful—had to take wealth, power away from another nationMercantilism led to intense competition between nationsIntense Competition
20Balance of Trade Imports Exports Mercantilists built wealth two ways—extract gold, silver from mines at home, in colonies; sell more goods than it bought from foreign countries, creating favorable balance of tradeWith favorable balance of trade, country received more gold, silver from other nations than it paid to themIncreased its power; weakened foreign competitorsTo achieve favorable balance of trade, could reduce amount of imports by placing tariffs on goodsImporter paid tariff, added cost to price of goodImported goods more expensive, discouraged people from buyingImportsEncourage exports that could sell for higher prices than raw materialsCountries encouraged manufacturing and export of manufactured goodsGovernments provided subsidies to help start new industriesExports
21Controlling SourcesThird approach for favorable balance of trade, controlling sourcesNation that controlled own sources would not need to import from competing nationsWhy importantCountry did not need to spend own money to obtain raw materialsForeign countries considered rivals, might become active enemy, cut off supply of raw materialsEuropean nations worked to become more self-sufficientNations began to establish colonies