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Creating a New Nation Unit Two Creating a New Nation.

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1 Creating a New Nation Unit Two Creating a New Nation

2 SSUSH3 The student will explain the primary causes of the American Revolution.
Creating a New Nation

3 a. Explain how the end of Anglo-French imperial competition as seen in the French-Indian War, and the 1763 Treaty of Paris, laid the groundwork for the American Revolution. Creating a New Nation

4 Anglo-French Imperial Competition
Anglo means the English/British. Thus, Anglo-French means the British-French. Creating a New Nation

5 The French and the British had been fighting over North America throughout the late 1600s and the early1700s. Creating a New Nation

6 The first three wars were indecisive (no one really won) but the fourth war the Seven Years’ War or the French and Indian War determined who would rule North America. Creating a New Nation

7 French and Indian War The war was between Great Britain and her allies and France and her allies. How did it start? A young George Washington entered the contested Ohio River Valley to claim it for Virginia on the order of Governor Dunwoody. The French forced him and his militia out of the valley. This started the war. (The conflict was created out of both nations’ desire to control the Ohio River Valley.) Creating a New Nation

8 French and Indian War (Cont.)
Great Losses and Victories In 1754, British were defeated by the French at Fort Duquesne (present day Pittsburgh.) Creating a New Nation

9 1757, William Pitt became prime minister of Great Britain organized its victory in the war.
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10 1759 – Gen. James Wolfe defeated the French Gen
1759 – Gen. James Wolfe defeated the French Gen. Montcalm at the Battle of Quebec. (Turning Point Battle) Creating a New Nation

11 1763- The British defeat the French
1763- The British defeat the French. The British and her allies official sign the Treaty of Paris, 1763 Creating a New Nation

12 Treaty of 1763 The Treaty of 1763 eliminated (ended) France as a colonial power in North America. France ceded (gave) – To Spain: all French territory west of the Mississippi and New Orleans. To Britain: Canada and all French territory east of the Mississippi, except New Orleans. Creating a New Nation

13 Effects of the French and Indian War
Effects on the colonies Military experience and confidence for the Colonies recognized the need for unity Plan of Albany Native Americans removed as a threat (for the moment) making them less dependent on Britain. Creating a New Nation

14 Effects on Great Britain
Before the French and Indian War, Britain had followed a policy of salutary (beneficial) neglect and virtual representation (self government with little interference from the mother country.) They decided to change this because they: Felt the colonists had not helped sufficiently. Felt that colonists had gained much. Should pay for at least part of the war cost. Creating a New Nation

15 Britain’s New Colonial Policy
In 1763, Great Britain adopted a policy with three objectives: Tighten British economic and political control over the colonies. Make the colonies respect and obey the English laws Make the colonist pay for part of the war. Creating a New Nation

16 Georgia Performance Standards
b. Explain colonial response to such British actions as the Proclamation of 1763, the Stamp Act, and the Intolerable Acts as seen in Sons and Daughters of Liberty and Committees of Correspondence. Creating a New Nation

17 Proclamation of 1763 Proclamation of 1763 After Pontiac’s Rebellion King George III forbid settlement in the Ohio River Valley with the Proclamation of It angered the colonies who ignored it. Creating a New Nation

18 Strict Enforcement of Existing Laws
Navigational Act had required Transport their goods only in British (and colonial) ships. Export only enumerated goods (items such as tobacco, sugar, indigo, and furs) to Britain (other European markets offered higher prices.) Purchase imports from Britain or pay import duties (taxes) if goods were from another country Colonists continued to smuggle goods Creating a New Nation

19 Writs of Assistance were general court orders authorizing British to search colonial homes, buildings, and ships for smuggled goods. Writs of assistance allowed for the search of any place and seizure of any smuggled goods. Colonial Response Colonists protested them as an invasion of privacy. James Otis of Mass. said that “every man’s home is his castle.” Later, he would use the phrase “No Taxation without Representation.” Creating a New Nation

20 SSUSH4b b. Explain colonial response to such British actions such as the Proclamation of 1763, Stamp Act, and the Intolerable Acts as seen in Sons and Daughters of Liberty and Committees of Correspondence. Creating a New Nation

21 Stamp Act Stamp Act (1765) – first internal tax or direct tax (levied) created for the colonies. It required the purchase of stamps that were to be put on printed materials such as wills, mortgages, almanacs, and newspapers. It effected influential groups such as lawyers, clergy, and printers. Creating a New Nation

22 Committees of Correspondence
Colonial Response Stamp Act Congress of delegates meet in New York City to plan united resistance against the Stamp Act. Delegates said colonists could only be tax by colonial legislatures. Colonial Response: Boycotts (refusal to purchase goods in protest.) Creating a New Nation

23 Committees of Correspondence
Samuel Adams in 1772 launched these committees to provide a way to keep other colonies informed through this information network. Creating a New Nation

24 Additional Action and Responses
Massive Action: Boycotts and Demonstration It was repealed in 1766. Declaratory Act was passed Townshend Act (1767) which was repealed in 1770 Creating a New Nation

25 Sons and Daughters of Liberty
Sons and Daughters of Liberty organized colonial support. Creating a New Nation

26 The Boston Massacre In 1770, colonial demonstrators fought against the British redcoats. The fight ended in the “Boston Massacre” where Crispus Attucks was among the first to die. Creating a New Nation

27 Tea Act (1773) The Tea Act was passed to save the British India Company. The companies tea was to be sold only to the Americas. The Colonial Response The colonists resented the tax. They threw tea into Boston Harbor. British Response: The British passed the Intolerable Acts/Coercive Acts. Creating a New Nation

28 What’s unusual about this picture?
Creating a New Nation

29 Intolerable Acts (1774) Parliament passed a series of acts called the Intolerable Acts by the American colonists and Coercive Acts by the British. The acts: Closed Boston harbor until the tea was paid for. Quartered soldiers Weakened self-government in North America. Creating a New Nation

30 Colonial Response First Continental of Congress met in Philadelphia.
They created a “Declaration of Rights and Grievances” to King George III, asking for a redress (correction) of wrongs and repeal of the Intolerable Acts. They voted to boycott British goods. Creating a New Nation

31 Colonies started training militia
Patrick Henry in Virginia made his famous speech, concluding “Give me liberty, or give me death!” Colonies started training militia Creating a New Nation

32 Outbreak of the War Mass. British Gen. Thomas Gage ordered a detachment of troops to take colonial military supplies at Concord (MA) and to arrest Samuel Adams and John Hancock in Lexington (MA). Paul Revere and William Dawes set out to warn them however only William Dawes finished the ride. Creating a New Nation

33 The result was the first battle of the American Revolution – Battle of Lexington and Concord.
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34 RECAP: Summary of causes of the American Revolution.
Economic causes UNFAIR TAXATION OF COLONISTS Colonial Manufacturers and merchants (businessmen) were indignant (angry) over British mercantilist laws. Political Causes Colonist felt they were entitled to self-govt. Did not like writs of assistance Distance and misunderstanding. Creating a New Nation

35 Georgia Performance Standard
SSUS3b Explain the importance of Thomas Paine’s Common Sense to the movement for independence. Creating a New Nation

36 The Colonists indecision
For the first year of the war, Colonists were unsure of whether or not they were fighting for their rights as English citizen or declaring their independence. Creating a New Nation

37 By the summer of 1776, they decided to declare their independence.
Why? Colonists were outraged by British conduct in the war and their use of the Hessians – German mercenaries (hired soldiers.) Thomas Paine’s Pamphlet “Common Sense?” Creating a New Nation

38 Thomas Paine and “Common Sense.”
Common Sense was a persuasive pamphlet that said it was common sense that a continent (North America) should not remain subservient to a island (Great Britain.) Also, they should not stay loyal to a king that was spilling their blood. He convinced many colonies to change their views. Creating a New Nation

39 Battles 1776 – Battle of Breed’s Hill aka Bunker Hill
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40 Georgia Performance Standards
SSUSH4 The student will identify the ideological, military, and diplomatic aspects of the American Revolution. a. Explain the language, organization, and intellectual sources of the Declaration of Independence; include the writing of John Locke and Montesquieu, and the role of Thomas Jefferson. Creating a New Nation

41 Declaration of Independence
July 4, 1776 – the Second Continental Congress formally adopted the Declaration of Independence. It was written chiefly by Thomas Jefferson. Jefferson used the ideals of the Enlightenment thinkers like John Locke whom he used a lot. Creating a New Nation

42 John Locke In 1689, John Locke justified the English Glorious Revolution in his writing Two Treatise of Government. He acknowledged the democratic political theory that People are born with certain natural rights – life, liberty, and property. People. by means of a social contract among themselves or with their rulers, created and granted authority to government for the purpose of protecting their rights. This is called the Social Contract Theory. If the gov’t fails to do its duty, the people have right to replace their gov’t by revolution if necessary. Creating a New Nation

43 Basic Ideals of the Declaration of Independence.
Format of the Declaration of Independence Introduction Explained why it was necessary for colonists to end their union with Great Britain. Democratic Philosophy of Government Explained reasoning behind the Declaration of Independence. List of Grievances (Wrongs) Explained the wrongs committed by King George III to the colonists. Conclusion Creating a New Nation

44 Why is it (Declaration of Independence) significant (import.)
Spoke of new ideals – equality not based on the divine right theory or hereditary (being born into your position.) It made the struggle on for independence and encourage Spain and France to help the colonists. Throughout the world the Declaration of Independence inspired others like the French during the French Revolution. Encouraged rebellions in Latin America in the early 1800s and Asia and Africa in the 1900s. Creating a New Nation

45 Long-Term Effects within the United States
Influenced the Constitution. Due process of law (trial by jury of peers, etc) Making of amendments Inspired democratic reforms over time like abolition of slavery and equality for women. Creating a New Nation

46 b. Explain the reason for and significance of the French alliance and foreign assistance and the roles of Benjamin Franklin and the Marquis de Lafayette. Creating a New Nation

47 Highlights of the War – Colonials under George Washington were defeated by British General Howe. However, Gen. Washington increased troop morale with his defeat of the British at Trenton and Princeton. Creating a New Nation

48 1777-78 – Suffering at Valley Forge
Victory at Saratoga caused the French to ally with the American colonists. It was the turning point battle. Up until this battle the French had been providing the colonists with loans and weapons, secretly. The battle convinced the French government to ally militarily with the colonists. At Benjamin Franklin’s insistence, the French recognized American independence and in 1778 signed a treaty of alliance. – Suffering at Valley Forge Creating a New Nation

49 1781 – French navy bottled up British Gen
1781 – French navy bottled up British Gen. Cornwallis at the Battle of Yorktown. The British surrendered to the tune of “The World Turned Upside Down.’ Creating a New Nation

50 USA in 1783 Creating a New Nation

51 GPS SSUSH5 SSUSH5 The student will explain specific events and key ideas that brought about the adoption and implementation of the United States Constitution. Explain the importance of the Presidencies of George Washington and John Adams; include the Whiskey Rebellion, non-intervention in Europe, and the development of political parties (Alexander Hamilton). Creating a New Nation

52 George Washington – first President
Created the first cabinet John Adams –Vice President Alexander Hamilton – Secretary of Treasury Thomas Jefferson – Sectary of State Creating a New Nation

53 Hamilton’s Program As Treasury Secretary, Alexander Hamilton was responsible for developing an economic program that would help repay the huge debts created by the Revolution. In 1790, Congress approved Hamilton’s plan to allow the federal government to take responsibility for debts acquired by individual states. (Debt assumption plan) Creating a New Nation

54 Southern states resisted this plan at first, since they did not want to help pay back the loans owed by northern states. However, Hamilton won southern support by promising to locate the nation’s new capital in the South. (Washington, DC) By assuming states’ debt, the federal government indirectly increased its strength. Since creditors now had an interest in the United States, not just individual states, they would help ensure that the new nation did not collapse. Creating a New Nation

55 Hamilton’s Strategy and Opponents
To raise money to pay off debts, Congress created a tax on whiskey and a tariff, or a tax on imported goods. Rather than pay off all debt at once, the United States paid interest, an extra sum of money that borrowers pay creditors in return for loans. Hamilton believed in a loose construction of the Constitution. That is, he believed that the government could take any action that the Constitution did not forbid. Creating a New Nation

56 Hamilton’s Opponents Many Americans disliked Hamilton’s plan for the national government to take over state loans, viewing it as interference in state affairs. Many also disliked Hamilton’s new taxes. Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson was particularly opposed to Hamilton’s plans. Jefferson favored a strict construction of the Constitution, believing that the government should not take any actions other than those specifically called for in the Constitution. Creating a New Nation

57 Foreign Policy Issues The French Revolution
The French Revolution sharply divided Americans. Federalists saw the French Revolution as a democratic revolution gone wrong. Supporters of Jefferson, however, viewed it as an extension of the American Revolution. The political split grew more intense in 1793, when the French ambassador to the United States, “Citizen” Edmond Genêt, tried to convince private Americans to fight with the French against the British. Creating a New Nation

58 American Neutrality and Jay’s Treaty
The United States did not want to offend either nation in the war between Britain and France. President Washington issued a proclamation of neutrality in 1793, stating that the United States would remain neutral, or not take either side. This would not be easy. In 1794, Washington sent Chief Justice John Jay to Britain to negotiate an agreement with the British. The agreement, which became known as Jay’s Treaty, was highly controversial in the United States because it contained no protection for American shipping. Creating a New Nation

59 The Whiskey Rebellion In western Pennsylvania and other frontier areas, many people refused to pay the new tax on whiskey. In addition to being a popular beverage, whiskey was one of the only products made out of corn that farmers could transport to market without having it spoil. Creating a New Nation

60 The resulting Whiskey Rebellion followed in the tradition of Shays’ Rebellion and protests against the Stamp Act. Rebels closed courts and attacked tax collectors. President Washington and Secretary Hamilton saw the Whiskey Rebellion as an opportunity to demonstrate the power of the United States government. An army sent to the Pittsburgh area soon dissolved the rebellion, demonstrating the United States’ commitment to enforcing its laws Creating a New Nation

61 Political Parties Emerge
The Jeffersonian Republicans Two political parties began to emerge in the new nation. A political party is a group of people who seek to win elections and hold public office in order to shape government policy and programs. The Federalists formed one of these parties. The other, composed of critics of the Federalists, were called Republicans or Democratic-Republicans because they stood for a more democratic republic. To avoid confusion, historians call them the Jeffersonian Republicans. Creating a New Nation

62 The Election of 1796 The Election of 1796
President Washington chose not to run for a third term in With the nation politically divided, the election of 1796 was close. The Federalists won a narrow victory, making John Adams the second President. Jefferson, who finished second in the electoral vote race, became the new Vice President. In his Farewell Address of 1796, Washington drew on his years of experience and offered advice for the young nation in the years ahead. He warned against competing political parties and advocated a foreign policy of neutrality. Creating a New Nation

63 John Adams as President
The XYZ Affair At the beginning of the Adams administration, the United States was drifting toward war with France. The United States sent officials to France to negotiate. These officials were met by three secret agents: X, Y, and Z, who demanded a bribe and a loan to France. The U.S. officials refused to pay the bribe and were met with public acclaim for their patriotism upon their return home. This XYZ affair infuriated Americans, resulting in what amounted to an undeclared naval war with France. Creating a New Nation

64 The Alien and Sedition Acts
The Federalists took advantage of the war crisis to push important new measures through Congress. These included the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798. Under the Alien Act, the President could imprison or deport citizens of other countries living in the United States. Under the Sedition Act, persons who wrote, published, or said anything “false, scandalous, and malicious” against the American government could be fined or jailed. Creating a New Nation

65 Increasing Tensions Jefferson, James Madison, and other Republicans believed that the Sedition Act violated the constitutional protection of freedom of speech. These men responded to the Alien and Sedition Acts with the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions. The resolutions allowed these two states to nullify federal laws which they felt were unconstitutional. Creating a New Nation

66 Tensions between Federalists and Jeffersonian Republicans continued to grow during the late 1790s.
Enslaved African Americans, although barred from participation in the political system, embraced the discussions of liberty going on around them. A blacksmith named Gabriel Prosser and several other slaves in the area around Richmond, Virginia attempted a slave revolt. Prosser’s small-scale rebellion failed before it could get underway. Creating a New Nation

67 Adams Loses Federalist Support
Adams angered many Federalists when he sought a peaceful solution to the undeclared naval war with France. Federalists such as Alexander Hamilton were in favor of a harsher policy toward France, including a declaration of war. Creating a New Nation

68 Adams entered the election of 1800 with several disadvantages
Adams entered the election of 1800 with several disadvantages. First, when the United States made peace with France, the Jeffersonian Republicans’ support for France became less of a rallying point for the Federalists. Also, the unpopular Alien and Sedition Acts became even less justified without the threat of imminent war. Creating a New Nation

69 Adams’s bid for re-election was further damaged when Aaron Burr, the Jeffersonian Republican nominee for Vice President, obtained and printed a damaging pamphlet against Adams written by Hamilton. Creating a New Nation

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