# What are the 4 branches of Science?

## Presentation on theme: "What are the 4 branches of Science?"— Presentation transcript:

What are the 4 branches of Science?
1. Biology Study of life 2. Chemistry Study of composition of matter Physics Study of forces and motion Earth Science Study of the Earth and its surroundings

Four Branches of Earth Science
Geology Study of the solid earth Oceanography Study of the oceans Meteorology Study of the atmosphere and weather Astronomy Study of the universe

4 Earth’s Spheres

1. Hydrosphere = all earth’s water…everywhere.

2. Atmosphere = all the air surrounding earth

3. Geosphere = all of the solid earth

4. Biosphere = all living things on earth

Determining Location Latitude – distance N or S of equator measured in degrees Lines run east and west Measures distances N & S 0º = equator 90º = poles

Determining Location Longitude – distance E or W of the Prime Meridian measured in degrees Lines run N and S Measures distances E & W 0º = Prime Meridian…Greenwich, Eng. 180º = International Date Line

Maps Projecting from a round earth/globe onto a flat map will always produce some type of distortion… Land & distances at the poles are greatly enlarged Land & distances at the equator are normal

Topographic Maps (Contour Maps)
Represents the 3-D earth in 2-D. Shows elevations by contour lines (lines of equal elevation) Contour interval – elevation difference between adjacent lines Scale – a distance on the map = a distance on the surface (ratio, bar, verbal) Legend/key – explains symbols on the map

Latitude and Longitude
Written as follows: 118°00’00” meaning 118 degrees, 0 minutes, and 0 seconds. 31°30’15” = 31 degrees, 30 minutes, and 15 seconds. Remember that minutes and seconds only go to 60…not 100! Always connect the top/bottom and left/right lines of lat or long

Rules of Contour Lines Never cross “Vs” point upstream
Closely spaced lines = steep land Farther spaced lines = flatter land Form closed loops

Atoms Atom – the first man
Atom – smallest particle of matter that contains the characteristics of the element Are neutral Equal #s protons and electrons

Atom Parts Protons – positively charged Neutrons – no charge (neutral)
1 amu = mass Found in nucleus Neutrons – no charge (neutral) Electrons – negatively charged Very little mass Outside of nucleus in energy levels

Atomic number – # of protons in the nucleus
Sequentially numbered Mass number - # of protons and neutrons in the nucleus Isotope – atom with same # of protons but a different # of neutrons Used for dating rocks/fossils/etc EX: 12C and 14C Ion – atoms that gained or lost electrons giving them a charge (+ or -)

Mixtures, Solutions, Compounds
Mixture – combination of substances… Components don’t lose identities Easy to separate components Not in a set ratio Solutions – special type of mixture Compounds – 2 or more elements chemically combined Components do lose their identity Components can’t be separated out easily Components in a specific, set ratio

Atomic Bonds Atoms without a full outer energy level are likely to bond chemically…3 types: Ionic – formed when electrons are transferred between atoms - between metals and non-metals Covalent – when electrons are shared between the atoms of non-metals Metallic – when electrons are shared by all the metal ions on the surface of the “stuff”