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What are the 4 branches of Science? 1. Biology Study of life 2. Chemistry Study of composition of matter 3. Physics Study of forces and motion 4. Earth.

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Presentation on theme: "What are the 4 branches of Science? 1. Biology Study of life 2. Chemistry Study of composition of matter 3. Physics Study of forces and motion 4. Earth."— Presentation transcript:

1 What are the 4 branches of Science? 1. Biology Study of life 2. Chemistry Study of composition of matter 3. Physics Study of forces and motion 4. Earth Science Study of the Earth and its surroundings

2 Four Branches of Earth Science Geology Study of the solid earth Oceanography Study of the oceans Meteorology Study of the atmosphere and weather Astronomy Study of the universe

3 4 Earths Spheres

4 1. Hydrosphere = all earths water…everywhere.

5 2. Atmosphere = all the air surrounding earth

6 3. Geosphere = all of the solid earth

7 4. Biosphere = all living things on earth

8 Determining Location Latitude – distance N or S of equator measured in degrees Lines run east and west Measures distances N & S 0º = equator 90º = poles

9 Determining Location Longitude – distance E or W of the Prime Meridian measured in degrees Lines run N and S Measures distances E & W 0º = Prime Meridian…Greenwich, Eng. 180º = International Date Line

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11 Maps Projecting from a round earth/globe onto a flat map will always produce some type of distortion… Land & distances at the poles are greatly enlarged Land & distances at the equator are normal

12 Topographic Maps (Contour Maps) Represents the 3-D earth in 2-D. Shows elevations by contour lines (lines of equal elevation) Contour interval – elevation difference between adjacent lines Scale – a distance on the map = a distance on the surface (ratio, bar, verbal) Legend/key – explains symbols on the map

13 Latitude and Longitude Written as follows: 118°0000 meaning 118 degrees, 0 minutes, and 0 seconds. 31°3015 = 31 degrees, 30 minutes, and 15 seconds. Remember that minutes and seconds only go to 60…not 100! Always connect the top/bottom and left/right lines of lat or long

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15 Rules of Contour Lines Never cross Vs point upstream Closely spaced lines = steep land Farther spaced lines = flatter land Form closed loops

16 Atoms Atom – the first man Atom – smallest particle of matter that contains the characteristics of the element Are neutral Equal #s protons and electrons

17 Atom Parts Protons – positively charged 1 amu = mass Found in nucleus Neutrons – no charge (neutral) 1 amu = mass Found in nucleus Electrons – negatively charged Very little mass Outside of nucleus in energy levels

18 Atomic number – # of protons in the nucleus Sequentially numbered Mass number - # of protons and neutrons in the nucleus Isotope – atom with same # of protons but a different # of neutrons Used for dating rocks/fossils/etc EX: 12 C and 14 C Ion – atoms that gained or lost electrons giving them a charge (+ or -)

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20 Mixtures, Solutions, Compounds Mixture – combination of substances… Components dont lose identities Easy to separate components Not in a set ratio Solutions – special type of mixture Compounds – 2 or more elements chemically combined Components do lose their identity Components cant be separated out easily Components in a specific, set ratio

21 Atomic Bonds Atoms without a full outer energy level are likely to bond chemically…3 types: 1. Ionic – formed when electrons are transferred between atoms - between metals and non-metals 2. Covalent – when electrons are shared between the atoms of non-metals 3. Metallic – when electrons are shared by all the metal ions on the surface of the stuff


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