Presentation on theme: "Ch. 10, Sec. 2 & 3 The Path to Victory, 1780 - 1781."— Presentation transcript:
Ch. 10, Sec. 2 & 3 The Path to Victory,
Seeking Loyalist support, the British armies invaded the Southern Colonies- but ultimately lost the war there. What were the major reasons why?
-The War in the South- Savannah and Charles Town In 1778, the British decided to change their strategy and shift the focus of the war to the Southern colonies. The fighting in the North had resulted in a stalemate. It was believed that a large majority of the Southern population were Loyalists or Tories, those people born in the colonies but loyal to Great Britain. The British expected large numbers of slaves and Tories to assist them in their conquest. In December, 1778, the British army captured the key port city of Savannah, Georgia. Using this city as a base of operations, they conquered most of Georgia.
The Fall of Charles Town! In 1780, the British army under General Henry Clinton laid siege to and captured Charles Town, South Carolina. This was a huge blow and the worst defeat for the Americans during the entire war! Over 5,000 Continental soldiers, nearly all of the regular army in the South was captured. The fate of the country now hung in the balance as it seemed the British were now unstoppable.
Guerrilla Fighting Southern Style After the defeat at Charles Town, the British army again under Lord Charles Cornwallis, defeated another American army at the Battle of Camden, South Carolina, in August, The only chance for the American cause lay in the hands of Guerrillas, or small bands of fighters that attacked the enemy with surprise raids and hit and run tactics. The fighting was fierce.
The War in the South
Guerrilla/Partisan Tactics Many of the American soldiers in the South had prior military experience through either serving previously in the French and Indian War or by fighting hostile Indians along the frontier. These men were not to be messed with! When these partisans or guerrilla fighters attacked, they did not fight the way the British expected them to. When the battle was over, the men melted back into the countryside, not to be seen again until the next engagement or skirmish.
Key Figures in the Southern Campaign
General Nathaniel Greene Commander, Continental Army, Southern Department Second in command to General Washing in the Continental Army. Greene was a former Quaker with no prior military experience. He did exercise the all- important trait of common sense and he was a natural born leader. Greene took charge in the Southern colonies after the American defeat at Camden.
Lord Charles Cornwallis General Cornwallis had won nearly every battle that he had fought in. He was the British Armys best and brightest general in the Americas. He and his hard-core British regulars were certain of total victory in the South.
General Daniel Morgan Morgan was a born leader and a true outdoorsman. His men had largely defeated the British Army at the Battle of Saratoga in Morgan was also a veteran of the French and Indian War. He knew the advantages of fighting guerrilla style against the British and he used this technique on several occasions.
Major Patrick Ferguson Patrick Ferguson was a well- known soldier and perhaps the best shot with a rifle in the British Army. He had almost shot and killed General Washington at the Battle of Brandywine in He was given a free-command of British soldiers in the South and his British infantry and dragoons spread terror and chaos throughout North and South Carolina.
The Turning Point Despite the British victories at Savannah, Charles Town, and Camden, three battles, Kings Mountain, Cowpens, and Guilford Courthouse, changed the course of the war in favor for the Americans.
Kings Mountain, October 7 th, 1780 Over the Mountain Man from western North Carolina.
The Battle For months prior to the battle, the Tory soldiers under Major Patrick Ferguson had sparred with the backwoodsman and Over the Mountain Men from eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina. When Major Ferguson issued a proclamation stating that if these rebels would not stop and pledge their allegiance to the British crown, then he would kill them and lay waste to their towns and cities. Taking the threat seriously, these American frontiersmen caught up with Ferguson and his British army at Kings Mountain where they surrounded it and shot it to pieces. Ferguson, along with a large portion of his force were killed. This was a shocking setback to British strategy in the South.
The Cowpens, January 17 th, 1781 Two months later, after the rebel victory at Kings Mountain, another smashing victory for the Americans takes place at Cowpens, South Carolina. General Daniel Morgans Continentals and militia completely defeat a professional British force of Infantry, Calvary, and Artillery under Banastre Tarleton. These two back to back victories would change the course of the war for the American cause. As a result, the British were now forced to change their strategy in the South and withdraw.
The Cowpens, January 17 th, 1781
Guilford Court House, March 15 th, 1781
The Battle Guilford Courthouse was the last major battle between General Greene and General Cornwallis in the South. The fighting was severe, with both sides suffering heavy losses. Although the British were hurt more than the Americans, they held the field of battle after the shooting was over and claimed it as a victory. The losses that the British suffered, however, were irreplaceable. Cornwallis was forced to leave North Carolina altogether and march northwards to Virginia.
As a result of these three crucial engagements in the South, the British strategy, which had begun with major victories at Savannah and Charles Town, now turned into defeat.
Yorktown, Virginia, September – October, 1781 After establishing a base of operations at Yorktown, Cornwallis and his entire command were trapped and surrounded by the French and Americans under General Washington. A short siege ensued.
Despite overwhelming odds and insurmountable obstacles, the American colonies defeated the mighty British Empire.
Effects of the War and the Treaty of Paris On September 3, 1783, the Treaty of Paris was agreed upon by Great Britain and the United States. Great Britain agreed to recognize the United States and the borders of the new country were formalized. The US agreed that Loyalists would not be punished for their roles and that all property and prisoners would be exchanged and paroled. Lastly, they stated that any and all debts that each side owed the other would be paid off.
How did the Americans Win? 1. We had the home field advantage. Then English were fighting in a foreign country in an unpopular war over 3,000 miles away from their home bases. 2.The Americans used other forms of tactics and leadership styles that were contrary to what the British were used to. 3.Help from the French and Spanish. 4.The Americans had the will to win. $27 million dollar debt. 25,000 casualties. How to create a new government?
1.The Hessians were a) colonists who refused to support the Americans b) women who served with the army c) enslaved Africans who fought for the Americans d) German mercenaries who fought with the British 2.What two battles were considered to be turning points in the South? 3.Nathaniel Greene- 4.Who was North Carolinas first non-royal governor? 5.Why was the campaign in the South a major part of the war? 6.Guerrilla – 7.List three effects of the Revolution. 8.What was the name given to American-born colonists that remained loyal to Great Britain?