Presentation on theme: "THE AMERICAN FREE ENTERPRISE SYSTEM IN THIS SECTION YOU MUST BE… –Able to describe the tradition of the Free enterprise system in the U.S. and the constitutional."— Presentation transcript:
THE AMERICAN FREE ENTERPRISE SYSTEM IN THIS SECTION YOU MUST BE… –Able to describe the tradition of the Free enterprise system in the U.S. and the constitutional protections that underlie it. –Able to explain the basic principles of the U.S. free enterprise system. –Able to identify the role of the consumer in the U.S. free enterprise system. –Describe the role of government in the U.S. free enterprise system.
UNDERSTANDING THE FREE ENTERPRISE SYSTEM The free enterprise system is an economic system characterized by… (KNOW!!!) – Private or corporate ownership of capital goods. –Investments that are determined by private decision rather than by government and determined in a free market.
Historically America has been considered the land of opportunity. Why? –The free enterprise system socially and politically gives people the commitment and flexibility try out their business ideas and to compete in the marketplace. –Politically the government works together with society to promote the concept of free enterprise. For example…
–Politically the government works together with society to promote the concept of free enterprise. For example the government… (KNOW) Protects property rights –– Under the free enterprise system individuals are encouraged to become innovative and expand their ideas and businesses without fear that the government will take over their business or their property. Contains rules for taxation – entrepreneurs dont have to fear being overly taxed by the government thereby suffering undo loss of profits. The Constitution guarantees businesses the right to make binding contracts thereby ensuring that they get paid for their products or services.
Socially, the Basic Principles of free enterprise encourages society to engage in entrepreneurship, competition, and the free market. The free enterprise economy has seven key characteristics… –Open opportunity – the concept that everyone can compete in the market place. Everyone has the opportunity to make it big or to lose everything. A business idea or endeavor does not necessarily guarantee success, only opportunity.
The free enterprise economy has seven key characteristics…(KNOW) –Profit motive – the American economy rests on a recognition of the importance of profit motive, the force encourages people and organizations to improve their material well- being.. Business owners make their own choices to operate in ways they believe will maximize profits. –Government works with society to ensure that businesses do not take advantage of consumers in order to maximize profits.
–Legal equality – everyone has the same legal rights to compete in the economic market place. –Private property rights – the concept that people have the right and privilege to control their possessions as they wish. –Free contracts - allow people to decide what agreements they want to enter into. –Voluntary exchange – allows people to decide what and when they want to buy and sell rather than forcing them to buy or sell at particular times and at specific prices.
–Competition – rivalry among sellers to attract consumers while lowering costs. Competition provides consumers with a choice of a larger variety of goods, most of which are sold at reasonable prices. What is the primary reason that there are many different makes and models of automobile? Why are the different makes similar to others?
Consumers Role in free enterprise – –Consumers make their own economic choices in a free enterprise system. –Consumers make their desires known through their economic dealings with producers. –By purchasing products, consumers signal to producers what to make and how much to make. –Consumers can also make their wishes known by joining an interest group, a private organization that tries to persuade public officials to act or vote according to the interest of the groups members.
Consumers Role in free enterprise – –Consumers can also make their wishes known by joining an interest group, a private organization that tries to persuade public officials to act or vote according to the interest of the groups members. How would a group such as The Committee for Family Values and Decency try to influence public officials when an entrepreneur tries to open an Adult Store in their neighborhood? How would a consumer advocate group try to influence public officials in regards to a product such as lead based paint?
Governments Role in free enterprise – –The government ensures that producers provide consumers with information about their product. Public disclosure laws – require companies to give consumers important information about their products. –Government agencies regulate industries whose goods and services affect the health, safety, well-being of the public. An example would be... Food and Drug Administration Federal Trade Commission
Governments Role in free enterprise – –The governments role can have a negative effect on free enterprise. Regulations can reduce profits and raise prices. In terms of protecting the health, well-being, and safety of consumers what are the trade- offs and opportunity costs of government regulations? –Would you rather pay more for an airplane ticket or take a chance on crashing? –Would you rather pay more for a car or have an airbag on each side of the car just in case?
Governments Role in free enterprise – –The government sets manufacturing standards that… Requires drugs to be safe & effective Supervises sanitary conditions where food is produced or served. Labels on equipment about the safe operation of the equipment or expiration dates of perishables.
PROMOTING GROWTH & STABILITY In this section you will… –Explain how the government tracks and seeks to influence business cycles. A business cycle is a period of economic expansion followed by a period of contraction. –Analyze how the government promotes economic strength. –Analyze the effect of technology on productivity
Expansion period Peak period Contraction period BUSINES CYCLE
Macroeconomics – the study of the behavior and decision making of entire economies. –This branch of economics examines major trends for the economy as a whole Microeconomics – the study of the economic behavior and decision making of small units such as individuals, families, households, & businesses
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) – the total value of all goods and services produced in an economy –Economists use the GDP and other key statistics to predict business cycles. Promoting economic strength – since the economy is subject to business cycles the government uses public policies to stabilize the economy. –Government polices have three goals
Promoting economic strength – –Government polices have three goals (KNOW) Employment – government seeks to create an economy that can provide a job for everyone who is able to and wants to work. Growth – The economy must grow to provide additional goods & services to an increasing population. Stability – stability gives consumers, producers, and investors confidence in the economy and in our financial institutions.
Promoting economic strength – –Government polices have three goals (KNOW) Stability – stability gives consumers, producers, and investors confidence in the economy and in our financial institutions. –Stability prevents sudden and drastic shifts in prices. –Stability promotes confidence in our financial institutions.
Technology & Productivity – America increases its productivity primarily through two means, technology and work ethic. –Work ethic – a commitment to the value of work and purposeful activity. The more purposeful workers are the more productive the economy becomes. What can happen to the work ethic in a society where there is a Free Rider problem? –Technology – The process used to produce goods or services. Improvements in technology allow an economy to produce
Technology & Productivity – America increases its productivity primarily through two means, technology and work ethic. –Technology – The process used to produce goods or services. Improvements in technology allow an economy to produce more output from the same quantity of inputs, or resources. –Example- The potato to tater tots to hash browns to potato whiskey
PROVIDING PUBLIC GOODS A Public Good – is a shared good or service for which it would be impractical to make consumers pay individually and exclude non-payers. –Example - A road or highway would fit this description. –What would happen to our society if all schools were privately owned?
Cost & Benefits of providing public goods. –The benefits to each individual is less than the cost that each would have to pay if it were provided privately. –The total benefits to society are greater than the total cost. –Public goods are financed by the public sector, the part of the economy that involves the transactions of the government. –The private sector, the part of the economy that involves the transactions of individuals have little incentive to produce public goods.
Free Rider Problem.- A free rider is someone who choose not to pay for a certain good or service, but would get to benefit from it as if it were provided as a public good. –Example – taxpayer pay for fire protection yet non- tax payers benefit. –Free riders consume what they do not pay for. Market Failures – a situation in which the market on its own does not distribute resources efficiently. Free riders are an example of a market failure.
Market Failures – a situation in which the market on its own does not distribute resources efficiently. –In a free market individuals determine what goods and services get made, how they get made, and who consumes them. –If a company built roads in a particular area there would be no competition. –Most companies would only build roads in densely populated areas. That is why economists consider this scenario a market failure.
Externalities – an economic side effect of a good or service that generates cost or benefit to someone other than the persons deciding how much to produce or consume. –A positive externality generates benefits. Refurbishing an old house in the neighborhood and selling it at a high price. –Benefit – the price of other homes go up to adjust with the sale of the old house. –A negative externality generates costs to someone other than the producer – A drought kills acres of tobacco. –Costs - The price of cigarettes go up