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Greek Mythology BY Enmanuel medrano

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1 Greek Mythology BY Enmanuel medrano

2 Introduction page This power-point may contain some nudity so please clarify first with the teacher if you have any problems with any indecent exposure if not good because ancient Greeks did most of their art about the naked body because it was not a big deal to them. For those who don’t know these stories were told so that people could justify there actions saying “If the gods can do it so can I” . Mythology is not a religion but just a way people passed there time thank-you and enjoy the slide.

3 Ancient Gods - The Family Tree
                                                                                                                                                               

4 Titans or early gods The Titans, also known as the elder gods, ruled the earth before the Olympians overthrew them. The ruler of the Titans was Cronus who was dethroned by his son Zeus. Most of the Titans fought with Cronus against Zeus and were punished by being banished to Tartarus. During their rule the Titans were associated with the various planets.

5 Gaea (Ge): Gaea (gae- ya) is the Earth goddess
Gaea (Ge): Gaea (gae- ya) is the Earth goddess. She mated with her son Uranus to produce the remaining Titans. She is also known for helping Cronus for dethroning Uranus after he kept putting the children she gave birth to back to the womb.

6 Uranus (Ouranos): Uranus is the sky god and first ruler
Uranus (Ouranos): Uranus is the sky god and first ruler. He is the son of Gaea, who created him without help. He then became the husband of Gaea and together they had many offspring, including twelve of the Titans. His rule ended when when Cronus, encouraged by Gaea, castrated him. He either died from the wound or withdrew from earth.

7 Cronus (Kronus,Saturn): Cronus was the ruling Titan who came to power by castrating his Father Uranus. His wife was Rhea. There offspring were the first of the Olympians. To insure his safety Cronus ate each of the children as they were born. This worked until Rhea, unhappy at the loss of her children, tricked Cronus into swallowing a rock, instead of Zeus. When he grew up Zeus would revolt against Cronus and the other Titans, defeat them, and banished them to Tartarus in the underworld. Cronus managed to escape to Italy, where he ruled as Saturn. The period of his rule was said to be a golden age on earth, honored by the Saturnalia feast

8 Rhea: Rhea was the wife of Cronus
Rhea: Rhea was the wife of Cronus. Cronus made it a practice to swallow their children. To avoid this, Rhea tricked Cronus into swallowing a rock, saving her son Zeus

9 Oceanus: Oceanus is the unending stream of water encircling the world
Oceanus: Oceanus is the unending stream of water encircling the world. Together with his wife Tethys produced the rivers and the three thousand ocean nymphs.

10 Hyperion: Hyperion is the Titan of light, an early sun god
Hyperion: Hyperion is the Titan of light, an early sun god. He is the son of Gaea and Uranus. He married his sister Theia. Their children Helios (the sun), Selene (the moon), and Eos (the dawn).

11 Mnemosyne: Mnemosyne was the Titan of memory and the mother of Muses.

12 Themis: Themis was the Titan of justice and order
Themis: Themis was the Titan of justice and order. She was the mother of the Fates and the Seasons

13 Iapetus Iapetus was the father of Prometheus, Epimetheus, Menoetius, and Atlas by Clymene

14 Coeus Coeus is the Titan of Intelligence. Father of Leto.

15 Phoebe Phoebe is the Titan of the Moon. Mother of Leto.

16 Prometheus Prometheus was the wisest Titan. His name means "forethought" and he was able to foretell the future. He was the son of Iapetus. When Zeus revolted against Cronus Prometheus deserted the other Titans and fought on Zeus side. By some accounts he and his brother Epimetheus were delegated by Zeus to create man. In all accounts, Prometheus is known as the protector and benefactor of man. He gave mankind a number of gifts including fire. He also tricked Zeus into allowing man to keep the best part of the animals sacrificed to the gods and to give the gods the worst parts. For this Zeus punished Prometheus by having him chained to a rock with an eagle tearing at his liver. He was to be left there for all eternity or until he agreed to disclose to Zeus which of Zeus children would try to replace him. He was eventually rescued by Heracles without giving in to Zeus.

17 Epimetheus Epimetheus was a stupid Titan, whose name means "afterthought". He was the son of Iapetus. In some accounts he is delegated, along with his brother Prometheus by Zeus to create mankind. He also accepted the gift of Pandora from Zeus, which lead to the introduction of evil into the world.

18 Atlas Atlas was the son of Iapetus. Unlike his brothers Prometheus and Epimetheus, Atlas fought with the other Titans supporting Cronus against Zeus. Due to Cronus's advance age Atlas lead the Titan's in battle. As a result he was singled out by Zeus for a special punishment and made to hold up the world on his back

19 Metis Metis was the Titaness of the forth day and the planet Mercury. She presided over all wisdom and knowledge. She was seduced by Zeus and became pregnant with Athena. Zeus became concerned over prophecies that her second child would replace Zeus. To avoid this Zeus ate her. It is said that she is the source for Zeus wisdom and that she still advises Zeus from his belly. It may seem odd for Metis to have been pregnant with Athena but, never mentioned as her mother. This is because the classic Greeks believed that children were generated solely from the fathers sperm. The women was thought to be nothing more than a vessel for the fetus to grow in. Since Metis was killed well before Athena's birth her role doesn't count.

20 Dione Dione is, according to Homer in the Iliad, the mother of Aphrodite.

21 Zeus (Jupiter, Jove) Zeus overthrew his Father Cronus. He then drew lots with his brothers Poseidon and Hades. Zeus won the draw and became the supreme ruler of the gods. He is lord of the sky, the rain god. His weapon is a thunderbolt which he hurls at those who displease him. He is married to Hera but, is famous for his many affairs. He is also known to punish those that lie or break oaths.

22 Poseidon (Neptune) Poseidon is the brother of Zeus. After the overthrow of their Father Cronus he drew lots with Zeus and Hades, another brother, for shares of the world. His prize was to become lord of the sea. He was widely worshiped by seamen. He married Amphitrite, a granddaughter of the Titan Oceanus. At one point he desired Demeter. To put him off Demeter asked him to make the most beautiful animal that the world had ever seen. So to impress her Poseidon created the first horse. In some accounts his first attempts were unsuccessful and created a variety of other animals in his quest. By the time the horse was created his passion for Demeter had cooled. His weapon is a trident, which can shake the earth, and shatter any object. He is second only to Zeus in power amongst the gods. He has a difficult quarrelsome personality. He was greedy. He had a series of disputes with other gods when he tried to take over their cities.

23 Hades (Pluto) Hades is the brother of Zeus. After the overthrow of their Father Cronus he drew lots with Zeus and Poseidon, another brother, for shares of the world. He had the worst draw and was made lord of the underworld, ruling over the dead. He is a greedy god who is greatly concerned with increasing his subjects. Those whose calling increase the number of dead are seen favorably. The Erinyes are welcomed guests. He is exceedingly disinclined to allow any of his subjects leave. He is also the god of wealth, due to the precious metals mined from the earth. He has a helmet that makes him invisible. He rarely leaves the underworld. He is unpitying and terrible, but not capricious. His wife is Persephone whom Hades abducted. He is the King of the dead but, death itself is another god, Thanatos.

24 Hestia (Vesta) Hestia is Zeus sister. She is a virgin goddess. She does not have a distinct personality. She plays no part in myths. She is the Goddess of the Hearth, the symbol of the house around which a new born child is carried before it is received into the family. Each city had a public hearth sacred to Hestia, where the fire was never allowed to go out

25 Hera (Juno) Hera is Zeus wife and sister. She was raised by the Titans Ocean and Tethys. She is the protector of marriage and takes special care of married women. Hera's marriage was founded in strife with Zeus and continued in strife. Zeus courted her unsuccessfully. He then turned to trickery, changing himself into disheveled cuckoo. Hera feeling sorry for the bird held it to her breast to warm it. Zues then resumed his normal form and taking advantage of the surprise he gained, raped her. She then married him to cover her shame. Once when Zeus was being particularly overbearing to the other gods, Hera convinced them to join in a revolt. Her part in the revolt was to drug Zeus, and in this she was successful. The gods then bound the sleeping Zeus to a couch taking care to tie many knots. This done they began to quarrel over the next step. Briareus overheard the arguments. Still full of gratitude to Zeus, Briareus slipped in and was able to quickly untie the many knots. Zeus sprang from the couch and grabbed up his thunderbolt. The gods fell to their knees begging and pleading for mercy. He seized Hera and hung her from the sky with gold chains. She wept in pain all night but, none of the others dared to interfere. Her weeping kept Zeus up and the next morning he agreed to release her if she would swear never to rebel again. She had little choice but, to agree. While she never again rebelled, she often intrigued against Zeus's plans and she was often able to outwit him. Most stories concerning Hera have to do with her jealous revenge for Zeus's infidelities. Her sacred animals are the cow and the peacock. Her favorite city is Argos.

26 Ares (Mars) Ares is the son of Zeus and Hera. He was disliked by both parents. He is the god of war. He is considered murderous and bloodstained but, also a coward. When caught in an act of adultery with Aphrodite her husband Hephaestus is able to publicly ridicule him. His bird is the vulture. His animal is the dog.

27 Pallas Athena (Minerva)
Athena is the daughter of Zeus. She sprang full grown in armor from his forehead, thus has no mother. She is fierce and brave in battle but, only fights to protect the state and home from outside enemies. She is the goddess of the city, handicrafts, and agriculture. She invented the bridle, which permitted man to tame horses, the trumpet, the flute, the pot, the rake, the plow, the yoke, the ship, and the chariot. She is the embodiment of wisdom, reason, and purity. She was Zeus's favorite child and was allowed to use his weapons including his thunderbolt. Her favorite city is Athens. Her tree is the olive. The owl is her bird. She is a virgin goddess

28 Phoebus Apollo (Apollo)
Apollo is the son of Zeus and Leto. His twin sister is Artemis . He is the god of music, playing a golden lyre. The Archer, far shooting with a silver bow. The god of healing who taught man medicine. The god of light. The god of truth, who can not speak a lie. One of Apollo's more important daily tasks is to harness his chariot with four horses an drive the Sun across the sky. He is famous for his oracle at Delphi. People traveled to it from all over the Greek world to divine the future. His tree was the laurel. The crow his bird. The dolphin his animal.

29 Aphrodite (Venus) Aphrodite is the goddess of love, desire and beauty. In addition to her natural gifts she has a magical girdle that compels anyone she wishes to desire her. There are two accounts of her birth. One says she is the daughter of Zeus and Dione. The other goes back to when Cronus castrated Uranus and tossed his severed genitals into the sea. Aphrodite then arose from the sea foam on a giant scallop and walked to shore in Cyprus. She is the wife of Hephaestus. The myrtle is her tree. The dove, the swan, and the sparrow her birds

30 Hermes (Mercury) Hermes is the son of Zeus and Maia. He is Zeus messenger. He is the fastest of the gods. He wears winged sandals, a winged hat, and carries a magic wand. He is the god of thieves and god of commerce. He is the guide for the dead to go to the underworld. He invented the lyre, the pipes, the musical scale, astronomy , weights and measures, boxing, gymnastics, and the care of olive trees.

31 Artemis (Diana) Artemis is the daughter of Zeus and Leto. Her twin brother is Apollo . She is the lady of the wild things. She is the huntsman of the gods. She is the protector of the young. Like Apollo she hunts with silver arrows. She became associated with the moon. She is a virgin goddess, and the goddess of chastity. She also presides over childbirth, which may seem odd for a virgin, but goes back to causing Leto no pain when she was born. She became associated with Hecate and Selene. The cypress is her tree. All wild animals are scared to her, especially the deer

32 Hephaestus (Vulcan) gods
Hephaestus is the son of Zeus and Hera. Sometimes it is said that Hera alone produced him and that he has no father. He is the only god to be physically ugly. He is also lame. Accounts as to how he became lame vary. Some say that Hera, upset by having an ugly child, flung him from Mount Olympus into the sea, breaking his legs. Others that he took Hera's side in an argument with Zeus and Zeus flung him off Mount Olympus. He is the god of fire and the forge. He is the smith and armorer of the gods. He uses a volcano as his forge. He is the patron god of both smiths and weavers. He is kind and peace loving. His wife is Aphrodite. Sometimes his wife is identified as Aglaia. gods

33 Dionysus (Bachus) Dionysus is the god of the vine. He invented wine and spread the art of tending grapes. He has a dual nature. On the one hand bringing joy and divine ecstasy. On the other brutal, unthinking, rage. Thus reflecting both sides of wines nature. If he chooses Dionysus can drive a man mad. No normal fetters can hold him or his followers. Dionysus is the son of Zeus and Semele. He is the only god to have a mortal parent. Zeus came to Semele in the night, invisible, felt only as a divine presence. Semele was pleased to be a lover of a god, even though she did not know which one. Word soon got around and Hera quickly assumed who was responsible. Hera went to Semele in disguise and convinced her she should see her lover as he really was. When Zeus next came to her she made him promise to grant her one wish. She went so far as to make him swear on the River Styx that he would grant her request. Zeus was madly in love and agreed. She then asked him to show her his true form. Zeus, was unhappy, and knew what would happen but, having sworn he had no choice. He appeared in his true form and Semele was instantly burnt to a crisp by the sight of his glory. Zeus did manage to rescue Dionysus and stitched him into his thigh to hold him until he was ready to be born. His birth from Zeus alone conferred immortality upon him. Dionysus problems with Hera were not yet over. She was still jealous and arranged for the Titans to kill him. The Titans ripped him into to pieces. However, Rhea brought him back to life. After this Zeus arranged for his protection and turned him over the mountain nymphs to be raised.

34 Dionysus-Continued Dionysus wandered the world actively encouraging his cult. He was accompanied by the Maenads, wild women, flush with wine, shoulders draped with a fawn skin, carrying rods tipped with pine cones. While other gods had temples the followers of Dionysus worshipped him in the woods. Here they might go into mad states where they would rip apart and eat raw any animal they came upon. Dionysus is also one of the very few that was able to bring a dead person out of the underworld. Even though he had never seen Semele he was concerned for her. Eventually he journeyed into the underworld to find her. He faced down Thanatos and brought her back to Mount Olympus. Dionysus became one of the most important gods in everyday life. He became associated with several key concepts. One was rebirth after death. Here his dismemberment by the Titans and return to life is symbolically echoed in tending vines, where the vines must be pruned back sharply, and then become dormant in winter for them to bear fruit. The other is the idea that under the influence of wine, one could feel possessed by a greater power. Unlike the other gods Dionysus was not only outside his believers but, also within them. At these times a man might be greater then himself and do works he otherwise could not. The festival for Dionysus is in the spring when the leaves begin to reappear on the vine. It became one of the most important events of the year. It's focus became the theater. Most of the great Greek plays were initially written to be performed at the feast of Dionysus. All who took part writers, actors, spectators were regarded as scared servants of Dionysus during the festival.

35 Demi-gods

36 Heracles Heracles is the son of the god Zeus and Alcmene. His gift was fabulous strength; he strangled two serpents in his cradle, and killed a lion before manhood. Heracles' main antagonist was Hera. She eventually drove him mad, during which time he killed his own children and his brother's. He was so grieved upon recovery that he exiled himself and consulted the oracle of Apollo. The oracle told him to perform twelve labors.

37 Asclepius A god of healing. His symbol is a snake. His parents were Apollo and Coronis. His birth was accompanied by scandal. While carrying him Coronis slept with Ischys. This was considered an insult. The act was reported to Apollo by a crow. Apollo turned all crows, until then white, to black to mark that they were untrustworthy. Apollo then felt compelled to slay Coronis with his arrows. He rescued Asclepius from her funeral pyre. Asclepius was raised by Chiron. Chiron taught him healing which he went on to perfect. Athena gave him two vials of Gorgon's blood. Blood from the right side of the Gorgon revived life. Blood from the left killed. Asclepius started using the blood to raise dead mortals. For this overstepping of bounds Zeus killed him with a thunderbolt. Apollo could not take revenge on Zeus himself. So he killed the Cyclopes that forged the thunderbolt.

38 Demeter Demeter is the goddess of corn, grain, and the harvest. She is the daughter of Cronus and Rhea. It is Demeter that makes the crops grow each year. The first loaf of bread from the harvest is sacrificed to her. Demeter is intimately associated with the seasons. Her daughter Persephone was abducted by Hades to be his wife in the underworld. In her anger at her daughter's loss Demeter laid a curse on the world that caused plants to wither and die, the land became desolate. Zeus became alarmed and sought Persephone's return. However, because she had eaten while in the underworld Hades had a claim on her. Therefore, it was decreed that Persephone would spend four months each year in the underworld. During these months Demeter grieves her daughters absence, and withdraws her gifts from the world, creating winter. Her return brought the spring. Demeter is also known for founding the Eleusinian Mysteries. These were huge festivals held every five years. They were important events for many centuries. Yet, little is known of them as those attending were sworn to secrecy. The central tenant seems to have been that just as grain returns every spring after its harvest and wintery death, so too the human soul could be reborn after the death of the body. She gave up her place as on of the 12 Olympians and gave it to Dionysus instead.

39 Persephone Persephone is the daughter of Zeus and Demeter. After her abduction by Hades she became his wife and Queen of the underworld.

40 Eros (Cupid) Eros is the son of Aphrodite. Eros is the god of love. In particular erotic, romantic, love. He is often represented blindfolded because, love is often blind. His "weapon" is darts or arrows. In either case the tips have been magically treated to produce either uncontrollable love or insurmountable disinterested in the first person seen be Eros's victim after wounding.

41 Hebe Hebe is the daughter of Zeus and Hera. She is the goddess of youth. She, along with Ganymede are the cupbearers to the gods. Hebe is Heracles wife.

42 Eris Eris is the daughter of Zeus and Hera. She is the goddess of discord. In addition to her main activity of sowing discord, she frequently accompanies her brother Ares to battles. On these occasions she rides his chariot and brings her son Strife. Eris is unpopular and frequently snubbed as a guest by the other gods and mankind. This was not always a safe thing to do. The most dramatic example being the Trojan War, which was an indirect result of not inviting Eris to a wedding.

43 Thanatos Thanatos was the Greek god of death. He may be thought of as a personification of death. He plays little role in the myths. He became rather overshadowed by Hades the lord of the underworld.

44 Pan Pan is the son of Hermes. He is the god of goatherds and shepherds. He is mostly human in appearance but, with goat horns and goat feet. He is an excellent musician and plays the pipes. He is merry and playful frequently seen dancing with woodland nymphs. He is at home in any wild place but, is favorite is Arcady, where he was born. He is always in pursuit of one of the nymphs but, always rejected because he is ugly. His name is the basis for the word "panic". There are two differing explanations for this. The first is that he was present when Zeus defeated the Titans and claimed that it has his yelling that caused the Titans to flee. However, this seems at odds with his being Hermes son. The second is that he created the noises in the woods at night the scared travelers.

45 Nemesis Nemesis means righteous anger, due enactment, or divine vengeance. This god helped to avenge those who were wronged.

46 The Graces They are the daughters of Zeus and Eurynome. There are three Graces: Aglaia (Splendor), Euphrosyne (Mirth), and Thalia (Good Cheer). The are known for singing and dancing for the gods.

47 The Muses They are the daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne. They are known for the music of their song, which brings joy to any who hear it. There are nine Muses, each with her own specialty: Clio (History), Urania (Astronomy), Melpomene (Tragedy), Thalia (Comedy), Terpsichore (Dance), Calliope (Epic Poetry), Erato (Love Poetry), Polyhymnia (Songs to the Gods), Euterpe (Lyric Poetry).

48 The Erinyes Also known as the Furies, punish crime. They pursue wrong doers relentlessly, until death, often driving them to suicide. They are particularly concerned with matricide. There are three Erinye - Tisiphone, Megaera, and Alecto. The Erinyes came from the blood of Uranus when he was castrated.

49 The Fates The Fates have the subtle but, awesome power of deciding a mans destiny. The assign a man to good or evil. There most obvious choice is choosing how long a man lives. There are three Fates. Clotho, the spinner, who spins the thread of life. Lachesis, the measurer, who chooses the lot in life one will have and measures off how long it is to be. Atropos, she who can not be turn, who at death with her shears cuts the tread of life. The Fates are old and predate the gods. It is not entirely clear how far their power extends. It is possible that they determine the fate of the gods as well. In any case, not even the most powerful is willing to trifle with them.

50 Cupid and Psyche

51 Once upon a time there lived a maiden so beautiful that she was thought to be lovelier than even Venus, Goddess of Love. Venus, out of jealousy, commanded that her son, Cupid, ensure that no man would ever love her. Cupid went to Psyche, but accidently stuck himself with the tip of one of his arrows, and fell in love with her. He followed his mother's orders, making it so that no man would look upon her with love, and then he left. Her family, surprised to find that their daughter was no longer sought by any suitor when before men had travelled some distance to court her, consulted the oracle of Apollo. The Oracle said that the daughter had angered the Gods in some way, and must be sacrificed to a monster to appease them. In sorrow, they took their daughter to the top of a nearby mountain and left her there, to await her fate.

52 Soon Zephyr, the God of the winds, came along and carried her along to a beautiful palace. A voice addressed her, though she saw no one, and it instructed her to enjoy the house and grounds around her. At night, when she retired to bed, she was joined in her bed by a lover, who said he was her husband but that she must never look upon him. He was gentle, but he was gone by morning. For some time Psyche lived like this, though she often requested to see her husband's face. He would cover her in a gentle blanket and refuse to let her see. Finally, one night Psyche kept an oil lamp nearby, and when she knew her husband to be asleep she lit the lamp. Lying in her bed was the God Cupid, and what she had taken as a soft blanket was his wings. In her shock, she spilled a drop of hot oil and it dropped onto his shoulder.

53 Cupid awoke, and was angry with Psyche for breaking his command to not look upon him. He fled, and abandoned her. She chased after him, but as she could not fly she was soon left behind. Unable to find her husband again, Psyche went to Venus, his mother, and begged her for help. Venus, who was still angry at the mortal, refused to help unless Psyche agreed to perform labours to show her devotion. Psyche agreed and was set about a number of tasks.

54 She was asked to sort out a storehouse full of grains by their type
She was asked to sort out a storehouse full of grains by their type. Despairing, she asked for aide, and an army of ants came to help her, sorting the grains out. She was next directed to gather a handful of wool from some wild and dangerous sheep. Again, she asked for aide, and the briars by the riverside told her to wait, and after the sheep had drunk, she could gather the wool from their briars that they had pulled out. Venus was not happy to find that the girl had performed her tasks so well. For a final task,s he gave Pysche a box, and told her to go to see Proserpine, wife of Hades, God of the underworld, and ask for a little of her beauty.

55 Pyshce travelled to the underworld and met the Queen of the dead, who gave her a box, commanding her not to open it. Psyche travelled out of hell again, but onher way, felt that she had worked so hard for so long that she deserved some reward. She thought to open the box and take a little of the beauty out for her own use. However, when she opened the box she found instead that what lay inside was a deathly sleep, and she collapsed on the ground.

56 By this time Cupid had recovered from his wound, and was sorry he had left Pysche in such a manner. He sought out to find her, and discovered her laying as if dead. He went to her, brushed away the sleep from her body, and embraced her again. While Psyche brought the box to Venus as requested, Cupid went to the Gods and pleaded for their help. After hearing his tale, the Gods agreed to make Psyche one of their own. She was given a cup of ambrosia to drink, to make her an immortal, and butterfly wings so that she might fly alongside her husband.

57 The End

58 The Story of Persephone

59 Persephone was the daughter of Demeter, goddess of the earth and harvest. Demeter was responsible for the growth of plants and crops, and Persephone helped her. Pluto, god of the Underworld, wanted to marry Persephone and asked Zeus's permission to do so. Zeus avoided answering Pluto's request, however, knowing that Demeter would never agree. (After all, who would want their daughter to live in the Underworld?) One day, Pluto found Persephone alone, kidnapped her, and took her down to Hades. As they entered Hades, they passed by Cerberus -- the three-headed dog who guards the gates of the Underworld to keep the dead from leaving

60 When Demeter discovered that her daughter was missing, she stopped taking care of the crops and began to search for Persephone. The crops withered and died. Eventually, Demeter discovered that Persephone was Pluto's prisoner in Hades. She pleaded with Zeus to make Pluto release her daughter. The gods also wanted Zeus to persuade Pluto to let Persephone go, because the humans would starve without any crops.

61 Zeus ordered Pluto to free Persephone, as long as she hadn't eaten any food in Hades. Just before he set her free, Pluto tempted Persephone to eat a few pomegranate seeds from his garden. Because Persephone had eaten from Pluto's garden, she had to spend part of the year in the Underworld and part on earth with her mother.

62 So, every year when Persephone is in the Underworld, Demeter is sad and lets the plants die. When Persephone returns to earth, her mother is happy and tends the plants so they bloom and flourish

63 The End

64 Hera’s Rebellion

65 Hera is Zeus wife and sister
Hera is Zeus wife and sister. She was raised by the Titans Ocean and Tethys. She is the protector of marrage and takes special care of married women. Hera's marriage was founded in strife with Zeus and continued in strife. Zeus courted her unsuccesfully. He then turned to trickery, changing himself into disheveled cuckoo. Hera feeling sorry for the bird held it to her breast to warm it. Zues then resumed his normal form and taking advantage of the suprise he gained, raped her. She then married him to cover her shame. Once when Zeus was being partcularly overbearing to the other gods, Hera convinced them to join in a revolt. Her part in the revolt was to drug Zeus, and in this she was successful. The gods then bound the sleeping Zeus to a couch taking care to tie many knots. This done they began to quarrel over the next step. Briareus overheard the arguements. Still full of gratitude to Zeus, Briareus slipped in and was able to quickly untie the many knots. Zeus sprang from the couch and grapped up his thuderbolt. The gods fell to their knees begging and pleading for mercy. He seized Hera and hung her from the sky with gold chains. She wept in pain all night but, none of the others dared to interfere. Her weeping kept Zeus up and the next morning he agreed to release her if she would swear never to rebel again. She had little choice but, to agree. While she never again rebeled, she often intrigued against Zeus's plans and she was often able to outwit him.

66 The End

67 Arachne

68 Arachne was a young woman from Lydia, sometimes said to be a princess, who offended Athena, and suffered the consequences. Her story helped serve as a warning to all to take care to not offend the gods. Arachne was gifted in the art of weaving. Not only were her finished products beautiful to look at, but the very act of her weaving was a sight to behold. Nymphs were said to abandon their frolicking to come observe Arachne practice her magic. So remarkable were her works that observers often commented that she must have been trained by the very patron goddess of weaving, Athena herself. Arachne scoffed at this. She was disgusted at being placed in an inferior place to the goddess and proclaimed that Athena herself could not do better than her.

69 Athena was quite perturbed at Arachne's bold claim, but she decided to give the young woman a chance to redeem herself. She came to Arachne disguised as an old woman and warned her to be careful not to offend the gods, lest she incur their wrath. But Arachne told the old woman to save her breath. She welcomed a contest with Athena, and, if she lost, would suffer whatever punishment the goddess deemed necessary. The goddess accepted the challenge and revealed her true form. The nymphs who had come to watch Arachne's weaving shrunk back in fear, but Arachne stood her shaky ground. She had made a claim, and she was sticking to it. So the contest began, the mortal at her loom, the goddess at hers. Athena began to weave the scene of her contest with Poseidon for the city of Athens. A beautiful scene developed from the threads, showing Poseidon and the salt water spring, and Athena with an olive tree, gifts to the people who would name Athena as their patron, and their city after her. The bystanders marveled at the goddess' work.

70 Arachne, for her part, created a tapestry showcasing scenes of Zeus' various infidelities: Leda with the Swan, Europa with the bull, Danaë and the golden rain shower. So exquisite was the mortal's work that the bull seemed lifelike, swimming across the tapestry with a real girl on his shoulders. Even Athena herself was forced to admit that Arachne's work was flawless. (Whether or not Arachne was actually better than Athena is still a mystery.) Angered at Arachne's challenge, as well as the presumptuousness of her choice of subjects, Athena tore the tapestry to pieces and destroyed the loom. Then she touched Arachne's forehead, making sure that she felt full guilt for her actions. Arachne was ashamed, but the guilt was far too deep for her poor, mortal mind. Depressed, she hanged herself.

71 Athena took pity on Arachne
Athena took pity on Arachne. She most likely did not expect that Arachne would commit suicide. She brought her back to life, but not as a human. By sprinkling her with the juices of aconite, Athena transformed the woman into a spider, her and her descendants to forever hang from threads and to be great weavers.

72 The End

73 Pipes of Pan

74 When Pan was born and the nurse saw the face and the beard of the newborn child, she was afraid and fled. For this reason it has been said that irrational terrors (panic) come from Pan. Pan has a goat's feet and two horns, and wears a lynx-pelt. He is the god of woods and pastures, and also the mountain peaks and rocky crests are his domain. He wanders along the hills, slaying wild beasts. But in the evenings he plays sweet and low on his pipes of reed, with singing NYMPHS or CHARITES holding him company. Otherwise, when he is in the company of the Mother of the Gods, Pan loves noise and high-pitched songs.

75 Pan fell in love with the Arcadian nymph Syrinx (an imitator of Artemis both in manners and in appearance), who had until then eluded the pursuit of both SATYRS and gods. Sirynx desdained Pan, and spurning his love and prayers, refused to take him as a sweetheart, who was neither man nor goat. The god then pursued her, but she came to the stream of the river Ladon in western Arcadia, and no longer being able to escape, she asked to the nymphs of the river to change her form. And the nymphs, listening to her prayers, turned her into marsh reeds. So when Pan wished to hold her, there was nothing left of her except the reeds and the sound which the air produced in them. On hearing it, however, Pan was charmed, and thinking of the nymph, said to himself in triumph: "This converse, at least, shall I have with you."

76 And joining reeds of different sizes, he invented the musical instrument that was named syrinx after her, or sometimes Pan flute, after the god himself. Pan is also remembered for having competed with that flute against Apollo's lyre, but the syrinx was judged by Tmolus to be inferior to Apollo's lyre. On the occasion, everyone agreed with the judgement except King Midas, who called it unjust. And it is for this reason that Midas acquired, by the will of Apollo, the ears of an ass, which he tried in vain to conceal under a turban.

77 The End

78 Ares and Aphrodites

79 Hephaestus, the smith and craftsman of the gods, was married to Aphrodite, the goddess of love and beauty. It was not a happy marriage, because they had no children and Aphrodite was an unfaithful wife, having children with gods and mortals. (Hephaestus was also unfaithful, too.) Among her many infidelities, Aphrodite had a long love affair with Ares the god of war and strife.

80 Apollo, the sun god see most things during the day, as he drove his sun chariot across the sky. It was one of those days that Apollo witnessed Aphrodite taking her lover in her bed, while Hephaestus was absent. Helios easily noticed Ares so Apollo went and informed Hephaestus of his wife had cuckolded him. Hephaestus decided to take revenge on the lovers. The crippled craftsman created an invisible net, which he set over the beautiful bed. Informing his wife that he was going to the island of Lemnos for a while, Aphrodite saw this as an opportunity to spend time with Ares during her husband's absence.

81 Once Hephaestus left their home, Ares sneaked into the house with the goddess. In the midst of their lovemaking, the net fell upon them, trapping them in net they couldn't break free. Hephaestus immediately walked back to his bedchamber with a host of other gods to witness the disgraced pair. Only the male Olympians appeared, while the goddesses stayed in Olympus, preferring not to witness such indecency. The smith god blamed both of his parents for his marriage to Aphrodite. Hephaestus announced that he would not release them until they return the gifts he had given to Zeus and Hera.

82 The two younger Olympians, Apollo and Hermes were amused at the humiliation of the war god and love goddess. They compared Hephaestus to the tortoise that defeated the hare (Ares) in a race. Hephaestus has certainly outwitted Ares. Hermes admitted that he wouldn't mind being in Ares' place, if he could bed with the love goddess, regardless of the consequences.

83 When Poseidon saw Aphrodite's beauty, he was filled with lust for the goddess. So Poseidon's motive for urging Hephaestus to release his wife was really motivated by self-interest, not to appease the cuckolded husband. Aphrodite repaid Poseidon by sleeping with him, so she became the mother of Eryx, an Argonaut who sailed with Jason.

84 Poseidon wasn't the only god who desired her Hermes also gaining her favour, and became mother of Hermaphroditus. Aphrodite didn't forget to punish the informer, the sun god Apollo.

85 Apollo had loved a nymph, named Clytie
Apollo had loved a nymph, named Clytie. Aphrodite made him instead fall in love with another girl, named Leucothoe, daughter of Orchamus king of Persia. Clytie became jealous of her rival, so she spread a rumour so that Orchamus thought his daughter was a harlot. Orchamus buried Leucothoe alive Apollo vainly tried to save her. Apollo abandoned Clytie, who was madly in love with Apollo, lay on the ground, watching his chariot drive through the sky, for nine days, until she wasted away and died. Leucothoe was transformed into sweet-smelling shrub, while Clytie was turned into heliotrope, where the head of flower always faced the sun during the course of the day.

86 The End

87 Pygmalion

88 'An altar, to Zeus used to stand in front of the gates if any stranger, ignorant of their wickedness, had seen it, stained with blood, they would have thought that calves or sheep, from Amathus, were sacrificed there: it was their guests they killed! Aphrodite was preparing to abandon her cities, and the Cyprian fields, outraged by their abominable rites, but 'How,' she said, 'have my cities, or this dear place, sinned? What is their crime? Instead, let this impious race pay the penalty of death or exile, or some punishment between execution and banishment, and what might that be but the penalty of being transformed?' While she is deciding how to alter them, she turns her eyes towards their horns, and this suggests that she might leave them those, and she changed them into wild bullocks.

89 'Nevertheless, the immoral Propoetides dared to deny that Venus was the goddess. For this, because of her divine anger, they are said to have been the first to prostitute their bodies and their reputations in public, and, losing all sense of shame, they lost the power to blush, as the blood hardened in their cheeks, and only a small change turned them into hard flints. 'Pygmalion had seen them, spending their lives in wickedness, and, offended by the failings that nature gave the female heart, he lived as a bachelor, without a wife or partner for his bed. But, with wonderful skill, he carved a figure, brilliantly, out of snow-white ivory, no mortal woman, and fell in love with his own creation. The features are those of a real girl, who, you might think, lived, and wished to move, if modesty did not forbid it. Indeed, art hides his art. He marvels: and passion, for this bodily image, consumes his heart.

90 'Often, he runs his hands over the work, tempted as to whether it is flesh or ivory, not admitting it to be ivory. he kisses it and thinks his kisses are returned; and speaks to it; and holds it, and imagines that his fingers press into the limbs, and is afraid lest bruises appear from the pressure. Now he addresses it with compliments, now brings it gifts that please girls, shells and polished pebbles, little birds, and many-coloured flowers, lilies and tinted beads, and the Heliades's amber tears, that drip from the trees. He dresses the body, also, in clothing; places rings on the fingers; places a long necklace round its neck; pearls hang from the ears, and cinctures round the breasts. All are fitting: but it appears no less lovely, naked. He arranges the statue on a bed on which cloths dyed with Tyrian murex are spread, and calls it his bedfellow, and rests its neck against soft down, as if it could feel.

91 The day of Venus's festival came, celebrated throughout Cyprus, and heifers, their curved horns gilded, fell, to the blow on their snowy neck. The incense was smoking, when Pygmalion, having made his offering, stood by the altar, and said, shyly: "If you can grant all things, you gods, I wish as a bride to have..." and not daring to say "the girl of ivory" he said "one like my ivory girl."

92 'Golden Aphrodites, for she herself was present at the festival, knew what the prayer meant, and as a sign of the gods' fondness for him, the flame flared three times, and shook its crown in the air. When he returned, he sought out the image of his girl, and leaning over the couch, kissed her. She felt warm: he pressed his lips to her again, and also touched her breast with his hand. The ivory yielded to his touch, and lost its hardness, altering under his fingers, as the bees' wax of Hymettus softens in the sun, and is moulded, under the thumb, into many forms, made usable by use. The lover is stupefied, and joyful, but uncertain, and afraid he is wrong, reaffirms the fulfilment of his wishes, with his hand, again, and again.

93 'It was flesh. The pulse throbbed under his thumb
'It was flesh! The pulse throbbed under his thumb. Then the hero, of Paphos, was indeed overfull of words with which to thank Venus, and still pressed his mouth against a mouth that was not merely a likeness. The girl felt the kisses he gave, blushed, and, raising her bashful eyes to the light, saw both her lover and the sky. The goddess attended the marriage that she had brought about, and when the moon's horns had nine times met at the full, the woman bore a son, Paphos, from whom the island takes its name.'

94 The End

95 Orpheus and Eurydice

96 Orpheus was the greatest mortal musician in Greek myths
Orpheus was the greatest mortal musician in Greek myths. Orpheus was the son of the Muse Calliope. His father was either the god Apollo or Oeagrus, the king of Thrace. Even though he may have the son of the Thracian king, Apollo, who was the greatest musician of the gods, taught him how to play the lyre. Like Apollo, Orpheus' favourite instrument was the lyre. Calliope and her sisters taught her son the song. His music and voice were so enchanting that wild animal would become tame and the trees and rocks would follow him.

97 Orpheus fell in love with a nymph, named Eurydice
Orpheus fell in love with a nymph, named Eurydice. Their marriage was short, when a minor pastoral god named Aristaeüs , lustfully pursued after the nymph. A snake bit Eurydice's ankle when she stepped on the snake. Eurydice died from the venom. Orpheus mourned over the loss of his wife. The hero was determined to win back his wife from Hades. With his lyre he descended down towards the Underworld. His music made all the spirits to come and listen. Even those condemned to eternal punishment (like Sisyphus and Tantalus) forgot their torments. Orpheus crossed the Styx without paying Charon for toll on the ferry. The three-headed hound Cerberus allowed Orpheus to pass through the gates without challenge. His song even moved Hades, the lord of the dead, who listened to the music with his wife Persephone.

98 When Hades heard why Orpheus had come to the world of the dead, the sombre god agreed that Orpheus could have his wife back, on the condition that Orpheus should not look back until they reached the earth surface. Orpheus was both joyful and anxious if his wife was following him to his surface. His anxiety made him look back too soon, when he reached the surface. Eurydice was just inside of the cavern entrance, when he turned back to look at his wife. Eurydice was instantly returned to Underworld. Orpheus was barred from entering the Underworld for the second time, while he was still alive. Orpheus had no choice but to return home. In Thrace, Orpheus would sit on a rock in the meadow, playing mournful tunes over the loss of his wife. The maenads, the women followers of the wine god Dionysus, wanted the musician to play music of revelry. Orpheus continued to play of music of sorrow. The angry women violently tore him to pieces with their bare hands.

99 the Muses mourned over the death of Orpheus so they gathered the pieces of his body and buried in Piera, Macedonia. The constellation of the Kneeler or Engonasin (the constellation is now called Hercules) had probably represented Orpheus kneeling, while the Thracian women attacked him. Most likely the Muses placed his lyre in the sky as the constellation Lyra.

100 The End

101 Hermaphroditus

102 Hermaphroditus was the son of Hermes and Aphrodite
Hermaphroditus was the son of Hermes and Aphrodite. Hermaphroditus grew to be the most beautiful youth in the world at that time. The nymphs had brought up Hermaphroditus at Mount Ida in Lycia. One day, he left his home, arrived at the spring near Halicarnassus, in Caria. The spring was named after a nymph, named Salmacis. This nymph fell madly in love with Hermaphroditus, but failed to seduce him. However, when he was bathing in her spring, Salmacis leaped upon the frightened youth, and clung to him, with arms and legs around his handsome body. Salmacis kissed the boy, who tried to fight her off.

103 Then, Salmacis prayed to the gods, so that they may never be separated from one another. The gods answered her prayed, by merging and fusing their bodies together. To Hermaphroditus' horror, his body now has woman's breasts and a female genital, as well as his own male genital. Hermaphroditus was upset at this transformation when he emerged from the spring. He prayed to his father and his mother that any man or boy who bathes in this pool would suffer the same fate and transformation as he did: becoming half man, half woman.

104 This is where the name of hermaphrodite comes from, where a person has the genitals of two sexes. This is very rare condition for human beings and is commonly found on plants and invertebrate animals (such as worms or snails). The End

105 I hope you enjoyed the power-point and hope it was slightly entertaining and thank-you.


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