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Classification of Organisms Chapter 14. Categories of Biological Classification Taxonomy – The science of naming and classifying organisms Taxonomy –

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Presentation on theme: "Classification of Organisms Chapter 14. Categories of Biological Classification Taxonomy – The science of naming and classifying organisms Taxonomy –"— Presentation transcript:

1 Classification of Organisms Chapter 14

2 Categories of Biological Classification Taxonomy – The science of naming and classifying organisms Taxonomy – The science of naming and classifying organisms 1750s Carl Linnaeus uses binomial nomenclature: 2 part Latin name for each organism 1750s Carl Linnaeus uses binomial nomenclature: 2 part Latin name for each organism Apis mellifera – European honeybee Apis mellifera – European honeybee

3 Now called scientific names and are made up of genus and species name Now called scientific names and are made up of genus and species name Genus is capital, comes first, contains similar species Genus is capital, comes first, contains similar species Species is lowercase, particular kind of organism within a genus Species is lowercase, particular kind of organism within a genus Ursus maritimus Carcharodon carcharias

4 Scientific Names Written Written Apis mellifera Apis mellifera A. mellifera after full name is given once A. mellifera after full name is given once All languages use same names and system All languages use same names and system Rules set up Rules set up 2 Latin words or words following Latin rules 2 Latin words or words following Latin rules 2 different organisms cannot have same name 2 different organisms cannot have same name Strigiphilus garylarsoni Strigiphilus garylarsoni Louse named for Far Side cartoonist because he made science jokes Masiakasaurus knopfleri Masiakasaurus knopfleri Dinosaur named for guitarist because they listened to his music while digging

5 Classifying Organisms KingdomPhylumClassOrder Family Genus Species

6 Classification of Honeybees AnimaliaArthropodaInsectaHymenopteraApidaeApis Apis mellifera

7 HumansMonkeyHorsePenguin AnimaliaAnimaliaAnimaliaAnimalia ChordataChordataChordataChordata MammaliaMammaliaMammaliaAves PrimataPrimataPerissodactylaSphenisciformes HominidaeCebidaeEquidaeSpheniscidae HomoAlouattaEquusAptenodytes sapienspigracaballusforsteri

8 How can you remember? KingPhillipCameOverForGoodSoup

9 14.2 How Biologists Classify Organisms Biological species – group of natural populations that are interbreeding or that could interbreed, and that are reproductively isolated from other such groups Biological species – group of natural populations that are interbreeding or that could interbreed, and that are reproductively isolated from other such groups Hybrid – offspring of individuals from different species that interbreed and produce fertile offspring Hybrid – offspring of individuals from different species that interbreed and produce fertile offspring

10 Other Hybrids Goat Boy Zony Wolphin Liger Cama

11 Evolutionary History Phylogeny – evolutionary history Phylogeny – evolutionary history When trying to classify organisms based on similarities, it can be misleading When trying to classify organisms based on similarities, it can be misleading Wing of a bat is different from a wing of a bird Wing of a bat is different from a wing of a bird Convergent evolution – similarities evolve in unrelated species Convergent evolution – similarities evolve in unrelated species Called analogous characters Called analogous characters

12 Cladistics Method of analysis that reconstructs phylogenies using relationships based on shared characters Method of analysis that reconstructs phylogenies using relationships based on shared characters Believed to show sequence of evolution Believed to show sequence of evolution Ancestral Character – evolved from a common ancestor of both groups Ancestral Character – evolved from a common ancestor of both groups Backbone – ancestral to both birds and mammals Backbone – ancestral to both birds and mammals Derived Character – evolved in an ancestor of one group but not of the other Derived Character – evolved in an ancestor of one group but not of the other Feathers in birds but not in mammals Feathers in birds but not in mammals

13 Cladistics is based on idea that shared derived characters show that 2 groups are closely related but ancestral characters dont Cladistics is based on idea that shared derived characters show that 2 groups are closely related but ancestral characters dont Lizards and dogs have the shared ancestral character of limbs, whales do not have limbs, but their ancestors did Lizards and dogs have the shared ancestral character of limbs, whales do not have limbs, but their ancestors did But dogs and whales have the shared derived character of mammary glands; not found in lizards or lizard ancestors; dogs and whales are closer But dogs and whales have the shared derived character of mammary glands; not found in lizards or lizard ancestors; dogs and whales are closer Cladogram – branching diagram that shows evolutionary relationships among groups Cladogram – branching diagram that shows evolutionary relationships among groups Organisms that share derived characters are grouped together Organisms that share derived characters are grouped together As groups evolve new derived characters appear that werent there before As groups evolve new derived characters appear that werent there before

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15 Evolutionary Systematics Different traits given different degrees of importance Different traits given different degrees of importance Using this produces a phylogenetic tree Using this produces a phylogenetic tree

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