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The Reproductive System

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Presentation on theme: "The Reproductive System"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Reproductive System

2 Warm up Take notes by filling in the blanks

3 Male Reproductive System
TESTES and EPIDIDYMIS Testes produce male gametes sperm (SPERMATOZOA) and male sex hormone – TESTOSTERONE Testerone is responsible for secondary male characteristics- deepening of the voice, growth of body hair and increase in muscle mass Found in pouch of skin called a SCROTUM Size of a small egg

4 Male Reproductive System
TESTES and EPIDIDYMIS Made up of 250 lobules, each with coiled SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES – where spermatogenesis (sperm) develop They join to form the EPIDIDYMIS where sperm are stored – they join at the ductus deferens VAS DEFERENS

5 Male Reproductive System
Descent of the Testes In embryo, testes formed in the abdomen During last 3 months, migrate into scrotum CRYPTORCHIDISM – when testes don’t descend Rx – surgical procedure before puberty SCROTUM – sac of skin that contains testes

6 VAS DEFERENS Runs from epididymis to ejaculatory duct- carries sperm out of the testes SEMINAL VESICLES connect to vas deferens, secretions nourish sperm EJACULATORY DUCT – connect vas deferens with urethra Epydidymis connects the testes to the ductus deferens.

7 PENIS Contains erectile tissue
End of penis covered by loose fitting skin – FORESKIN Foreskin removed during CIRCUMCISION

8 PROSTATE GLAND Surrounds beginning of urethra
Size and shape of a chestnut Secretes a fluid that enhances sperm motility-if not enough fluid secreted a male can be ______________

9 BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS Located on either side of prostate below prostate
Add alkaline secretion to semen that helps sperm live longer

Urethra has dual role – excretion of urine and to expel semen Erection caused when erectile tissue fills with blood Ejaculation- the discharge of sperm. IMPOTENCE – unable to copulate

11 Processing Male Anatomy Labeling Male Reproductive Organs WS
Male Reproductive Physiology WS STD Projects

12 Female Reproductive System

13 Warm up Take notes by filling in the blanks

14 OVARIES pPrimary sex organs of the female
In lower part of abdominal cavity About the size of an almond 2 functions: produce ova manufacture female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone.

15 OVARIES Each ovary contains thousands of microscopic sacs
A single follicle matures every 28 days – an ovum matures inside – during the reproductive years Reproductive ability begins at puberty – when menarche occurs (first menstrual period) When the ovum is mature in the follicle, it is released (OVULATION) about 2 weeks before the menstrual period begins After ovulation, the ovum travels down the fallopian tube

16 OVARIES Fertilization takes place in the fallopian tube, usually within 2 days of ovulation Following fertilization, the zygote implants in the uterus Development of follicle controlled by FSH, ovulation caused by LH

17 FALLOPIAN TUBES 4” long - not attached to ovaries
Passageway for the ova to the uterus Pregnancy that implants in tube – ECTOPIC PREGNANCY Smooth muscle and cilia help propel ova into the uterus

18 UTERUS Hollow, thick-walled, pear-shaped, highly muscular organ
Lies behind the urinary bladder and in front of the rectum FUNDUS – bulging upper part of the uterus, the body is the middle portion, CERVIX is the narrow portion that extends into the vagina Uterine wall – 3 layers, outer layer is the visceral peritoneum, thick muscle layer is the MYOMETRIUM, and the inner mucous lining is the endometrium

19 VAGINA Muscular tube leading from the cervix to the outside of the body with a mucous membrane lining External Female Genitalia VULVA – external organs of reproduction Labia – folds of skin that surround the vagina and protect the vaginal opening. PERINEUM – area between vagina and rectum EPISIOTOMY – incision in perineum to make more room for childbirt

Accessory organs AREOLA – darkened area that surrounds the nipple Prolactin stimulates the mammary glands to secrete milk following childbirth

21 MENSTRUAL CYCLE The beginning of menses is called Menarche
Occurs every 28 days Divided into 4 stages Follicle stage – FSH from pituitary  ovary, stimulates follicle with ovum to mature  releases estrogen and prepares uterine lining, lasts 10 days Ovulation stage – Pituitary stops FSH and releases LH, 14th day – follicle ruptures and mature ovum released Corpus luteum stage – Corpus luteum secretes progesterone. If ovum fertilized, corpus luteum continues secrete progesterone, which prevents further ovulation and maintains uterine lining, lasts 14 days Menstruation stage – If no embryo, corpus luteum dissolves  progesterone  and uterine lining breaks down and is discharged, 3-6 days

22 MENOPAUSE Monthly menstrual cycle comes to an end at approximately age 50 Symptoms include: hot flashes dizziness and headaches emotional changes Can be caused prematurely by the removal of the ovaries

23 Conception and Pregnancy
GERM CELLS (GAMETES) – produced by Ovaries Female gamete = ova Male gonad = testes Male gamete = sperm Female gametes have 22 pairs of autosomes and single pair of sex chromosomes – XX Male gametes have 22 pairs of autosomes and a single pair of sex chromosomes – XY

24 FERTILIZATION During sexual intercourse sperm enter female reproductive tract and live or a day or two Approximately 100 million sperm in 1 cc of semen – if count less than 20 million, man is sterile Eventually, one sperm penetrates and fertilizes the ovum Usually occurs in the fallopian tubes

25 FERTILIZATION True fertilization occurs when the sperm nucleus combines with the ovum nucleus to form a fertilized egg cell – ZYGOTE The zygote has 46 chromosomes It divides, and those cells divide, and so on Zygote continues to divide as it travels down fallopian tube and is implanted in wall of uterus. At 7 days, the zygote becomes an embryo At 3 months, it becomes a fetus Pregnancy = Prenatal period or GESTATION

26 Pregnancy = Prenatal period or GESTATION
The fetus develops in the uterus. Normal pregnancy = 40 weeks or 280 days or 9 months Also divided into 3 trimesters (3 month periods)

When contraception does not occur – caused by damage to fallopian tubes, low sperm count, hormone imbalance, other disorders QUICKENING - first recognizable movement of fetus between 4th and 5th month MISCARRIAGE - Spontaneous Abortion is an unintentional loss of a pregnancy.

28 Processing Female anatomy labeling x4 Female terminology WS Projects

29 Reproductive Disorders

30 Warm up Take notes by filling in the blanks

31 Reproductive Procedures
Laproscopy Under anesthesia, Insertion of a lighted instrument through the abdominal wall Tube with a light on it is inserted through tiny incision Can remove tissue with laparoscope MASTECTOMY – surgical removal of the breast MAMMOGRAM – breast x-ray to detect tumors, recommended annually for women  40 VASECTOMY – male sterilization, removal of part of the vas deferens CIRCUMCISION – surgical removal of the foreskin

32 Female Reproductive Disorders
MASTITIS – inflammation of the breast, bacteria enter through the nipple, infection begins in one lobule, may spread redness, swelling and pain in the breast. ENDOMETRIOSIS Endometrial tissue found outside the uterus Abnormal patches of the uterine lining Results in internal bleeding, inflammation of surrounding areas and formation of scar tissue, dysmenorrhea, infertility, heavy or irregular bleeding Cause – unknown

33 Female Reproductive Disorders
CERVICAL CANCER Detected by a PAP SMEAR (PAPANICOLAOU) -sample of cell scrapings taken for microscopic study Should be done annually Rx – early detection, hysterectomy, chemotherapy and radiation Breast cancer Most common cancer of women Endometrial cancer Usually occurs after menopause Ovarian cancer Leading cause of cancer death in woman 40-65

34 Female Reproductive Disorders
Amenorrhea Absences of menstruation Dysmenorrhea Painful menstruation Premenstrual syndrome Symptoms exhibited just before menstrual cycle Leukorrhea Whitish discharge from the vagina Fibroid tumors Benign growths that occur in the uterine wall

35 Infections of the Female Reproductive Organs
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) Occurs in the reproductive organs and spreads to the fallopian tubes and peritoneal cavity. Treated with antibiotics Salpingitis Inflammation of the fallopian tubes Vaginal yeast infection Caused by fungus Itching, burning, redness, leukorrhea Toxic shock syndrome Bacterial infection caused by staphylococcus Symps – fever, rash, hypotension Cause – use of tampons Rx – antibiotics

36 Male Reproductive Disorders
BPH (BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY) Enlarged prostate More than half of men in their sixties and 90% of men in their seventies have some symptoms Prostate enlarges but capsule does not, causing prostate to clamp down on urethra. This causes the bladder to become irritable, causing dysuria and urinary retention. Diagnosis by rectal exam, ultrasound, and cystoscopy Rx – usually prostatectomy – laser surgery, sometimes no Rx

37 Male Reproductive Disorders
Epididymitis Painful swelling in the groin and scrotum caused by infection Orchitis Infection of the tests; complication of mumps Vasectomy- Male sterilization procedure Prostatitis Infection of the prostate gland Prostate cancer Most common in men over 50 Rectal exam, blood screening test

38 Sexually Transmitted Diseases
GENITAL HERPES Viral Burning sensation with small blisters on genitalia Symptoms disappear after 2 weeks but will continue to reappear throughout the lifetime of the individual Females – may need a c-section to prevent infection of newborn during childbirth

39 Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Gonorrhea Bacterial Painful urination Pus discharge Females may be asymptomatic Syphilis Treated with antibiotics Trichomoniasis Protozoan, treated Chlamydia Major cause of urethriritis, bacterial vaginitis, and PID Usually no symptoms in females Genital warts On penis shaft or inside of vagina May be asymptomatic

40 Contraception Method/Effectiveness Abstinence 100% Sterilization 100%
________ _______ _____95-99%-hormones estrogen and progesterone in pills IUD 93-99% Diaphragm 90-99% Condom 85-97% Spermacides, Douching, Withdrawal and Rhythm???-85%

41 Sterilization Male – VASECTOMY (Vas Deferens)
Female – TUBAL LIGATION (Fallopian Tube)

42 Processing Crossword Word Scramble
Birth Control article and reader guide Projects

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