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The Islamic Gunpowder Empires

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Presentation on theme: "The Islamic Gunpowder Empires"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Islamic Gunpowder Empires 1500-1800
Global Interdependence and Exchange

2 Trio of Empires Ottoman Empire (1289-1918) Safavid Empire (1501-1722)
Mughal Empire ( )

3 Islam Central to nation-state expansion
Religion, culture & civilization Quran – Holy book. Revelations given to Mohammed. Sharia – Totality of political, religious, social and private life.

4 5 Pillars of Islam Declaration of Islam Prayer Fasting – Ramadan
Almsgiving – Zakat Pilgrimage - Hajj

5 Islam is not monolithic
Sunni – Approximately 90% of Muslims. Shi’a – Re-established with the emergence of the Safavid dynasty. Sufi – Mystic tradition. The Sunni branch believes that the first four caliphs--Mohammed's successors--rightfully took his place as the leaders of Muslims. They recognize the heirs of the four caliphs as legitimate religious leaders. These heirs ruled continuously in the Arab world until the break-up of the Ottoman Empire following the end of the First World War. Shiites, in contrast, believe that only the heirs of the fourth caliph, Ali, are the legitimate successors of Mohammed. Sufi brotherhoods and sisterhoods can be Sunni or Sh’ia

6 Ottoman Empire 1298-1918 First of the three Reached its peak in 1600
Survived through WWI Present day Turkey

7 Ottoman – Beginnings Grew from remnants of Turkic peoples after fall of Mongol Rule Ghazi Warriors Osman Bey Gazi warriors – sacred duty to extend faith.

8 Empire Building 1300-1400 Janissaries (yeni cheri)
Greece, Albania, Bulgaria and former Yugoslavia Official recognition of Orthodox Christian Church Invasion of Timur destroyed most of empire

9 Mehmed the Conqueror 1451-81 Taking of Constantinople
“Sovereign of the Two Lands and the Two Seas” – Established Ottoman Empire in Europe and Asia Artillery & naval power

10 Military Campaigns Shift focus from Christian Europe to Islamic Empires in Egypt and Persia Fierce campaign against the Safavids Mecca and Medina

11 Suleyman I 1520-66 Suleyman the Magnificent
Height of the Ottoman Empire Further move into Europe Renewed hostilities with Safavids

12 Franco-Ottoman Alliance 1536
Roman Empire vs France Ottomans sided with France Cornerstone of European diplomacy Countered other European alliances Suleyman able to focus on conquest of other Islamic Empires

13 Relations with Safavids
Renewed hostilities Took Baghdad and Tabriz, the capital By 1538 controlled Persian Gulf and Red Sea Treaty of 1555 returned Tabriz to Safavids

14 Death and Decline Loss to Europeans at Malta - 1565
Suleyman died in 1566 By 1600 lost much of its power Survived until the end of WWI

15 Safavid Empire 1501-1722 Origins as a religious sect
Officially a Shi’ite empire Short lived Present day Iran

16 Shah Ismail 1501-26 Twelver Shi’ism official religion
Violent conversion Qizilbash Claimed Ottoman land

17 Instability 1524-87 Death of Ismail – 1524
Power struggle among Qizilbash Move to more secular administration Attempt to return to Sunni origins Number of rulers unable to stabilize empire The Qizilbash ("Red Heads" due to their red headgear) were a religious group of different ethnic backgrounds, who helped found the Safavid dynasty. Kizilbash were able to produce a well-equipped army which was loyal to the Dynasty. They fought many campaigns, mosty against the Ottomans.

18 Abbas the Great 1587-1629 Rejuvenated empire Quelled internal revolts
Faced Ottomans Enhanced trade with Europeans

19 Domestic Affairs Permanent paid army to counter Qizilbash infighting
Centralization of power Relocation of capital to Isfahan

20 Conflict with the Ottomans
Peace Treaty of 1590 Retook Tabriz in 1605 Recaptured Baghdad 1623 By death in 1629 Safavid Empire restored to borders established by Ismail I

21 Europeans Concluded new trade agreements to offset losses to Portuguese Traded Persian silks with English Became middleman for Indian goods Allied with British against Ottomans

22 Decline Abbas I feared ascension to throne
Ceased giving provincial governorships to Safavid princes No shah was prepared to hold empire together Fell to Afghan invaders

23 Mughal Empire 1523-1739 Struggle to consolidate
Succession of strong rulers Eventually absorbed by British Empire in India – mid 19th century

24 Founding of the empire Previous examples of positive Muslim-Hindu relations Babur established capital at Kabul (present capital of Afghanistan) Consolidated territory of Hindustan (India) with use of artillery

25 Humayun 1530-56 Unstable administration
Brothers challenged for the throne Race for territory with Sher Shah Held onto Mughal Empire

26 Akbar 1556-1605 Consolidated and expanded empire
Put down challenges to the throne Continued tradition of tolerance of Hindu traditions

27 Conquest and Expansion
Rajasthan Province of Bengal Hindustan Plain Province of Kashmir

28 Religion & Administration
Tolerated Hindu religion Invited missionaries to teach tenets of Christianity Moved away from orthodox Islam

29 Transition Campaign for the southern tip of the Indian subcontinent
Strained relations between Hindus and Muslims Social unrest

30 Imperial Islamic Society
Military Nation-State Economics Islam & Art Many differences and tensions but there are some important similarities that we see emerge from these three empires.

31 Military Nation-State
Empires legitimized rule with military conquest Armies were important part of leadership Use of gunpowder artillery turned tables of warfare

32 Economics Trade – extensive routes Agriculture and commerce
Point of exchange Agriculture and commerce were integral components of an extensive trade infrastructure. Became a point of interchange with Europe, Asia and Africa.

33 Islam & Art Architecture Poetry Painting
Religion greatly impacted art. Many of the art pieces that have survived show a practical usefulness to their creation. In addition there was a religious connection. Architecture became the most enduring. Mosques, tombs, and the Taj Mahal.

34 Decline of Islamic Empires
Limits of military state Economic stagnation Cultural islands Three factors are integral to each other.

35 Limits of Military State
Inconsistent leadership Costly wars of conquest Internal dissention and competition All three underwent numerous leadership changes without the gurantntee that there would be a strong leader. Internal dissention, esp. The Ottomans and Safavids, gazi and qizilbash

36 Economic Stagnation Weak middle-class
Trade routes began to move onto the sea routes Loss of revenue with loss of territory Middle class was more interested in trade and commerce but adherehce to a strcit military state gave sucha class little support. With the loss of territory less taxes were being collected.

37 Cultural Isolation European interest was not reciprocated
Resistance to outside cultural influences Faith and tradition vs. technology Conservative resistance to technology such as the printing press as well as other scientific discoveries. Not ot judge progress versus backwardsness

38 Conclusion Empires represented growing interdependence
Exchange of people, ideas and technology Use of artillery changed warfare Legacy of art, religion and nation Islam figures into nationalism in contemporary times. Ie Iran and Iraq. Double edge sward I mean this empires used gunpowder artillery to further military expansion yet were inflexible about other outside technologicalinfluences.

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