3Islam Central to nation-state expansion Religion, culture & civilizationQuran – Holy book. Revelations given to Mohammed.Sharia – Totality of political, religious, social and private life.
45 Pillars of Islam Declaration of Islam Prayer Fasting – Ramadan Almsgiving – ZakatPilgrimage - Hajj
5Islam is not monolithic Sunni – Approximately 90% of Muslims.Shi’a – Re-established with the emergence of the Safavid dynasty.Sufi – Mystic tradition.The Sunni branch believes that the first four caliphs--Mohammed's successors--rightfully took his place as the leaders of Muslims. They recognize the heirs of the four caliphs as legitimate religious leaders. These heirs ruled continuously in the Arab world until the break-up of the Ottoman Empire following the end of the First World War. Shiites, in contrast, believe that only the heirs of the fourth caliph, Ali, are the legitimate successors of Mohammed. Sufi brotherhoods and sisterhoods can be Sunni or Sh’ia
6Ottoman Empire 1298-1918 First of the three Reached its peak in 1600 Survived through WWIPresent day Turkey
7Ottoman – BeginningsGrew from remnants of Turkic peoples after fall of Mongol RuleGhazi WarriorsOsman BeyGazi warriors – sacred duty to extend faith.
8Empire Building 1300-1400 Janissaries (yeni cheri) Greece, Albania, Bulgaria and former YugoslaviaOfficial recognition of Orthodox Christian ChurchInvasion of Timur destroyed most of empire
9Mehmed the Conqueror 1451-81 Taking of Constantinople “Sovereign of the Two Lands and the Two Seas” – Established Ottoman Empire in Europe and AsiaArtillery & naval power
10Military CampaignsShift focus from Christian Europe to Islamic Empires in Egypt and PersiaFierce campaign against the SafavidsMecca and Medina
11Suleyman I 1520-66 Suleyman the Magnificent Height of the Ottoman EmpireFurther move into EuropeRenewed hostilities with Safavids
12Franco-Ottoman Alliance 1536 Roman Empire vs FranceOttomans sided with FranceCornerstone of European diplomacyCountered other European alliancesSuleyman able to focus on conquest of other Islamic Empires
13Relations with Safavids Renewed hostilitiesTook Baghdad and Tabriz, the capitalBy 1538 controlled Persian Gulf and Red SeaTreaty of 1555 returned Tabriz to Safavids
14Death and Decline Loss to Europeans at Malta - 1565 Suleyman died in 1566By 1600 lost much of its powerSurvived until the end of WWI
15Safavid Empire 1501-1722 Origins as a religious sect Officially a Shi’ite empireShort livedPresent day Iran
16Shah Ismail 1501-26 Twelver Shi’ism official religion Violent conversionQizilbashClaimed Ottoman land
17Instability 1524-87 Death of Ismail – 1524 Power struggle among QizilbashMove to more secular administrationAttempt to return to Sunni originsNumber of rulers unable to stabilize empireThe Qizilbash ("Red Heads" due to their red headgear) were a religious group of different ethnic backgrounds, who helped found the Safavid dynasty. Kizilbash were able to produce a well-equipped army which was loyal to the Dynasty. They fought many campaigns, mosty against the Ottomans.
18Abbas the Great 1587-1629 Rejuvenated empire Quelled internal revolts Faced OttomansEnhanced trade with Europeans
19Domestic Affairs Permanent paid army to counter Qizilbash infighting Centralization of powerRelocation of capital to Isfahan
20Conflict with the Ottomans Peace Treaty of 1590Retook Tabriz in 1605Recaptured Baghdad 1623By death in 1629 Safavid Empire restored to borders established by Ismail I
21EuropeansConcluded new trade agreements to offset losses to PortugueseTraded Persian silks with EnglishBecame middleman for Indian goodsAllied with British against Ottomans
22Decline Abbas I feared ascension to throne Ceased giving provincial governorships to Safavid princesNo shah was prepared to hold empire togetherFell to Afghan invaders
23Mughal Empire 1523-1739 Struggle to consolidate Succession of strong rulersEventually absorbed by British Empire in India – mid 19th century
24Founding of the empirePrevious examples of positive Muslim-Hindu relationsBabur established capital at Kabul (present capital of Afghanistan)Consolidated territory of Hindustan (India) with use of artillery
25Humayun 1530-56 Unstable administration Brothers challenged for the throneRace for territory with Sher ShahHeld onto Mughal Empire
26Akbar 1556-1605 Consolidated and expanded empire Put down challenges to the throneContinued tradition of tolerance of Hindu traditions
27Conquest and Expansion RajasthanProvince of BengalHindustan PlainProvince of Kashmir
28Religion & Administration Tolerated Hindu religionInvited missionaries to teach tenets of ChristianityMoved away from orthodox Islam
29Transition Campaign for the southern tip of the Indian subcontinent Strained relations between Hindus and MuslimsSocial unrest
30Imperial Islamic Society Military Nation-StateEconomicsIslam & ArtMany differences and tensions but there are some important similarities that we see emerge from these three empires.
31Military Nation-State Empires legitimized rule with military conquestArmies were important part of leadershipUse of gunpowder artillery turned tables of warfare
32Economics Trade – extensive routes Agriculture and commerce Point of exchangeAgriculture and commerce were integral components of an extensive trade infrastructure. Became a point of interchange with Europe, Asia and Africa.
33Islam & Art Architecture Poetry Painting Religion greatly impacted art. Many of the art pieces that have survived show a practical usefulness to their creation. In addition there was a religious connection. Architecture became the most enduring. Mosques, tombs, and the Taj Mahal.
34Decline of Islamic Empires Limits of military stateEconomic stagnationCultural islandsThree factors are integral to each other.
35Limits of Military State Inconsistent leadershipCostly wars of conquestInternal dissention and competitionAll three underwent numerous leadership changes without the gurantntee that there would be a strong leader. Internal dissention, esp. The Ottomans and Safavids, gazi and qizilbash
36Economic Stagnation Weak middle-class Trade routes began to move onto the sea routesLoss of revenue with loss of territoryMiddle class was more interested in trade and commerce but adherehce to a strcit military state gave sucha class little support. With the loss of territory less taxes were being collected.
37Cultural Isolation European interest was not reciprocated Resistance to outside cultural influencesFaith and tradition vs. technologyConservative resistance to technology such as the printing press as well as other scientific discoveries. Not ot judge progress versus backwardsness
38Conclusion Empires represented growing interdependence Exchange of people, ideas and technologyUse of artillery changed warfareLegacy of art, religion and nationIslam figures into nationalism in contemporary times. Ie Iran and Iraq. Double edge sward I mean this empires used gunpowder artillery to further military expansion yet were inflexible about other outside technologicalinfluences.