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The Islamic Gunpowder Empires 1500-1800 Global Interdependence and Exchange.

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Presentation on theme: "The Islamic Gunpowder Empires 1500-1800 Global Interdependence and Exchange."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Islamic Gunpowder Empires 1500-1800 Global Interdependence and Exchange

2 Trio of Empires Ottoman Empire (1289-1918) Ottoman Empire (1289-1918) Safavid Empire (1501- 1722) Safavid Empire (1501- 1722) Mughal Empire (1523-1739) Mughal Empire (1523-1739)

3 Islam Central to nation-state expansion Central to nation-state expansion Religion, culture & civilization Religion, culture & civilization Quran – Holy book. Revelations given to Mohammed. Quran – Holy book. Revelations given to Mohammed. Sharia – Totality of political, religious, social and private life. Sharia – Totality of political, religious, social and private life.

4 5 Pillars of Islam Declaration of Islam Declaration of Islam Prayer Prayer Fasting – Ramadan Fasting – Ramadan Almsgiving – Zakat Almsgiving – Zakat Pilgrimage - Hajj Pilgrimage - Hajj

5 Islam is not monolithic Sunni – Approximately 90% of Muslims. Sunni – Approximately 90% of Muslims. Shia – Re-established with the emergence of the Safavid dynasty. Shia – Re-established with the emergence of the Safavid dynasty. Sufi – Mystic tradition. Sufi – Mystic tradition.

6 Ottoman Empire 1298-1918 First of the three First of the three Reached its peak in 1600 Reached its peak in 1600 Survived through WWI Survived through WWI Present day Turkey Present day Turkey

7 Ottoman – Beginnings Grew from remnants of Turkic peoples after fall of Mongol Rule Grew from remnants of Turkic peoples after fall of Mongol Rule Ghazi Warriors Ghazi Warriors Osman Bey Osman Bey

8 Empire Building 1300-1400 Janissaries (yeni cheri) Janissaries (yeni cheri) Greece, Albania, Bulgaria and former Yugoslavia Greece, Albania, Bulgaria and former Yugoslavia Official recognition of Orthodox Christian Church Official recognition of Orthodox Christian Church Invasion of Timur destroyed most of empire Invasion of Timur destroyed most of empire

9 Mehmed the Conqueror 1451-81 Taking of Constantinople Taking of Constantinople Sovereign of the Two Lands and the Two Seas – Established Ottoman Empire in Europe and Asia Sovereign of the Two Lands and the Two Seas – Established Ottoman Empire in Europe and Asia Artillery & naval power Artillery & naval power

10 Military Campaigns 1480-1520 Shift focus from Christian Europe to Islamic Empires in Egypt and Persia Shift focus from Christian Europe to Islamic Empires in Egypt and Persia Fierce campaign against the Safavids Fierce campaign against the Safavids Mecca and Medina Mecca and Medina

11 Suleyman I 1520-66 Suleyman the Magnificent Suleyman the Magnificent Height of the Ottoman Empire Height of the Ottoman Empire Further move into Europe Further move into Europe Renewed hostilities with Safavids Renewed hostilities with Safavids

12 Franco-Ottoman Alliance 1536 Roman Empire vs France Roman Empire vs France Ottomans sided with France Ottomans sided with France Cornerstone of European diplomacy Cornerstone of European diplomacy Countered other European alliances Countered other European alliances Suleyman able to focus on conquest of other Islamic Empires Suleyman able to focus on conquest of other Islamic Empires

13 Relations with Safavids Renewed hostilities Renewed hostilities Took Baghdad and Tabriz, the capital Took Baghdad and Tabriz, the capital By 1538 controlled Persian Gulf and Red Sea By 1538 controlled Persian Gulf and Red Sea Treaty of 1555 returned Tabriz to Safavids Treaty of 1555 returned Tabriz to Safavids

14 Death and Decline Loss to Europeans at Malta - 1565 Loss to Europeans at Malta - 1565 Suleyman died in 1566 Suleyman died in 1566 By 1600 lost much of its power By 1600 lost much of its power Survived until the end of WWI Survived until the end of WWI

15 Safavid Empire 1501-1722 Origins as a religious sect Origins as a religious sect Officially a Shiite empire Officially a Shiite empire Short lived Short lived Present day Iran Present day Iran

16 Shah Ismail 1501-26 Twelver Shiism official religion Twelver Shiism official religion Violent conversion Violent conversion Qizilbash Qizilbash Claimed Ottoman land Claimed Ottoman land

17 Instability 1524-87 Death of Ismail – 1524 Death of Ismail – 1524 Power struggle among Qizilbash Power struggle among Qizilbash Move to more secular administration Move to more secular administration Attempt to return to Sunni origins Attempt to return to Sunni origins Number of rulers unable to stabilize empire Number of rulers unable to stabilize empire

18 Abbas the Great 1587-1629 Rejuvenated empire Rejuvenated empire Quelled internal revolts Quelled internal revolts Faced Ottomans Faced Ottomans Enhanced trade with Europeans Enhanced trade with Europeans

19 Domestic Affairs Permanent paid army to counter Qizilbash infighting Permanent paid army to counter Qizilbash infighting Centralization of power Centralization of power Relocation of capital to Isfahan Relocation of capital to Isfahan

20 Conflict with the Ottomans Peace Treaty of 1590 Peace Treaty of 1590 Retook Tabriz in 1605 Retook Tabriz in 1605 Recaptured Baghdad 1623 Recaptured Baghdad 1623 By death in 1629 Safavid Empire restored to borders established by Ismail I By death in 1629 Safavid Empire restored to borders established by Ismail I

21 Europeans Concluded new trade agreements to offset losses to Portuguese Concluded new trade agreements to offset losses to Portuguese Traded Persian silks with English Traded Persian silks with English Became middleman for Indian goods Became middleman for Indian goods Allied with British against Ottomans Allied with British against Ottomans

22 Decline Abbas I feared ascension to throne Abbas I feared ascension to throne Ceased giving provincial governorships to Safavid princes Ceased giving provincial governorships to Safavid princes No shah was prepared to hold empire together No shah was prepared to hold empire together Fell to Afghan invaders Fell to Afghan invaders

23 Mughal Empire 1523-1739 Struggle to consolidate Struggle to consolidate Succession of strong rulers Succession of strong rulers Eventually absorbed by British Empire in India – mid 19 th century Eventually absorbed by British Empire in India – mid 19 th century

24 Founding of the empire Previous examples of positive Muslim- Hindu relations Previous examples of positive Muslim- Hindu relations Babur established capital at Kabul (present capital of Afghanistan) Babur established capital at Kabul (present capital of Afghanistan) Consolidated territory of Hindustan (India) with use of artillery Consolidated territory of Hindustan (India) with use of artillery

25 Humayun 1530-56 Unstable administration Unstable administration Brothers challenged for the throne Brothers challenged for the throne Race for territory with Sher Shah Race for territory with Sher Shah Held onto Mughal Empire Held onto Mughal Empire

26 Akbar 1556-1605 Consolidated and expanded empire Consolidated and expanded empire Put down challenges to the throne Put down challenges to the throne Continued tradition of tolerance of Hindu traditions Continued tradition of tolerance of Hindu traditions

27 Conquest and Expansion Rajasthan Rajasthan Province of Bengal Province of Bengal Hindustan Plain Hindustan Plain Province of Kashmir Province of Kashmir

28 Religion & Administration Tolerated Hindu religion Tolerated Hindu religion Invited missionaries to teach tenets of Christianity Invited missionaries to teach tenets of Christianity Moved away from orthodox Islam Moved away from orthodox Islam

29 Transition Campaign for the southern tip of the Indian subcontinent Campaign for the southern tip of the Indian subcontinent Strained relations between Hindus and Muslims Strained relations between Hindus and Muslims Social unrest Social unrest

30 Imperial Islamic Society Military Nation-State Military Nation-State Economics Economics Islam & Art Islam & Art

31 Military Nation-State Empires legitimized rule with military conquest Empires legitimized rule with military conquest Armies were important part of leadership Armies were important part of leadership Use of gunpowder artillery turned tables of warfare Use of gunpowder artillery turned tables of warfare

32 Economics Trade – extensive routes Trade – extensive routes Agriculture and commerce Agriculture and commerce Point of exchange Point of exchange

33 Islam & Art Architecture Architecture Poetry Poetry Painting Painting

34 Decline of Islamic Empires Limits of military state Limits of military state Economic stagnation Economic stagnation Cultural islands Cultural islands

35 Limits of Military State Inconsistent leadership Inconsistent leadership Costly wars of conquest Costly wars of conquest Internal dissention and competition Internal dissention and competition

36 Economic Stagnation Weak middle-class Weak middle-class Trade routes began to move onto the sea routes Trade routes began to move onto the sea routes Loss of revenue with loss of territory Loss of revenue with loss of territory

37 Cultural Isolation European interest was not reciprocated European interest was not reciprocated Resistance to outside cultural influences Resistance to outside cultural influences Faith and tradition vs. technology Faith and tradition vs. technology

38 Conclusion Empires represented growing interdependence Empires represented growing interdependence Exchange of people, ideas and technology Exchange of people, ideas and technology Use of artillery changed warfare Use of artillery changed warfare Legacy of art, religion and nation Legacy of art, religion and nation


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