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Thermal Preservation. D 9.01 -- Thermal Preservation Definition Adding or removing heat to alter shelf- life. Shelf-life -- time food can be stored and.

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Presentation on theme: "Thermal Preservation. D 9.01 -- Thermal Preservation Definition Adding or removing heat to alter shelf- life. Shelf-life -- time food can be stored and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Thermal Preservation

2 D Thermal Preservation Definition Adding or removing heat to alter shelf- life. Shelf-life -- time food can be stored and still maintain its quality Heat processing -- adding heat to a food to destroy enzymes and some spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. Cold processing -- removing heat from food to slow deterioration from enzymes and bacteria.

3 D Thermal Preservation Types of Thermal Preservation Heat processing Blanching Commercial sterilization Pasteurization Sterilization Dehydration Canning Cold processing Refrigeration Freezing

4 D Thermal Preservation Blanching Immersing food in boiling water or steam to destroy enzymes. Often used before freezing or drying foods. Product shelf-life is short.

5 D Thermal Preservation Commercial Sterilization Combines heat and vacuum seal to destroy spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Product shelf-life is long. Examples include water bath, retort, or hydrostatic cooker and cooler

6 D Thermal Preservation Pasteurization A low heat treatment that destroys pathogenic microorganisms and stops enzyme activity Products have a medium shelf-life. Examples include batch, high temperature, and short-time.

7 D Thermal Preservation Sterilization A high temperature heat treatment that destroys all microorganisms. Products have a long shelf-life. Examples include aseptic canning.

8 D Thermal Preservation Dehydration Low temperature heat treatment that involves the removal of water as a means to prevent microbial growth. Products have a long shelf- life. Examples include tray, belt, drum, spray, vacuum, freeze-drying, sun, and oven drying

9 D Thermal Preservation Concentration Removal of a portion of water from food to prevent microbial growth. Products have a medium shelf-life. Examples -- open kettle, heat evaporation, vacuum evaporation, and filtration

10 D Thermal Preservation Refrigeration Slows enzyme activity and microbial growth. Products have a short shelf-life.

11 D Thermal Preservation Freezing Slows enzyme activity and microbial growth Products have a long shelf-life

12 Non-Thermal Preservation

13 D Thermal Preservation Definition Involves manipulating the properties of food or its environment without using heat. Examples include: Irradiation Ohmic heating Ozonation High pressure processing

14 D Thermal Preservation Irradiation Exposure of food to ionizing radiation for preservation In the U.S. irradiated foods are required to be labeled.

15 D Thermal Preservation Ohmic Heating Food is subjected to an alternating current flow between two electrodes.

16 D Thermal Preservation Ozonation Water treatment process used to destroy microorganisms by ozone, a gas produced by exposure of oxygen molecules to high electric voltage

17 D Thermal Preservation High Pressure Processing Preservation method where liquid and solid foods are subjected to pressures of 45,000 pounds per square inch or higher.

18 D Thermal Preservation Tamper-evident Devices

19 D Thermal Preservation Definition A package that has one or more indicators or barriers to entry which, if breached or missing, can reasonably be expected to provide visible evidence that tampering has occurred. Packages are made so they cannot be duplicated with commonly available materials or through commonly available processes.

20 D Thermal Preservation Other considerations The visual indication should be accompanied by a precautionary label. describing the tamper-evident feature(s) and warning that absence of or damage to such feature(s) at time of purchase is a sign of possible tampering.

21 D Thermal Preservation Many different types There are many types of tamper- evident devices. Research and development is on-going to make these devices more secure. Examples will be shown.

22 D Thermal Preservation Food Packaging

23 D Thermal Preservation What is food packaging? Enclosing food to protect food from tampering or contamination from physical, chemical, or biological sources.

24 D Thermal Preservation Six Functions of Packaging 1. Barrier between food and contaminants. 2. Protects food from impact during shipping and storage. 3. Acts as a dispenser 4. Protects food from moisture, gas, odors, and light 5. Identifies the contents 6. Serves as a cooking and storage container.

25 D Thermal Preservation Food Packaging Materials Metals (steel, tin, and aluminum) -- canned foods Glass -- beverages, pickles, condiments Paper (usually coated with wax, plastics, or aluminum foil) -- cartons of milk, crackers Plastics -- milk jugs, beverages, deli salads Packaging films (cellophane, edible films, and coatings) -- candy bars, hot dog casings, chips Laminates (layering materials into one product) -- drink boxes

26 D-9.02 Food Packaging Packaging Types Food packageFood Aseptic packagingLiquid whole eggs BagsPotato chips BoxesBox of cereal CansCan of soup CartonsCarton of eggs Flexible packagingBagged salad WrappersUsed to cover a package. D-9.02 Food Packaging

27 D Thermal Preservation Reduced oxygen packaging Some packaging methods involve changing the environment that surrounds food to increase the shelf life. Reduced oxygen packaging (ROP) provides an atmosphere that has little or no oxygen in the environment surround the food. Three types of ROP are: Controlled atmosphere packaging Modified atmosphere packaging Vacuum packaging

28 D Thermal Preservation Controlled Atmosphere Packaging Controls the movement of gases inside the package. Used with: fresh-cut salads.

29 D Thermal Preservation Modified Atmosphere Packaging Flush the food container with a gas, CO 2 or N 2., before the container is sealed Use with: potato chips and other snack foods fresh pasta

30 D Thermal Preservation Vacuum Packaging Remove all air, including oxygen, from inside the packaging environment. Used with: Country ham slices, deli meats, bacon

31 D Thermal Preservation Determination of what type of package to use The type of packaging material used with a specific food product depends on: the function the package must perform the protection needed conditions of shipping and storage chemical composition of the food

32 D Thermal Preservation Food Packaging

33 D Thermal Preservation What is food packaging? Enclosing food to protect food from tampering or contamination from physical, chemical, or biological sources.

34 D Thermal Preservation Six Functions of Packaging 1. Barrier between food and contaminants. 2. Protects food from impact during shipping and storage. 3. Acts as a dispenser 4. Protects food from moisture, gas, odors, and light 5. Identifies the contents 6. Serves as a cooking and storage container.

35 D Thermal Preservation Food Packaging Materials Metals (steel, tin, and aluminum) -- canned foods Glass -- beverages, pickles, condiments Paper (usually coated with wax, plastics, or aluminum foil) -- cartons of milk, crackers Plastics -- milk jugs, beverages, deli salads Packaging films (cellophane, edible films, and coatings) -- candy bars, hot dog casings, chips Laminates (layering materials into one product) -- drink boxes

36 D-9.02 Food Packaging Packaging Types Food packageFood Aseptic packagingLiquid whole eggs BagsPotato chips BoxesBox of cereal CansCan of soup CartonsCarton of eggs Flexible packagingBagged salad WrappersUsed to cover a package. D-9.02 Food Packaging

37 D Thermal Preservation Reduced oxygen packaging Some packaging methods involve changing the environment that surrounds food to increase the shelf life. Reduced oxygen packaging (ROP) provides an atmosphere that has little or no oxygen in the environment surround the food. Three types of ROP are: Controlled atmosphere packaging Modified atmosphere packaging Vacuum packaging

38 D Thermal Preservation Controlled Atmosphere Packaging Controls the movement of gases inside the package. Used with: fresh-cut salads.

39 D Thermal Preservation Modified Atmosphere Packaging Flush the food container with a gas, CO 2 or N 2., before the container is sealed Use with: potato chips and other snack foods fresh pasta

40 D Thermal Preservation Vacuum Packaging Remove all air, including oxygen, from inside the packaging environment. Used with: Country ham slices, deli meats, bacon

41 D Thermal Preservation Determination of what type of package to use The type of packaging material used with a specific food product depends on: the function the package must perform the protection needed conditions of shipping and storage chemical composition of the food


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