Causes of World War II Political instability and economic devastation in Europe resulting from World War I:
Worldwide depression High war debt owed by Germany High inflation Massive unemployment
Rise of Fascism: Fascism is political philosophy in which total power is given to a dictator and individual freedoms are denied and nationalism and, often, racism are emphasized.
Fascist dictators included: Adolf Hitler (Germany) Benito Mussolini (Italy) Hideki Tojo (Japan) These dictators led the countries that became known as the Axis Powers. Hitler Tojo Mussolini
DictatorCountry Political party/political philosophy Threats to Peace Adolf HitlerGermany Nazi Party Fascism 1.Racist government 2.Blamed Jews for problems in Germany 3.Suppressed opposing views and controlled peoples’ lives 4.Built up military 5.Expanded territory 6.Formed an alliance with Italy Joseph Stalin Soviet Union Communism 1. used force to demand obedience 2. Sent people to labor camps/killed opposition 1.Forced people to work on government owned farms Benito Mussolini ItalyFascism 1.banned all political parties 2.Ended freedom of the press 3.Ended all civil liberties 4.Invaded Ethiopia and Albania Hideki TojoJapanMilitary-controlled government Fascism 1.Attacked Manchuria 2.Formed an alliance with Italy and Germany called the Axis Powers
The Allies Democratic nations (the United States at end of 1941, Great Britain, Canada, France) were known as the Allies. The Soviet Union joined the Allies after being invaded by Germany in June 1941 Allied leaders included: Franklin D. Roosevelt later Harry S. Truman (US), Winston Churchill (Great Britain), Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union ).
Start of WW II Germany invaded Poland, setting off war in Europe. September 1, 1939 (Great Britain and France then declared war on Germany) The Soviet Union also invaded Poland and the Baltic nations. Germany invaded France and captured Paris. Germany bombed London, and the Battle of Britain began.
Gradual change in American policy from neutrality to direct involvement At first, the United States was neutral and isolationists Isolationism philosophy was due to: Great Depression (problems in our own country) Legacy of World War I (we became involved in a European war once before)
Change to economic involvement: Economic aid to Allies. Great Britain needed help from the U.S. Destroyers for Bases (1940) U.S. gave Britain war supplies and old naval warships in return for military bases in Bermuda and the Caribbean Lend - Lease (1941) The United States gave Britain war supplies and old naval warships in return for military bases in Bermuda and the Caribbean
United states direct involvement: Rising tension developed between the U.S. and Japan because of Japanese aggression in East Asia. On December 7, 1941, Japan attacked the U.S. at Pearl Harbor without warning. “A date which will live in infamy.” ~FDR The United States declared war on Japan. Germany declared war on the United States.