1. Whenever people interact with each other in an effort to earn a reward or return for their actions, an exchange has been made. 2. Reciprocity is the idea that you do something for someone, and that person owes you something in return. A. This concept is the basis of exchange
3. The volume of exchange has led to exchange theory. A. People are motivated by self interest in their interactions with other people. B. This means that people do things primarily for rewards. C. When the cost outweighs the rewards, people tend to end the interaction. D. Life is an attempt to maximize rewards and minimize cost.
1. Competition occurs when two or more people or groups oppose each other to achieve a goal that only one can attain. 2. Competition can be a positive way to motivate people to perform the roles that society asks of them. 3. Competition can lead to psychological stress, a lack of cooperation in social relationships, and even conflict.
1. Conflict is the deliberate attempt to control a person by force, to oppose someone, or to harm another person. 2. Conflict has few rules of conduct
3. Georg Simmel identified four sources of conflict Wars Disagreements between groups Legal disputes Clashes over ideology
4. Conflict is known for its negativity 5. Some sociologists have pointed out that conflict serves as a way to reinforce boundaries, and strengthen group unity and loyalty when facing an outside threat. 6. Conflict can also bring about social change.
A. Compromise- occurs when two parties both give up something to come to a mutual agreement. B. Truce- a situation where conflict is halted until a compromise can be met. C. Mediation- A third form of accommodation that calls in a third party who acts as an advioser to help the two parties come to an agreement. D. Arbitration- A third party makes a decision that is binding on both parties.