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Introductions to the Kingdoms of Life Chapter 19.

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Presentation on theme: "Introductions to the Kingdoms of Life Chapter 19."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introductions to the Kingdoms of Life Chapter 19

2 19.2 Advent of Multicellularity Half of the biomass on Earth is unicellular prokaryotes and eukaryotes Half of the biomass on Earth is unicellular prokaryotes and eukaryotes Colonies Colonies –No communication or coordination between cells –Permanently associated –Cell walls stick together or form filaments –Examples: Volvox and Cyanobacteria

3 Aggregations Aggregations –Temporary collection of cells –Example: Plasmodial Slime

4 Multicellular Multicellular –Composed of many cells that are permanently associated –Allows for increased size Remember: single cells cannot be large and survive Remember: single cells cannot be large and survive –Allows for specialization Movement Movement Protection Protection Reproduction Reproduction Feeding Feeding

5 Cells make-up Tissues which make-up Organs which make-up Organ Systems Cells make-up Tissues which make-up Organs which make-up Organ Systems Muscle cells make-up Muscle Tissue which make-up Heart which makes-up part of Circulatory System Muscle cells make-up Muscle Tissue which make-up Heart which makes-up part of Circulatory System

6 Kingdom Eubacteria A.k.a. Bacteria A.k.a. Bacteria Prokaryotes Prokaryotes O.1 to 15 μm O.1 to 15 μm Found practically everywhere Found practically everywhere Cell wall contains peptidoglycan Cell wall contains peptidoglycan

7 Kingdom Archaebacteria Prokaryotes Prokaryotes More closely related to eukaryotes than bacteria More closely related to eukaryotes than bacteria No peptidoglycan in cell wall No peptidoglycan in cell wall Have introns in genes Have introns in genes

8 Kingdom Protista Protists Protists Most diverse kingdom Most diverse kingdom Eukaryotes that are not fungi, plants, or animals Eukaryotes that are not fungi, plants, or animals Many are unicellular Many are unicellular All have cell membrane, some have cell walls All have cell membrane, some have cell walls Autotrophs and Heterotrophs Autotrophs and Heterotrophs Many move Many move Normally asexual reproduction but may be sexually Normally asexual reproduction but may be sexually

9 Kingdom Fungi Most Multicellular Most Multicellular –Yeast are unicellular (only unicellular eukaryote not a protist) Chitin in cell wall Chitin in cell wall –Like shell of a crab Bodies have long strands of cells called hyphae Bodies have long strands of cells called hyphae No movement No movement No chlorophyll or photosynthesis No chlorophyll or photosynthesis Heterotrophs but dont ingest, external digestion Heterotrophs but dont ingest, external digestion

10 Kingdom Plantae Plants Plants Multicellular autotrophs Multicellular autotrophs –Primary producers –Release oxygen –Cycle phosphorous, water, nitrogen, carbon Different cell types organized into tissues Different cell types organized into tissues Vascular tissue Vascular tissue –Transport water and dissolved nutrients Cellulose in cell walls Cellulose in cell walls No movement No movement –May have motile sperm –Spores and seeds allow for dispersal

11 Everywhere except extreme polar regions and highest mountaintops Everywhere except extreme polar regions and highest mountaintops Very small Duckweed Wolffia microscopica (1mm) to extremely large Giant Sequoia Redwood Sequoia sempervirens (90m) Very small Duckweed Wolffia microscopica (1mm) to extremely large Giant Sequoia Redwood Sequoia sempervirens (90m)

12 Nonvascular Nonvascular –No vascular tissue –Relatively small –No real roots, stems, or leaves –Example: Mosses

13 Vascular - Larger and more complex Vascular - Larger and more complex –Seedless Surfaces coated with waxy covering Surfaces coated with waxy covering Reproduce with spores Reproduce with spores Haploid and diploid phases Haploid and diploid phases Example: Ferns Example: Ferns

14 –Seeds Non-flowering = Gymnosperms – –Seeds, no flowers – –Cones – –Examples: Pines and Spruces Flowering = Angiosperms – –Flowers – –Fruits disperse seeds

15 Kingdom Animalia Animals Animals –Multicellular heterotrophs (cant make own food) –No cell wall –Mostly diploid phase –Cells organized into tissues –Zygotes develop through several stages –Muscle tissues allow for quick movement –Flight – unique to animals –Reproduce sexually

16 –99% are invertebrates (no backbone) Vertebrates have backbones Vertebrates have backbones –35 Phyla – most of these in sea

17 Different Phyla Sponges Sponges –No tissues –Specialized cells

18 Cnidarians Cnidarians –Mostly marine –Jellyfish, Sea Anemones, Corals

19 Flatworms Flatworms –Flat ribbon-like bodies –Some are parasitic

20 Roundworms Roundworms –A.k.a. Nematodes –Long, slender –Freeliving or parasitic –Heartworm, elephantiasis, hookworm

21 Segmented Worms Segmented Worms –A.k.a. Annelids –Water and soil –Leeches, Earthworms, Feather duster worms

22 Mollusks Mollusks –Saclike cavity (coelom) encloses internal organs –Aquatic and terrestrial –Snails, Clams, Octopuses

23 Arthropods Arthropods –Most diverse and 2/3 of all animal species –External skeleton –Jointed appendages –High rate of reproduction –Crabs, Insects, Arachnids

24 Echinoderms Echinoderms –spiny skin –Can regenerate lost limbs –Sea stars, sea cucumbers, sea urchins, sand dollars

25 Invertebrate Chordates Invertebrate Chordates –No backbone –Aquatic –Swim or attached

26 Vertebrates Vertebrates –Internal skeleton of bone –Backbone protects spinal cord –Head has brain enclosed in skull –Mammals, fish, birds, reptiles, and amphibians

27 Essential Life Functions Transport – cells get what they need and remove what they dont Transport – cells get what they need and remove what they dont Excretion – organisms remove waste and balance fluids Excretion – organisms remove waste and balance fluids Regulation – body process control – hormones and nervous system Regulation – body process control – hormones and nervous system Respiration – get oxygen and remove carbon dioxide Respiration – get oxygen and remove carbon dioxide Nutrition – break down and absorb food Nutrition – break down and absorb food Synthesis – build necessary molecules Synthesis – build necessary molecules Reproduction – how done Reproduction – how done Growth and Development – lifecycle Growth and Development – lifecycle

28 Unicellular Protists Transport – Diffusion Transport – Diffusion Excretion – Diffusion Excretion – Diffusion Regulation – Not Much Regulation – Not Much Respiration – Diffusion Respiration – Diffusion Nutrition – Auto and heterotrophs Nutrition – Auto and heterotrophs Reproduction – asexual mitosis and sexual with zygospore Reproduction – asexual mitosis and sexual with zygospore Growth and Development – flagella, cilia, pseudopodia Growth and Development – flagella, cilia, pseudopodia

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30 Annelid Worms Transport – closed system with hearts Transport – closed system with hearts Excretion – anus and nephridia Excretion – anus and nephridia Regulation – simple brain with nerve cord Regulation – simple brain with nerve cord Respiration – diffusion through skin Respiration – diffusion through skin Nutrition – heterotroph with digestive tract Nutrition – heterotroph with digestive tract Reproduction – Sexual hermaphrodites; cocoons with eggs Reproduction – Sexual hermaphrodites; cocoons with eggs Growth and Development – segmented; setae = bristles Growth and Development – segmented; setae = bristles

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32 Insects Transport – open system with hearts Transport – open system with hearts Excretion – Malphigian tubules Excretion – Malphigian tubules Regulation – Simple brains, eyes Regulation – Simple brains, eyes Respiration – Trachea and Spiracles Respiration – Trachea and Spiracles Nutrition – Heterotrophs with digestive tract Nutrition – Heterotrophs with digestive tract Reproduction – Sexual Reproduction – Sexual Growth and Development – Metamorphosis (Chrysalis to pupa to adult) Growth and Development – Metamorphosis (Chrysalis to pupa to adult)

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34 Amphibians Transport – closed system with heart Transport – closed system with heart Excretion – cloaca Excretion – cloaca Regulation – Brain and exothermic (cold blooded) Regulation – Brain and exothermic (cold blooded) Respiration – lungs with skin diffusion Respiration – lungs with skin diffusion Nutrition – Heterotrophs with digestive tract Nutrition – Heterotrophs with digestive tract Reproduction – Sexual with external eggs needing water Reproduction – Sexual with external eggs needing water Growth and Development – endoskeleton; metamorphosis Growth and Development – endoskeleton; metamorphosis

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36 Mammals Transport – 4 chambered closed heart Transport – 4 chambered closed heart Excretion – anus and kidneys Excretion – anus and kidneys Regulation – hair and endothermic; hormones and nervous system; brain Regulation – hair and endothermic; hormones and nervous system; brain Respiration – lungs and a diaphragm Respiration – lungs and a diaphragm Nutrition – heterotrophs that eat a large amount to maintain body temp. Nutrition – heterotrophs that eat a large amount to maintain body temp. Reproduction – sexual and internal fertilization Reproduction – sexual and internal fertilization Growth and Development – depend on mother; mammary glands; some lay eggs, some have pouch, some have internal development Growth and Development – depend on mother; mammary glands; some lay eggs, some have pouch, some have internal development

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38 Nonvascular Plants Transport – diffusion Transport – diffusion Excretion – diffusion Excretion – diffusion Regulation – cuticle resists drying out Regulation – cuticle resists drying out Respiration – stomatas allow gas exchange Respiration – stomatas allow gas exchange Nutrition – absorb nutrients and water from soil; autotrophs Nutrition – absorb nutrients and water from soil; autotrophs Reproduction – require water; swimming sperm Reproduction – require water; swimming sperm Growth and Development – spores Growth and Development – spores

39 Gymnosperms Transport – vascular system (xylem and phloem) Transport – vascular system (xylem and phloem) Excretion – stomata controls exchange Excretion – stomata controls exchange Regulation – stomata controls exchange Regulation – stomata controls exchange Respiration – stomata controls exchange Respiration – stomata controls exchange Nutrition – water and soil; autotrophs Nutrition – water and soil; autotrophs Reproduction – seeds in cones Reproduction – seeds in cones Growth and Development – seed to adult Growth and Development – seed to adult

40 Angiosperms Transport – vascular system (xylem and phloem) Transport – vascular system (xylem and phloem) Excretion – stomata controls exchange Excretion – stomata controls exchange Regulation – stomata controls exchange Regulation – stomata controls exchange Respiration – stomata controls exchange Respiration – stomata controls exchange Nutrition – water and soil; autotrophs Nutrition – water and soil; autotrophs Reproduction – pollen Reproduction – pollen Growth and Development – flower to fruit to seed Growth and Development – flower to fruit to seed


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