Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Introductions to the Kingdoms of Life

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Introductions to the Kingdoms of Life"— Presentation transcript:

1 Introductions to the Kingdoms of Life
Chapter 19

2 19.2 Advent of Multicellularity
Half of the biomass on Earth is unicellular prokaryotes and eukaryotes Colonies No communication or coordination between cells Permanently associated Cell walls stick together or form filaments Examples: Volvox and Cyanobacteria

3 Aggregations Temporary collection of cells Example: Plasmodial Slime

4 Multicellular Composed of many cells that are permanently associated
Allows for increased size Remember: single cells cannot be large and survive Allows for specialization Movement Protection Reproduction Feeding

5 Cells make-up Tissues which make-up Organs which make-up Organ Systems
Muscle cells make-up Muscle Tissue which make-up Heart which makes-up part of Circulatory System

6 Kingdom Eubacteria A.k.a. Bacteria Prokaryotes O.1 to 15 μm
Found practically everywhere Cell wall contains peptidoglycan

7 Kingdom Archaebacteria
Prokaryotes More closely related to eukaryotes than bacteria No peptidoglycan in cell wall Have introns in genes

8 Kingdom Protista Protists Most diverse kingdom
Eukaryotes that are not fungi, plants, or animals Many are unicellular All have cell membrane, some have cell walls Autotrophs and Heterotrophs Many move Normally asexual reproduction but may be sexually

9 Kingdom Fungi Most Multicellular Chitin in cell wall
Yeast are unicellular (only unicellular eukaryote not a protist) Chitin in cell wall Like shell of a crab Bodies have long strands of cells called hyphae No movement No chlorophyll or photosynthesis Heterotrophs but don’t ingest, external digestion

10 Kingdom Plantae Plants Multicellular autotrophs
Primary producers Release oxygen Cycle phosphorous, water, nitrogen, carbon Different cell types organized into tissues Vascular tissue Transport water and dissolved nutrients Cellulose in cell walls No movement May have motile sperm Spores and seeds allow for dispersal

11 Everywhere except extreme polar regions and highest mountaintops
Very small Duckweed Wolffia microscopica (1mm) to extremely large Giant Sequoia Redwood Sequoia sempervirens (90m)

12 Nonvascular No vascular tissue Relatively small
No real roots, stems, or leaves Example: Mosses

13 Vascular - Larger and more complex
Seedless Surfaces coated with waxy covering Reproduce with spores Haploid and diploid phases Example: Ferns

14 Non-flowering = Gymnosperms
Seeds Non-flowering = Gymnosperms Seeds, no flowers Cones Examples: Pines and Spruces Flowering = Angiosperms Flowers Fruits disperse seeds

15 Kingdom Animalia Animals
Multicellular heterotrophs (can’t make own food) No cell wall Mostly diploid phase Cells organized into tissues Zygotes develop through several stages Muscle tissues allow for quick movement Flight – unique to animals Reproduce sexually

16 99% are invertebrates (no backbone) 35 Phyla – most of these in sea
Vertebrates have backbones 35 Phyla – most of these in sea

17 Different Phyla Sponges No tissues Specialized cells

18 Cnidarians Mostly marine Jellyfish, Sea Anemones, Corals

19 Flatworms Flat ribbon-like bodies Some are parasitic

20 Roundworms A.k.a. Nematodes Long, slender Freeliving or parasitic
Heartworm, elephantiasis, hookworm

21 Segmented Worms A.k.a. Annelids Water and soil
Leeches, Earthworms, Feather duster worms

22 Mollusks Saclike cavity (coelom) encloses internal organs
Aquatic and terrestrial Snails, Clams, Octopuses

23 Arthropods Most diverse and 2/3 of all animal species
External skeleton Jointed appendages High rate of reproduction Crabs, Insects, Arachnids

24 Echinoderms “spiny skin” Can regenerate lost limbs
Sea stars, sea cucumbers, sea urchins, sand dollars

25 Invertebrate Chordates
No backbone Aquatic Swim or attached

26 Vertebrates Internal skeleton of bone Backbone protects spinal cord
Head has brain enclosed in skull Mammals, fish, birds, reptiles, and amphibians

27 Essential Life Functions
Transport – cells get what they need and remove what they don’t Excretion – organisms remove waste and balance fluids Regulation – body process control – hormones and nervous system Respiration – get oxygen and remove carbon dioxide Nutrition – break down and absorb food Synthesis – build necessary molecules Reproduction – how done Growth and Development – lifecycle

28 Unicellular Protists Transport – Diffusion Excretion – Diffusion
Regulation – Not Much Respiration – Diffusion Nutrition – Auto and heterotrophs Reproduction – asexual mitosis and sexual with zygospore Growth and Development – flagella, cilia, pseudopodia


30 Annelid Worms Transport – closed system with hearts
Excretion – anus and nephridia Regulation – simple brain with nerve cord Respiration – diffusion through skin Nutrition – heterotroph with digestive tract Reproduction – Sexual hermaphrodites; cocoons with eggs Growth and Development – segmented; setae = bristles


32 Insects Transport – open system with hearts
Excretion – Malphigian tubules Regulation – Simple brains, eyes Respiration – Trachea and Spiracles Nutrition – Heterotrophs with digestive tract Reproduction – Sexual Growth and Development – Metamorphosis (Chrysalis to pupa to adult)


34 Amphibians Transport – closed system with heart Excretion – cloaca
Regulation – Brain and exothermic (cold blooded) Respiration – lungs with skin diffusion Nutrition – Heterotrophs with digestive tract Reproduction – Sexual with external eggs needing water Growth and Development – endoskeleton; metamorphosis


36 Mammals Transport – 4 chambered closed heart
Excretion – anus and kidneys Regulation – hair and endothermic; hormones and nervous system; brain Respiration – lungs and a diaphragm Nutrition – heterotrophs that eat a large amount to maintain body temp. Reproduction – sexual and internal fertilization Growth and Development – depend on mother; mammary glands; some lay eggs, some have pouch, some have internal development


38 Nonvascular Plants Transport – diffusion Excretion – diffusion
Regulation – cuticle resists drying out Respiration – stomatas allow gas exchange Nutrition – absorb nutrients and water from soil; autotrophs Reproduction – require water; swimming sperm Growth and Development – spores

39 Gymnosperms Transport – vascular system (xylem and phloem)
Excretion – stomata controls exchange Regulation – stomata controls exchange Respiration – stomata controls exchange Nutrition – water and soil; autotrophs Reproduction – seeds in cones Growth and Development – seed to adult

40 Angiosperms Transport – vascular system (xylem and phloem)
Excretion – stomata controls exchange Regulation – stomata controls exchange Respiration – stomata controls exchange Nutrition – water and soil; autotrophs Reproduction – pollen Growth and Development – flower to fruit to seed

Download ppt "Introductions to the Kingdoms of Life"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google