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Types of Social Interaction. Exchange  Exchange: individuals, groups or societies interact in an effort to receive a reward or a return for their actions.

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Presentation on theme: "Types of Social Interaction. Exchange  Exchange: individuals, groups or societies interact in an effort to receive a reward or a return for their actions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Types of Social Interaction

2 Exchange  Exchange: individuals, groups or societies interact in an effort to receive a reward or a return for their actions  Dating, friendship, family life, politics all involve exchanges  Reciprocity  Exchange theory:  Theorists believe that people are motivated by self- interests in their interactions with other people

3 Competition  Two or more persons or groups oppose each other to achieve a goal that only one can attain  Feature of western socieities  Capitalist economic system  Democratic forms of government  Viewed by sociologists as a positive means of motivating people to perform society's needed roles  Negative side: can lead to psychological stress, lack of cooperation in social relationships, inequality, and even conflict

4 Conflict  Deliberate attempt to control by force, oppose, harm or resist the will of another person or persons  Few rules of conduct and these are often ignored  Range from deliberate snubbing to the killing of an enemy  Positive: serves useful purposes to reinforce group boundaries and strengthen loyalty by focusing attention on an outside threat; draws attention away from internal problems; can lead to social change by bringing problems to the forefront  Sociologist Georg Simmel identified four sources of conflict: 1.Wars 2.Conflicts within groups 3.Legal disputes 4.Clashes over ideology: religion or politics

5 Cooperation  Two or more persons or groups work together to achieve a goal that will benefit many people  Social progress that gets things done  No group can complete its tasks or achieve its goals without cooperation from its members  May motivate members to work harder for the group

6 Accommodation  State of balance between cooperation and conflict  Different forms of accommodation:  Compromise : two or more parties both give up something to come to a mutual agreement  Truce : brings a halt to the conflict until a compromise can be reached  Mediation : third party who acts as an adviser and/or counselor in helping the two parties reach an agreement  Arbitration : third party decision maker that is binding on both parties

7 Formal Organization  Structure  Formal Organization : a large, complex secondary group that has been established to achieve specific goals  Bureaucracy : ranked authority structure that operates according to specific rules and procedures  Rationalization : process by which every feature of human behavior becomes subject to calculations, measurement and control

8 Weber’s Model of Bureaucracies  Division of Labor  Ranking of Authority  Employment based on formal qualifications  Rules and Regulation  Specific Lines of Promotion and advancement

9 Criticisms of Bureaucracies  Purpose of bureaucracies becomes self-continuation  Goals of individual may be lost  Continue to exist with very little change, regardless of particular problems  Individuals develop bureaucratic personalities  ‘Red Tape’  Tendency to result in OLIGARCHIES  Iron Law of Oligarchy by Robert Michels tendency to become increasingly dominated

10 Relationships in Formal Organizations Effective?  Offer reasonable prices for production volumes  Clearly define job tasks and rewards  Provide stability, individuals come and go but organization continues Ineffective?  Way to large to coordinate people to achieve large-scale goals  Purpose: Self-continuation and goals of individuals may be lost


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