Presentation on theme: "Types of Microbes 1 VIRUSES. WHAT IS A VIRUS? A tiny, NON-LIVING particle that enters and then reproduces inside a living cell. No organisms or cells."— Presentation transcript:
Types of Microbes 1 VIRUSES
WHAT IS A VIRUS? A tiny, NON-LIVING particle that enters and then reproduces inside a living cell. No organisms or cells are safe from viruses. All can be infected by a virus.
Characteristics of Viruses Viruses are NON-LIVING because: 1.They do not use their own energy to grow or respond to the environment. 2.They cannot make food, eat food, or produce waste.
Characteristics of Viruses Viruses can ONLY multiply inside of a living cell. A HOST is an organism that provides a source of energy for a virus or another organism. A PARASITE is an organism that lives on or in a host and causes it harm.
Characteristics of Viruses A virus is a parasite because almost all viruses destroy the cell in which it multiplies. It causes the host harm and that is the definition of a parasite.
Virus Shapes Some of the shapes of viruses are: round, rod-shaped, brick shaped, thread shaped, bullet shaped, robot shaped.
Virus Shapes Round virus Thread virus Rod virus Bullet virus Robot virus Called a Bacteriophage
Virus Shapes A BACTERIOPHAGE is a virus that infects bacteria. The word itself means bacteria eater
Virus Sizes A virus is smaller than a cell (animal, plant or bacteria) A NANOMETER (nm) = 1 billionth of a meter. Diameter of the smallest virus = 20 nm Diameter of the largest virus = 200 nm
DIAMETER Virus The DIAMETER is the length of the dashed red line.
Naming Viruses Scientists name viruses a number of ways: 1.Named after the disease they cause 2.Named after the organisms they infect 3.Named after the place where it was first found 4.Named after people
The Structure of Viruses The 2 basic parts of a virus are: 1.PROTEIN COAT that protects the virus 2.INNER CORE made of genetic material (DNA) Some viruses are surrounded by an outer membrane or envelope.
The Structure of Viruses The proteins in a virus help to invade the host cell. Viruses only connect to certain host cells because each virus has unique proteins that allow it to attach to only certain host cells. Its like a key (virus surface proteins) that only fit a certain lock (host cell surface proteins). Viruses wont fit the lock on all host cells, only a specific few.
The Structure of Viruses HOST CELL BRICK SHAPED VIRUS Host cells surface protein Virus surface protein KEYLOCK
The Structure of Viruses
HOW VIRUSES MULTIPLY Once a virus attaches to a host cell, it enters the cell. Once inside the host cell, the viruss genetic material takes over the cells functions. It tells the cell to produce the viruss proteins and genetic material so that more viruses can be made.
Active Viruses Once inside the host cell, an Active Virus starts taking over: 1.The viruss DNA takes over the cells functions 2. The host cell makes more of the viruss proteins and DNA 3. New Viruses are made. 4. This continues over and over again until…. The cell fills up with viruses and bursts. 5. Hundreds of new viruses are free to find more cells.
Hidden Viruses Once inside the host cell, a Hidden virus hides for awhile inside the host: 1.The viruss DNA becomes part of the host cells DNA 2.The virus hides out, not doing anything sometimes for years. 3.Every time the host cell divides, the viruss DNA is copied along with the host cells DNA 4.Under certain circumstances, the viruss DNA becomes active. 5.Then the Hidden Virus becomes an Active Virus and does the same thing an Active Virus does. 6.After an active period, it becomes a Hidden Virus again.
Heres a list of the Illnesses talked about in the book Chicken pox Tobacco Mosaic Virus West Nile disease Rabies Smallpox Cold Sore The Flu The Cold Yellow Fever Streptococcus (Strep Throat) Polio Mononucleosis AIDS Apple Mosaic Virus Distemper Cystic Fibrosis