Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Tracing Evolutionary History

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Tracing Evolutionary History"— Presentation transcript:

1 Tracing Evolutionary History
Chapter 15 Tracing Evolutionary History

2 Are Birds Really Dinosaurs with Feathers?
Did birds evolve from dinosaurs? Evolutionary biologists Have been pondering this question for decades

3 Recent fossil finds Support this notion

15.1 The fossil record chronicles macroevolution The fossil record Documents the main events in the history of life

5 In the geologic record Major transitions in life-forms separate eras Smaller changes divide eras into periods

6 The geologic record Table 15.1

7 15.2 The actual ages of rocks and fossils mark geologic time
Radiometric dating Measures the decay of radioactive isotopes Can gauge the actual ages of fossils and the rocks in which they are found

8 15.3 Continental drift has played a major role in macroevolution
Is the slow, incessant movement of Earth’s crustal plates on the hot mantle Edge of one plate being pushed over edge of neighboring plate (zones of violent geologic events) Antarctic Plate Australian Plate Split developing Indian Plate Eurasian Plate North American Plate South American Plate Nazca Plate Pacific Plate Arabian Plate African Plate Figure 15.3A

9 The formation of Pangaea Altered habitats and triggered extinctions
Figure 15.3B 65 135 245 Millions of years ago Paleozoic Mesozoic Cenozoic North America Eurasia Africa South America India Antarctica Australia Laurasia Gondwana Pangaea

10 The separation of the continents
Affected the distribution and diversification of organisms North America South Europe Asia Africa Australia = Living lungfishes = Fossilized lungfishes Figure 15.3C Figure 15.3D

11 15.4 Tectonic trauma imperils local life
CONNECTION 15.4 Tectonic trauma imperils local life Volcanoes and earthquakes result from plate tectonics The movements of Earth’s crustal plates San Andreas Fault North American Plate San Francisco Santa Cruz Los Angeles Pacific California Figure 15.4A, B

12 15.5 Mass extinctions were followed by diversification of life-forms
Occurred at the end of the Permian and Cretaceous periods

13 The Cretaceous extinction, which included the dinosaurs
May have been caused by an asteroid Figure 15.5 North America Chicxulub crater Yucatán Peninsula

14 A rebound in diversity Follows mass extinctions

15.6 Phylogenies are based on homologies in fossils and living organisms Phylogeny, the evolutionary history of a group Is based on identifying homologous and molecular sequences that provide evidence of common ancestry

16 Analogous similarities
Result from convergent evolution in similar environments Figure 15.6

17 Systematics Involves the analytical study of diversity and phylogeny

18 15.7 Systematics connects classification with evolutionary history
Taxonomists assign a binomial Consisting of a genus and species name, to each species A genus May include a group of related species

19 Genera are grouped into progressively larger categories
Family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, and domain Species Genus Family Order Class Phylum Kingdom Domain Felis catus Felidae Carnivora Mammalia Chordata Animalia Eukarya Figure 15.7A

20 Is a hypothesis of evolutionary relationships
A phylogenetic tree Is a hypothesis of evolutionary relationships Species Felis catus (domestic cat) Mephitis mephitis (striped skunk) Lutra lutra (European otter) Canis familiaris (domestic dog) lupus (wolf) Genus Family Order Felidae Carnivora Mustelidae Canidae Figure 15.7B

21 15.8 Cladograms are diagrams based on shared characters among species
Cladistics uses shared derived characters To define monophyletic taxa Taxa Ingroup (Mammals) Outgroup (Reptiles) Eastern box turtle Duck-billed platypus Red kangaroo North American beaver Characters Long gestation Gestation Hair, mammary glands Vertebral column Figure 15.8A 3 2 1

22 Shared primitive characters
Are common to ancestral groups

23 The simplest (most parsimonious) hypothesis
Creates the most likely phylogenetic tree Figure 15.8B Lizards Snakes Crocodiles Birds Common reptilian ancestor

24 15.9 Molecular biology is a powerful tool in systematics
Molecular systematics Develops phylogenetic hypotheses based on molecular comparisons Brown bear Polar bear Asiatic black American black bear Sun Sloth Spectacled Giant panda Raccoon Lesser Pleistocene Pliocene 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Oligocene Miocene Millions of years ago Ursidae Procyonidae Common ancestral carnivorans Figure 15.9A

25 Studies of ribosomal RNA sequences
Have shown that humans are more closely related to fungi than to green plants Student Mushroom Tulip Common ancestor Figure 15.9B

26 DNA Comparisons Molecular comparisons of nucleic acids
Often pose technical challenges Can reveal the most fundamental similarities or differences between species

27 Molecular Clocks Some regions of DNA
Change at a rate consistent enough to serve as molecular clocks to date evolutionary events

28 Genome Evolution Homologous genes Are found in many species Human
Chimpanzee Gorilla Orangutan Common ancestor Figure 15.9C

29 15.10 Arranging life into kingdoms is a work in progress
In the five-kingdom system Prokaryotes are in the kingdom Monera Eukaryotes (plants, animals, protists, and fungi) are grouped in separate kingdoms Monera Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia Earliest organisms Prokaryotes Eukoryotes Figure 15.10A

30 Recognizes the prokaryotic domains Bacteria and Archaea
The domain system Recognizes the prokaryotic domains Bacteria and Archaea Eukaryotes Are placed in the domain Eukarya Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Earliest organisms Prokaryotes Eukoryotes Figure 15.10B

Download ppt "Tracing Evolutionary History"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google