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Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology: Concepts and Connections, Fifth Edition – Campbell,

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology: Concepts and Connections, Fifth Edition – Campbell,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology: Concepts and Connections, Fifth Edition – Campbell, Reece, Taylor, and Simon Lectures by Chris Romero Chapter 15 Tracing Evolutionary History

2 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Are Birds Really Dinosaurs with Feathers? Did birds evolve from dinosaurs? Evolutionary biologists –Have been pondering this question for decades

3 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Recent fossil finds –Support this notion

4 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings MACROEVOLUTION AND EARTHS HISTORY 15.1 The fossil record chronicles macroevolution The fossil record –Documents the main events in the history of life

5 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings In the geologic record –Major transitions in life-forms separate eras –Smaller changes divide eras into periods

6 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings The geologic record Table 15.1

7 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings 15.2 The actual ages of rocks and fossils mark geologic time Radiometric dating –Measures the decay of radioactive isotopes –Can gauge the actual ages of fossils and the rocks in which they are found

8 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings 15.3 Continental drift has played a major role in macroevolution Continental drift –Is the slow, incessant movement of Earths crustal plates on the hot mantle Edge of one plate being pushed over edge of neighboring plate (zones of violent geologic events) Antarctic Plate Australian Plate Split developing Indian Plate Eurasian Plate North American Plate South American Plate Nazca Plate Pacific Plate Arabian Plate African Plate Figure 15.3A

9 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings The formation of Pangaea –Altered habitats and triggered extinctions Figure 15.3B Millions of years ago Paleozoic Mesozoic Cenozoic North America Eurasia Africa South America India Antarctica Australia Laurasia Gondwana Pangaea

10 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings The separation of the continents –Affected the distribution and diversification of organisms North America South America Europe Asia Africa Australia = Living lungfishes = Fossilized lungfishes Figure 15.3D Figure 15.3C

11 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings CONNECTION 15.4 Tectonic trauma imperils local life Volcanoes and earthquakes result from plate tectonics –The movements of Earths crustal plates San Andreas Fault North American Plate San Francisco Santa Cruz Los Angeles Pacific Plate California Figure 15.4A, B

12 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings 15.5 Mass extinctions were followed by diversification of life-forms Mass extinctions –Occurred at the end of the Permian and Cretaceous periods

13 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Cretaceous extinction, which included the dinosaurs –May have been caused by an asteroid Figure 15.5 North America Chicxulub crater Yucatán Peninsula

14 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings A rebound in diversity –Follows mass extinctions

15 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings PHYLOGENY AND SYSTEMATICS 15.6 Phylogenies are based on homologies in fossils and living organisms Phylogeny, the evolutionary history of a group –Is based on identifying homologous and molecular sequences that provide evidence of common ancestry

16 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15.6 Analogous similarities –Result from convergent evolution in similar environments

17 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Systematics –Involves the analytical study of diversity and phylogeny

18 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings 15.7 Systematics connects classification with evolutionary history Taxonomists assign a binomial –Consisting of a genus and species name, to each species A genus –May include a group of related species

19 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Genera are grouped into progressively larger categories –Family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, and domain Species Genus Family Order Class Phylum Kingdom Domain Felis catus Felis Felidae Carnivora Mammalia Chordata Animalia Eukarya Figure 15.7A

20 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Species Felis catus (domestic cat) Mephitis mephitis (striped skunk) Lutra lutra (European otter) Canis familiaris (domestic dog) Canis lupus (wolf) Genus Family Order Felis Felidae Carnivora Mustelidae Mephitis Lutra Canis Canidae Figure 15.7B A phylogenetic tree –Is a hypothesis of evolutionary relationships

21 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings 15.8 Cladograms are diagrams based on shared characters among species Cladistics uses shared derived characters –To define monophyletic taxa Taxa Ingroup (Mammals) Outgroup (Reptiles) Eastern box turtle Duck-billed platypus Red kangarooNorth American beaver Characters Long gestation Gestation Hair, mammary glands Long gestation Gestation Hair, mammary glands Vertebral column Figure 15.8A

22 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Shared primitive characters –Are common to ancestral groups

23 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings The simplest (most parsimonious) hypothesis –Creates the most likely phylogenetic tree Figure 15.8B Lizards Snakes CrocodilesBirds Common reptilian ancestor

24 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Brown bear Polar bear Asiatic black bear American black bear Sun bear Sloth bear Spectacled bear Giant panda Raccoon Lesser panda Pleistocene Pliocene Oligocene Miocene Millions of years ago Ursidae Procyonidae Common ancestral carnivorans Figure 15.9A 15.9 Molecular biology is a powerful tool in systematics Molecular systematics –Develops phylogenetic hypotheses based on molecular comparisons

25 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Studies of ribosomal RNA sequences –Have shown that humans are more closely related to fungi than to green plants StudentMushroomTulip Common ancestor Figure 15.9B

26 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings DNA Comparisons Molecular comparisons of nucleic acids –Often pose technical challenges –Can reveal the most fundamental similarities or differences between species

27 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Molecular Clocks Some regions of DNA –Change at a rate consistent enough to serve as molecular clocks to date evolutionary events

28 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Genome Evolution Homologous genes –Are found in many species Human ChimpanzeeGorillaOrangutan Common ancestor Figure 15.9C

29 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings MoneraProtistaPlantaeFungiAnimalia Earliest organisms Prokaryotes Eukoryotes Figure 15.10A Arranging life into kingdoms is a work in progress In the five-kingdom system –Prokaryotes are in the kingdom Monera –Eukaryotes (plants, animals, protists, and fungi) are grouped in separate kingdoms

30 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings The domain system –Recognizes the prokaryotic domains Bacteria and Archaea Eukaryotes –Are placed in the domain Eukarya BacteriaArchaeaEukarya Earliest organisms Prokaryotes Eukoryotes Figure 15.10B


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