Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Biology 210 Chapter 8: Skeletal Tissues Supplement 1 By John McGill Material contributed by Beth Wyatt & Jack Bagwell.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Biology 210 Chapter 8: Skeletal Tissues Supplement 1 By John McGill Material contributed by Beth Wyatt & Jack Bagwell."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biology 210 Chapter 8: Skeletal Tissues Supplement 1 By John McGill Material contributed by Beth Wyatt & Jack Bagwell

2 DIVISIONS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM AXIAL SKELETON (80 BONES) Bones of the Head, Neck, and Torso APPENDICULAR SKELETON (126 BONES) Bones of the Upper and Lower Extremeties * Total Number of Major Bones in the Body = 206

3 BONES OF THE AXIAL SKELETON SKULL 28 Bones

4 CRANIAL BONES 8 Form the Cranium Surrounds the Brain

5 FRONTAL-1 Anterior Forms Anterior Portion of Cranium (Forehead) & Anterior Cranial Floor & Forms Roofs of Orbits (Eye Sockets)

6 PARIETAL 2 Superior Forms Superior Portion of Cranium

7 TEMPORAL 2 Lateral Forms Lateral Portion of Cranium & Cranial Floor

8 OCCIPITAL 1 Posterior Forms Posterior Portion of Cranium & Cranial Floor

9 SPHENOID 1 Central Forms Central Portion of Cranial Floor Shape Resembles Bat Known as the Keystone of the Cranium B/C the Sphenoid Bone Anchors All the Other Cranial Bones Lateral Forms Lateral Walls of Cranium Lies in Front of Temporal Bone & Lateral Walls of Orbits

10 ETHMOID 1 Complex, Irregularly Shaped Bone General Location: Between Nasal and Sphenoid Bones

11 ETHMOID continued

12 Where the Ethmoid Bone Can Be Seen in an Articulated Skull: Medial Walls of Orbits Upper Portion of Nasal Septum Upper "Ledges" Projecting into the Nasal Cavities Anterior Cranial Floor

13 ETHMOID continued Ethmoid sinuses associated with ethmoid bone hollow spaces inside ethmoid bone

14 BONES OF THE AXIAL SKELETON SKULL FACIAL BONES Primarily Form the Face

15 NASAL 2 Form Bridge of Nose

16 MAXILLARY (MAXILLA) 2 Upper Jawbones Form the central portion of the face "Keystone of the Face Anchors All Other Facial Bones Except Mandible Also Forms: Floor of Orbits & Anterior Portion (Most) of Hard Palate

17 BONES OF THE AXIAL SKELETON SKULL FACIAL BONES

18 ZYGOMATIC 2 Cheekbones Also Form Lateral Walls of Orbits

19 MANDIBLE 1 Lower Jawbone Largest, Strongest Bone of the Face

20 LACRIMAL 2 Forms Medial Walls of Orbits B/T the Maxillary and Ethmoid Bones Paper Thin Bones Usually Broken in Real Bone Skulls

21 PALATINE 2 Shaped like 2 L's facing one another Horizontal Portion of L's Forms Posterior Portion of Hard Palate Vertical Portion of L's Forms Lateral, Posterior Walls of Nasal Cavities

22 Palatine Bones

23 Turbinates INFERIOR TURBINATES (CONCHAE) 2 Form Lower "Ledges" That Project into Nasal Cavities Scroll Shaped Inferior turbinate (IT) Middle turbinate (MT) Increase the surface area of the lining of the nose Warms, humidifies, & cleans air U=uvula T=anterior tongue BoT=base of tongue See next slide too

24 Turbinates

25 VOMER 1 Forms Lower Portion of Nasal Septum

26 VOMER 1

27 BONES OF THE EAR (6) Tiny Bones Located Within Temporal Bones In Middle Ear 3/Ear MALLEUS (2) INCUS (2) STAPES (2)

28 HYOID BONE (1) U Shaped Bone That Lies in the Neck B/T Mandible and Larynx The Only Bone in the Body That Doesnt Form a Joint With Another Bone Held in Place By Ligaments and Muscles Supports and Provides Muscle Attachment For Muscles That Form Floor of Mouth and Tongue

29 HYOID BONE (1)

30 BONES OF THE AXIAL SKELETON SPINAL (VERTEBRAL) COLUMN (26)

31 CERVICAL VERTEBRAE – 7

32 ATLAS 1st Cervical Vertebra Named For Atlas in Greek Mythology

33 AXIS 2nd Cervical Vertebra Named B/C Atlas Pivots Around Axis

34 THORACIC VERTEBRAE – 12

35 LUMBAR VERTEBRAE – 5

36 SACRUM – 5 FUSED INTO 1 Wedge-Shaped Bone Consists of 5 Separate Vertebrae (Childhood) That Fuse Into 1 After Bones Mature

37 COCCYX – 4 OR 5 FUSED INTO 1 Tailbone Consists of Separate Vetebrae That Fuse (Like Sacrum)

38 BONES OF THE AXIAL SKELETON STERNUM AND RIBS (25)

39 STERNUM – 1 Breastbone Dagger-Shaped Flat Bone

40 RIBS – 12 PAIR TRUE RIBS – 7 PAIR Called True Ribs B/C They Attach Directly to the Sternum By Costal Cartilage FALSE RIBS – 5 PAIR Called False Ribs B/C: 3 PAIR Attach Indirectly to the Sternum By the Costal Cartilage of Rib 7 (1st 3 Pair of False Ribs #s 8,9,10 Counting From the 1st True Rib) 2 PAIR Dont Attach to the Sternum At All (Last 2 Pair Of False Ribs, #s 11,12 Counting From the 1st True Rib) These Are Also Known as Floating Ribs

41 STERNUM AND RIBS (25) continued… Note: Posteriorly, ALL Ribs Are Attached to the Thoracic Vertebrae Note: Thorax (Thoracic Cage) = Sternum + Ribs + Vertebral Column, (Creates a Complete Boney Cage)

42 BONES OF THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON UPPER EXTREMITIES (64)

43 CLAVICLE – 2 Collarbone

44 SCAPULA – 2 Shoulder Blade

45 Shoulder Girdle Shoulder Girdle = Clavicle + Scapula

46 HUMERUS – 2 Long Bone of the Upper Arm

47 RADIUS – 2 Radius and Ulna Are Bones of the Forearm Radius: Thumb Side, Ulna: Little Finger Side

48 ULNA – 2 Radius and Ulna Are Bones of the Forearm Radius: Thumb Side, Ulna: Little Finger Side

49 CARPALS – 16 Bones of the Anatomical Wrist Proximal End of Hand

50 METACARPALS – 10 Bones That Form the Palm of the Hand Knuckles = Heads of Metacarpals

51 PHALANGES – 28 Bones of the Fingers 3 in Each Finger, 2 in Each Thumb

52 BONES OF THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON LOWER EXTREMITIES (62)

53 OS COXAE (COXAL/INNOMINATE) – 2 (PELVIC GIRDLE) Pelvic/Hip Bones Broadest Bone in the Body Os Coxae (2) + Sacrum + Coccyx, Forms Complete Boney Ring

54 FEMUR – 2 Thigh Bone Longest, Largest, Strongest Bone

55 PATELLA – 2 Kneecap

56 TIBIA – 2 Tibia and Fibula Are Bones of the Lower Leg Tibia: Shin Bone Larger, More Medial and More Superficial Compared to Fibula

57 FIBULA – 2

58 TARSALS – 14 Bones That Form the Heel and the Posterior Portion of the Foot

59 METATARSALS – 10 Bones That Form the Long Portion of the Foot

60 PHALANGES – 28 Bones of the Toes; 3 in Each Toe Except Big Toes, 2 in Each Big Toe

61 BIO 210 Chapter 8 Supplements 2 & 3 TERMS USED TO DESCRIBE BONE MARKINGS Developed by: Mr. McGill Mrs. Wyatt

62 Define Bone Markings Identifying Features on Bones Marks Each Bone as Unique

63 DEPRESSIONS AND OPENINGS

64 FORAMEN Round Hole in Bone for Blood Vessels and Nerves Example: Supraorbital Foramen

65 FOSSA Depression in Bone into Which Another Bone Fits (Forms Joint) Example: Mandibular Fossa Which #? 10

66 MEATUS Tubelike Canal in Bone Example: External Auditory Meatus Which #? 11

67 NOTCH V-like Depression in Bone Example: Supraorbital Notch Allows passage of supraorbital vessels & nerves.

68 PROCESSES Extensions of Bone 2 Groups: THOSE THAT FIT INTO JOINTS & THOSE TO WHICH MUSCLES ATTACH. THOSE THAT FIT INTO JOINTS-2 TYPES HEAD & CONDYLE Rounded Bump That Usually Fits into a Fossa on Another Bone Forming a Joint Example: Mandibular Condyle C or E C, what is E?

69 HEAD Large, Rounded Distinct End of a Long Bone Fits into a Depression on Another Bone Forming A Joint Example: Head of Femur Fits into acetabulum of os coxae (pelvis)

70 THOSE TO WHICH MUSCLES ATTACH EPICONDYLE SPINE (SPINOUS PROCESS) TROCHANTER TUBEROSITY

71 EPICONDYLE Bump Above a Condyle for Muscle Attachment CONDYLE-Rounded Bump That Usually Fits into a Fossa on Another Bone Forming a Joint (Example: Mandibular Condyle) Example: Epicondyles of Femur

72 SPINE (SPINOUS PROCESS) Sharp, Pointed Process for Muscle Attachment Example: Spine of Vertebra

73 TROCHANTER Large Bump for Muscle Attachment Example: Trochanters of Femur

74 TUBEROSITY Small Bump for Muscle Attachment Example: Tibial Tuberosity

75 Processes-OTHERS BODY Main Portion of a Bone Example: Body of Vertebra

76 Processes-OTHERS SINUS Cavity Within Bone Example: Frontal Sinuses

77 BONE MARKINGS OF INDIVIDUAL BONES: THE SKULL

78 FRONTAL BONE SUPRAORBITAL FORAMEN "Hole/Notch Above Orbit 2 May Be a Foramen/May Be a Notch (Varies)

79 FRONTAL BONE FRONTAL SINUSES Cavities Within Frontal Bone (Above Orbits) Usually 2 (One Above Each Orbit) But Varies

80 TEMPORAL BONE Note: 2 Temporal Bones Means 2 Each of These Bone Markings

81 TEMPORAL BONE MASTOID PROCESS Projection of Bone Just Behind Ear Contains Mastoid Air Cells (Small Sinuses That Communicate With Middle Ear Rather Than Nose)

82 TEMPORAL BONE EXTERNAL AUDITORY MEATUS "External Ear Canal Tube That Extends into the Temporal Bone From the External to Middle Ear

83 TEMPORAL BONE STYLOID PROCESS Slender Spike of Bone That Extends Downward From the Temporal Bone

84 TEMPORAL BONE MANDIBULAR FOSSA Depressed Area in the Temporal Bone into Which the Mandible Fits

85 TEMPORAL BONE ZYGOMATIC PROCESS The Portion of the Temporal Bone That Joins the Zygomatic Bone Zygomatic Arch = Zygomatic Process (Temporal Bone) + Zygomatic Bone 1.Frontal bone 2.Parietal bone 3.Temporal bone 4.Greater wing of sphenoid

86 OCCIPITAL BONE FORAMEN MAGNUM "Large Hole The Hole Through Which the Spinal Cord Enters the Cranial Cavity OCCIPITAL CONDYLES 2 Oval Shaped Bumps on Either Side of the Foramen Magnum (Where Skull Joins Vertebral Column)

87 SPHENOID BONE OPTIC FORAMEN "Hole in Eye" 2 Transmits the Optic Nerve (Vision) From Eye to Brain

88 SPHENOID SPHENOID BONE

89 SELLA TURCICA Depression in the Center of the Sphenoid Bone (Houses the Pituitary Gland)

90 SPHENOID BONE SPHENOID SINUSES Cavities Within the Sphenoid Bone Number Varies

91 ETHMOID BONE CRISTA GALLI Upward Projection of Ethmoid Bone Lies in Anterior Cranial Floor Point of Attachment for the Meninges Protective Coverings for Brain and Spinal Cord

92 ETHMOID BONE CRIBIFORM PLATE Thin Plate (Anterior Cranial Floor) That Crista Galli Sets On Separates the Cranial and Nasal Cavities Contains Numerous Holes for Branches of the Olfactory Nerve (Smell) (Branches of This Nerve Pass From Nose to Brain Through These Holes)

93 ETHMOID BONE PERPENDICULAR PLATE Upper Portion of Nasal Septum (Nasal Septum is the Midline Wall in Internal Nose)

94 PERPENDICULAR PLATE

95 ETHMOID BONE SUPERIOR AND MIDDLE CHONCHAE (TURBINATES) Upper and Middle "Ledges" in Nasal Cavities Superior and 2 Middle Conchae

96 ETHMOID BONE ETHMOID SINUSES Small, Spongy Cavities That Lie Within the Lateral Portions of the Ethmoid Bone

97 MAXILLARY BONE ALVEOLAR PROCESS Arch That Contains the Teeth INFRAORBITAL FORAMEN "Hole Below Orbit 2 Alveolar Process Infraorbital Foramen

98 MAXILLARY BONE PALATINE PROCESS The Portion of the Maxillary Bones That Forms the Anterior and Most of Hard Palate Hard Palate is the Hard Portion of the Roof of the Mouth

99 MAXILLARY BONE MAXILLARY SINUSES Cavities Within the Maxillary Bones Below Orbits Usually 2 One Below Each Orbit Varies The Largest of the Sinuses

100 MANDIBLE BONE MANDIBULAR CONDYLE (c) Rounded Portion of Mandible That Fits Into Mandibular Fossa of Temporal Bone to Form the Jaw Joint (2)

101 MANDIBLE BONE ALVEOLAR PROCESS Arch That Contains the Teeth

102 MANDIBLE BONE MENTAL FORAMEN "Hole in Chin" (Outer Surface of Mandible) 2

103 MANDIBLE BONE MENTAL FORAMEN

104 MANDIBLE BONE MANDIBULAR FORAMEN "Hole in Mandible" (Inner Surface of Mandible) 2 PALATINE BONE (HORIZONTAL PLATE) Posterior portion of the hard palate Mandibular foramen Palatine Bone

105 SUTURES Immovable Joints Between Skull Bones SQUAMOUS Lies Along the Top Curved Edge of the Temporal Bone Joint Between Temporal, Parietal, and Part of the Sphenoid Bones

106 SUTURES CORONAL (FRONTAL)(1) The Joint Between Parietal and Frontal Bones LAMBDOIDAL (8) The Joint Between Parietal and Occipital Bones SAGITTAL The Joint Between the 2 Parietal Bones

107 FONTANELS DEFINITION "Soft Spots" in an Infant's Skull Areas Where Ossification is Incomplete at Birth PURPOSE Allows Compression of the Skull During Childbirth

108 PARANASAL SINUSES (PREVIOUSLY LISTED WITH SKULL BONES) "Sinuses Around Nose" (Communicate Directly (Open Into) Internal Nose) FRONTAL SPHENOID ETHMOID MAXILLARY SINUSES

109 MASTOID SINUSES (AIR CELLS) Located in the Mastoid Processes of the Temporal Bones Small Sinuses That Communicate With the Middle Ear Rather Than the Nose 1 Mastoid sinuses 2 Mastoid process SINUSES

110 ORBITS & NASAL SEPTUM ORBITS Eye Sockets Formed By Many Cranial and Facial Bones: Frontal, Sphenoid, Zygomatic, Ethmoid, Lacrimal, Maxillary (See Previous Info) NASAL SEPTUM Midline Wall in the Internal Nose (Divides the Internal Nose Into 2 Cavities) Formed By: Bone: Perpendicular Plate of Ethmoid Bone: Forms Upper Portion Vomer: Forms Lower Portion Cartilage (Hyaline): Forms Anterior Portion

111 BONE MARKINGS OF INDIVIDUAL BONES: THE SKULL WORMIAN BONES Small Islands of Bone Located Within Sutures Highly Individual So the Number Varies

112 VERTEBRAE BODY Flat, rounded portion Anterior and medial SPINOUS PROCESS Sharp, pointed, posterior, and medial projection Can be felt through the skin of the back TRANSVERSE PROCESSES Sharp, pointed, and lateral projections 2 (left and right) Note: These are markings that are common to most vertebrae

113 VERTEBRAE SUPERIOR ARTICULAR PROCESSES INFERIOR ARTICULAR PROCESSES "Joining Processes"; One Way That the Vertebrae Join Together (They Also Join By Their Bodies) Superior Articular (Articulating) Processes: 2; Uppermost (Project Up) Inferior Articular (Articulating) Processes: 2; Lowermost (Project Down) The Superior Articular Processes of One Vertebra Join to the Inferior Articular Processes of the Above Vertebra SPINAL (VERTEBRAL) FORAMEN Hole in the Center of Each Vertebra When All the Vertebrae are Joined, These Holes Create the Spinal Cavity (Houses the Spinal Cord)

114 STERNUM MANUBRIUM Upper Portion of the Sternum BODY Middle (Main) Portion of the Sternum XIPHOID PROCESS: Blunt, Lower Tip of Sternum Composed of Cartilage That Ossifies As One Ages RIBS: COSTAL CARTILAGES Cartilage (Hyaline) That Joins Ribs to Sternum

115 BONE MARKINGS OF INDIVIDUAL BONES: SCAPULA Spine SPINE Sharp Ridge on the Posterior Surface of the Scapula GLENOID CAVITY Arm Socket: A Shallow Depression That Holds the Head of the Humerus to Form the Shoulder Joint

116 BONE MARKINGS OF INDIVIDUAL BONES: HUMERUS HEAD Large, Rounded, Proximal Epiphysis Medial (Fits Into Glenoid Cavity) The following are distal: MEDIAL EPICONDYLE LATERAL EPICONDYLE CAPITULUM-Rounded, Lateral Knob TROCHLEA Rounded, Medial Knob That Contains a Depression in the Center

117 BONE MARKINGS OF INDIVIDUAL BONES: RADIUS HEAD: Proximal; Disk Shaped STYLOID PROCESS: Distal, Pointed Projection (Lateral in Anatomical Position) ULNA OLECRANON PROCESS: Proximal, Upward Projection of the Ulna (Elbow) SEMILUNAR NOTCH Curved Depression Proximal STYLOID PROCESS Distal, Pointed Projection (Medial in Anatomical Position) Can Be Felt Through the Skin in the Wrist Area

118 BONE MARKINGS OF INDIVIDUAL BONES: OS COXAE (COXAL/INNOMINATE) ILIUM: Uppermost, Flaring Portion (Largest) ISCHIUM: Lowermost Portion (Strongest) PUBIS: Anterior, Medial Portion Markings: ACETABULUM Hip Socket: A Deep Depression that Holds the Head of the Femur to Form the Hip Joint SYMPHYSIS PUBIS Joint Between the Pelvic Bones (Pubis Portion) Anterior and Medial Composed of Cartilage (Fibrocartilage) Each Os Coxa Bone is Composed of 3 Separate Bones That Fuse

119 BONE MARKINGS OF INDIVIDUAL BONES: OS COXAE (COXAL/INNOMINATE) TRUE PELVIS Space Between Pelvic Inlet and Pelvic Outlet "Basin" Portion of Pelvis (Houses Pelvic Organs) PELVIC INLET Boundary That Leads Into True Pelvis PELVIC OUTLET Boundary That Leads Out of True Pelvis FALSE PELVIS Broad, Shallow Space Above Pelvic Inlet Called False Pelvis Because It's Actually Located in the Abdominal Cavity Rather Than the Pelvic Cavity False Pelvis True Pelvis

120 BONE MARKINGS OF INDIVIDUAL BONES: FEMUR Proximal HEAD Large, Rounded, Proximal Epiphysis Medial (Fits Into Acetabulum) NECK: Narrow Portion Just Below the Head GREATER TROCHANTER: Lateral LESSER TROCHANTER: Medial Distal MEDIAL EPICONDYLE LATERAL EPICONDYLE MEDIAL CONDYLE LATERAL CONDYLE

121 BONE MARKINGS OF INDIVIDUAL BONES: TIBIA Proximal MEDIAL CONDYLE LATERAL CONDYLE TIBIAL TUBEROSITY: Anterior, Medial, Rounded Bump Distal MEDIAL MALLEOLUS Distal, Medial Process Can be Felt on the Inner Surface of the Ankle

122 BONE MARKINGS OF INDIVIDUAL BONES: FIBULA HEAD: Proximal and Rounded LATERAL MALLEOLUS Distal, Lateral Process Can be Felt on the Outer Surface of the Ankle

123 BONE MARKINGS OF INDIVIDUAL BONES: TARSALS CALCANEUS: Heel Bone Which # 1 TALUS: Uppermost Tarsal

124 CURVES OF THE SPINAL COLUMN The Spinal Column is Curved (Not Straight) Importance: Strength Balance Protection from Fracture PRIMARY CURVES: Present from Birth, Convex THORACIC SACRAL (PELVIC) SECONDARY CURVES: Develop after Birth, Concave CERVICAL: Develops As Infant Learns to Hold Head Erect LUMBAR: Develops As Child Learns to Walk

125 COMPARISON OF THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE HANDS AND FEET STRUCTURE OF THE HANDS/FEET Similar Hands: Carpals, Metacarpals, Phalanges Feet: Tarsals, Metatarsals, Phalanges FUNCTION OF THE HANDS/FEET Different! Hands: Major Function Manipulation of Objects (Grasping and Holding); Due to Opposing Thumb Feet: Major Function Strong Support for Body's Weight; Due to Big Toe and Arches

126 ARCHES OF THE FOOT Strong Tendons and Ligaments Hold Bones of the Foot in an Arched Position Arches Provide Support LONGITUDINAL: Lengthwise Arches MEDIAL LATERAL TRANSVERSE: Crosswise Arch

127 SKELETAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN GENERAL DIFFERENCES: Male Skeleton Larger and Heavier SPECIFIC (PELVIC) DIFFERENCES SHAPE OF PELVIS Male Pelvis: Narrow and Deep (Funnel Shaped) SIZE OF PUBIC ARCH Angle Between Pelvic Bones (Anterior and Medial) Male Pelvis: Pubic Arch < 90 Degrees All Pelvic Differences Relate to Childbearing

128 SKELETAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN GENERAL DIFFERENCES: Male Skeleton Larger and Heavier SPECIFIC (PELVIC) DIFFERENCES SHAPE OF PELVIS Female Pelvis: Broad and Shallow (Basin Shaped) SIZE OF PUBIC ARCH Angle Between Pelvic Bones (Anterior and Medial) Female Pelvis: Pubic Arch > 90 Degrees All Pelvic Differences Relate to Childbearing

129 SKELETAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN http://medlib.med.utah.edu/kw/osteo/forensics/sex/bonepelvsex.ht ml http://medlib.med.utah.edu/kw/osteo/forensics/sex/bonepelvsex.ht ml Male Female

130 Male Female


Download ppt "Biology 210 Chapter 8: Skeletal Tissues Supplement 1 By John McGill Material contributed by Beth Wyatt & Jack Bagwell."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google