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The Civil War and Reconstruction Standard 4. Regional Characteristics USHC-4.1 Compare the social and cultural characteristics of the North, the South,

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Presentation on theme: "The Civil War and Reconstruction Standard 4. Regional Characteristics USHC-4.1 Compare the social and cultural characteristics of the North, the South,"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Civil War and Reconstruction Standard 4

2 Regional Characteristics USHC-4.1 Compare the social and cultural characteristics of the North, the South, and the West during the antebellum period, including the lives of African Americans and social reform movements such as abolition and womens rights.

3 Social and cultural differences emerged first during the colonial period based largely on the cultures of the people who settled there. –These differences were increased by the economic specialties that resulted from differences in geography of the regions. –Finally, increased regional pride led to self interested sectionalism. –The development of the West exacerbated the tensions between the North and the South leading eventually to secession and war.

4 NORTHSOUTH Diverse economy based on industry and agriculture Economy based on agriculture Large cities undergoing rapid urbanization Mainly rural with a few cities Massive immigration strengthened the economy Few immigrants Favored federal spending on internal improvements and wanted high tariffs Opposed federal spending on internal improvements and wanted no tariffs The Northeast was economically linked with the Midwest Sought to expand by creating more slave states Economy based on free laborEconomy based on slave labor The North and South developed along different lines

5 USHC-4.1 Compare the social and cultural characteristics of the North, the South, and the West during the antebellum period, including the lives of African Americans and social reform movements such as abolition and womens rights. The North was affected by the culture of the Puritans who settled New England, the Quakers of Pennsylvania and by the diversity of the populations of commercial centers such as New York City. –In New England, towns and cities arose around the Congregational church and as commercial centers. –Education was established early by the Puritans of Massachusetts Bay to enable the faithful to read the Bible.

6 USHC-4.1 Compare the social and cultural characteristics of the North, the South, and the West during the antebellum period, including the lives of African Americans and social reform movements such as abolition and womens rights. –Immigrants were attracted to the jobs in growing industries and contributed to the cultural diversity and growing population of the region. –There were relatively few slaves in the North and so they did not significantly impact the culture of the region. –Northerners supported political issues that promoted their regional interests such as high tariffs and a national bank.

7 Northern Free States-1860

8 Yankee ingenuity: resourcefulness and experimentation led to whole new industries being created. A Yankee is someone who lives in the northern states, especially New England. There was dramatic increase in the number of patents issued by the U.S. Patent Office. From 41 in 1800 to 4,357 in 1860

9 Growth in Railroad mileage 1830 to 1860

10 Railroad construction by region

11 USHC-4.1 Compare the social and cultural characteristics of the North, the South, and the West during the antebellum period, including the lives of African Americans and social reform movements such as abolition and womens rights. The culture of the South was strongly influenced by its colonial beginnings and its economy. –Large plantations produced a privileged class that dominated the government, society and culture. –However, contrary to popular myth, the majority of Southerners in the antebellum period lived on family farms and did not own slaves.

12 USHC-4.1 Compare the social and cultural characteristics of the North, the South, and the West during the antebellum period, including the lives of African Americans and social reform movements such as abolition and womens rights. –The South developed fewer large towns and cities because navigable rivers brought ships close to the fields. –The wealthy educated their children privately, did not provide public education for poor whites and outlawed teaching slaves to read or write. –The region did not attract as many immigrants because there were few jobs in industry.

13 USHC-4.1 Compare the social and cultural characteristics of the North, the South, and the West during the antebellum period, including the lives of African Americans and social reform movements such as abolition and womens rights. –Because of the large slave population and significant numbers of free blacks, African Americans contributed substantially to culture and society in the South. –Southerners supported political issues that promoted their regional interests such as low tariffs, and the spread of slavery to the territories.

14 Southern slave states-1860

15

16 50 or more slaves slaves 1-19 slaves No slaves % of slave ownership in the South-1860

17 Southern Society % of PopulationAttributes Large slave plantation owners Less than 1% of white families 50 or more slaves, over 1,000 acres in property Mid-size slave plantation owners 3% of white families slaves, over 100 acres, most powerful group in the South Small slave holders 20% of white families 1-19 slaves, mostly farmers and a smaller urban middle class Non slave owing whites 75% of white families Yeomen farmers and tenant farmers. Some urban workers Free blacks6% of blacksLegal and social restrictions limited their opportunities SlavesBy /3 rd of Souths population Majority worked on plantations

18 USHC-4.1 Compare the social and cultural characteristics of the North, the South, and the West during the antebellum period, including the lives of African Americans and social reform movements such as abolition and womens rights. The West developed as settlers moved into the region and carried their cultural values with them. –Settlers in the old Northwest reflected the values of New England while the southern states influenced the culture of states such as Kentucky, Alabama, Mississippi, and Texas.

19 USHC-4.1 Compare the social and cultural characteristics of the North, the South, and the West during the antebellum period, including the lives of African Americans and social reform movements such as abolition and womens rights. –Manifest Destiny strengthened the strong individualism that naturally arose among those settling the West. –Westerners supported political issues that promoted their interests such as cheap land, internal improvements and uncontrolled banking.

20 USHC-4.1 Compare the social and cultural characteristics of the North, the South, and the West during the antebellum period, including the lives of African Americans and social reform movements such as abolition and womens rights. African Americans lived in all regions of the country. –Although the Northern states had begun to emancipate their slaves right after the Declaration of Independence, some northern states continued to have slaves into the 1830s. –Slavery was prohibited in the old Northwest by the Northwest Ordinance.

21 USHC-4.1 Compare the social and cultural characteristics of the North, the South, and the West during the antebellum period, including the lives of African Americans and social reform movements such as abolition and womens rights. –Although free blacks lived in the North, they could not exercise the same rights as whites. –In the North, African Americans were purposefully disenfranchised by law at the same time that universal manhood suffrage was established. –They were often the last hired and the first fired and did the jobs that were least attractive. –De facto segregation was practiced throughout the North.

22 USHC-4.1 Compare the social and cultural characteristics of the North, the South, and the West during the antebellum period, including the lives of African Americans and social reform movements such as abolition and womens rights. –Most African Americans living in the South were slaves. The conditions of their lives depended in large part on where they lived and the benevolence of their masters. –Those freedmen who lived in the South lived mostly in the cities where they could find work as artisans. –Although their job opportunities were better than blacks in the North because many of them had skills that were in high demand, they too were not granted civil or political rights.

23 USHC-4.1 Compare the social and cultural characteristics of the North, the South, and the West during the antebellum period, including the lives of African Americans and social reform movements such as abolition and womens rights. The religious revival movement [the Great Awakening] of the early 1800s was national in scope and contributed to the development of reform movements that further divided the nation.

24 Reform Movements Womens rights Anti-slaveryTemperance Utopian communities Religious Reform groups Educational reform Rights for the mentally ill Legal code and prison reform

25 USHC-4.1 Compare the social and cultural characteristics of the North, the South, and the West during the antebellum period, including the lives of African Americans and social reform movements such as abolition and womens rights. –The abolitionist movement first developed among Quakers who believed that everyone, even slaves, had an inner light. Abolitionists included African-Americans such as Nat Turner, Frederick Douglass, and Harriet Tubman and whites such as William Lloyd Garrison, the Grimke sisters, Harriet Beecher Stowe and John Brown who engaged in a variety of protest activities.

26 William Lloyd Garrison Sarah and Angelina Grimke Frederick Douglass Nat Turner John Brown

27 USHC-4.1 Compare the social and cultural characteristics of the North, the South, and the West during the antebellum period, including the lives of African Americans and social reform movements such as abolition and womens rights. –They published newspapers and organized anti-slavery conventions, wrote books and helped slaves escape on the Underground Railroad. –And they led rebellions. Such activities led to a strengthening of the resolve of slave owners to justify their culture and further divided the nation.

28 New York Times picture of Harriet Tubman with runaway slaves

29

30 Garrisons Liberator Lovejoys Alton Observer Douglass The North Star Abolition Newspapers

31 Anti-Slavery Almanacs

32 Pictures from Anti-Slavery Almanacs

33 Almanacs were propaganda publications designed to inflame the passions and show the slave holders as inhuman criminals abusing the defenseless and helpless slaves.

34 "If you put a chain around the neck of a slave, the other fastens itself around your own." Ralph Waldo Emerson

35 Abolitionists put on numerous meetings and anti-slavery fairs

36 Books, games and literature were aimed at both adults and children Oh how I love the old flag REBECCA A Slave Girl from New Orleans

37 Getting the abolition message to children

38 USHC-4.1 Compare the social and cultural characteristics of the North, the South, and the West during the antebellum period, including the lives of African Americans and social reform movements such as abolition and womens rights. Southerners argued that slavery was a positive good because slaves were better off than industrial workers in the North. –It is important to note that most northerners were not abolitionists and that even some abolitionists did not believe that freed slaves should have equal rights.

39 Slave Owners Depict a Happy View of Slave Life

40 Before The South defended slavery as a necessary evil. Slaves were needed to maintain cotton, a crop which both the North and Souths prosperity depended. After Under attack by abolitionists Southern slavery apologists presented slavery as a positive good. Slaves were portrayed as happy, content and well cared for. Slaves in the South were reported to be better off then northern factory workers, wage slaves, who were at the mercy of cruel and selfish money grubbing Yankee capitalists. Southern theologians used the Bible to defend slavery. They defended slavery through the use of scriptures and considered radical abolitionists infidels. The most thorough defense of the South was provided by Robert Lewis Dabney, in his book, "A Defense of Virginia, and Through Her of the South". His arguments included the following… · Abraham was a slaveholder. · When Abraham came into covenant with God he was commanded not to free his slaves but to circumcise them. · The Laws of Moses did not abolish slavery but rather regulated it. · Christ commended slaveholders and received them as believers. · Paul in his letters admonished Christian slaves to obey their masters. · Paul exhorted Christian slaves to be content in their lot and not to seek to change their situation.

41 A challenge to the Northern abolitionist view of the institution of slavery, favorably contrasting the living conditions of American slaves (top) with the lot of the industrial poor in England (below). The first scene is impossibly naive: Southern slaves dance and play as four gentlemen--two Northerners and two Southerners--observe. First Northerner: "Is it possible that we of the North have been so deceived by false Reports? Why did we not visit the South before we caused this trouble between the North and South, and so much hard feelings amongst our friends at home?" The second scene takes place outside a British textile factory. At left a well-dressed gentleman encounters a ragged, stooped figure, and asks, "Why my Dear Friend, how is it that you look so old? you know we were playmates when boys." The stooped figure responds, "Ah! Farmer we operatives are "fast men," and generally die of old age at Forty." Behind them and to the right an emaciated mother laments over her ragged children, "Oh Dear! what wretched Slaves, this Factory Life makes me & my children." Nearby stand a fat cleric, holding a book of "Tythes," and an equally fat official holding "Taxes." In the right foreground two barefoot youths converse. The first says,"I say Bill, I am going to run away from the Factory, and go to the Coal Mines where they have to work only 14 hours a Day instead of 17 as you do here."

42 USHC-4.1 Compare the social and cultural characteristics of the North, the South, and the West during the antebellum period, including the lives of African Americans and social reform movements such as abolition and womens rights. The abolitionist movement split over the issue of whether or not to engage in the political process and whether or not to recognize the rights of women to speak in public against slavery. Abolition was not effective until the controversy over western expansion led to political confrontation.

43 USHC-4.1 Compare the social and cultural characteristics of the North, the South, and the West during the antebellum period, including the lives of African Americans and social reform movements such as abolition and womens rights. The womens rights movement was active in the North and tied to the abolitionist movement. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott, organizers of the Seneca Falls (New York) Convention in 1848 which called for womens rights, met and determined to advocate for womens rights when they were denied the right to participate at an abolitionist convention.

44 USHC-4.1 Compare the social and cultural characteristics of the North, the South, and the West during the antebellum period, including the lives of African Americans and social reform movements such as abolition and womens rights. However there were many other issues that caused women to protest their second class citizenship including their limited access to education and the rights to own and control property and to obtain a divorce.

45 The Second Great Awakening inspired women to do things they had never done before. Many women, for the first time, became active in activities outside their home and family. Women became active in temperance and abolition as well as other humanitarian causes. Women were considered inferior to men. They were not allowed to attend college, vote, or control their own property. Legally, women were their husbands property. Many women were angry at their second class status and began organizing. The primary focus of the antebellum women's rights movement was obtaining civil rights for women. Women wanted equal property rights, divorce reform, custody of their children, and the right to vote. Women mobilized for rights

46 Organized by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Their purpose was to discuss the social, civil, and religious condition and rights of women. They wanted to publicize the second class status of women and begin the fight to remedy it. Over 300 attended. A series of declarations was passed. The issue of female suffrage met serious opposition until a speech by Frederick Douglass convinced the delegates to pass a declaration demanding it. Only one Convention attendee, 19 year old Charlotte Woodward lived to see women win the vote in Frederick Douglass Seneca Falls Convention New York 1848: the beginning of the womens movement in the U.S.

47 In 1851 Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton became partners in the suffrage movement. Although their efforts directly led to passage of the 19 th amendment, neither lived to see it.

48 Quotes from her speech "Well, children, where there is so much racket, there must be something out of kilter, I think between the Negroes of the South and the women of the North - all talking about rights - the white men will be in a fix pretty soon… "That little man in black( a minister) there! He says women can't have as much rights as men. Cause Christ wasn't a woman. "Where did your Christ come from?", From God and a Woman! Man had nothing to do with him! "If the first woman God ever made was strong enough to turn the world upside down all alone, these women together ought to be able to turn it back and get it right-side up again. And now that they are asking to do it, the men better let them." The women's rights movement grew out of the anti- slavery movement. In 1851 at a convention in Akron, Ohio, former slave, abolitionist, and womens rights advocate Sojourner Truth gave a stirring speech titled "Ain't I a Woman?".

49 Lucy Stone Mott Lucretia Mott, E. Cady Stanton, Mary A. Livermore, Lydia Maria Child, Susan B. Anthony, Grace Greenwood, Anna E. Dickinson

50 Troy Oberlin Mount Holyoke Higher education for women did not exist before In 1821, Emma Hart Willard founded the Troy Female Seminary in New York, the first endowed school for girls. Oberlin College became the first coeducational college in the United States in In 1837, Mount Holyoke College, the first established for women opened. Higher education for women

51 Began in 1826 to eliminate the consumption of alcoholic beverages. Estimated that the average American in the early 19 th century consumed over four gallons of liquor a year. In 2000, the average was just over two gallons a year. Made up mostly of women who saw demon rum as the number one enemy. In the years before the Civil War (antebellum) the main focus was to get men to sign pledges promising not to drink alcoholic beverages. Later anti-alcohol organizations such as the Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) worked to make alcoholic beverages illegal. American Temperance Society

52 Free public education was rare before the 1820s. A movement for common schools began in Massachusetts during the period of to Americanize new immigrants. Horace Mann was an important leader in the movement which advocated compulsory education. Common schools were designed to have a similar educational experience for all children regardless of class or locale. Common schools were viewed as a vehicle to preserve rural values in new urban society. Normal schools were established to train teachers. Educational Reform Mann

53 Compromise and Disunion USHC-4.2 Explain how the political events and issues that divided the nation led to civil war, including the compromises reached to maintain the balance of free and slave states, the successes and failures of the abolitionist movement, the conflicting views on states rights and federal authority, the emergence of the Republican Party and its win in 1860, and the formation of the Confederate States of America.

54 Although the abolitionist movement kept the issue of slavery at the forefront of national conversation abolitionists did not significantly impact the actions of the national government. –The numerous petitions that abolitionists sent to Congress fell victim to the gag rule. –Abolitionist candidates running under the banner of the Liberty Party did not win office.

55 Congress enforces a gag rule to stifle anti-slavery discussion In May of 1836 the House passed a resolution which automatically "tabled," or postponed action on all petitions relating to slavery without hearing them. Stricter versions of this gag rule passed in succeeding Congresses. After years of protest in 1844, the House rescinded the gag rule on a motion made by John Quincy Adams.

56 The print relates to John Quincy Adams's opposition to passage of the resolution in 1838, or (more likely) to his continued frustration in attempting to force the slavery issue through presentation of northern constituents' petitions in In December 1839, a new "gag rule" was passed by the House forbidding debate, reading, printing of, or even reference to any petition on the subject of abolition.

57 USHC-4.2 Explain how the political events and issues that divided the nation led to civil war, including the compromises reached to maintain the balance of free and slave states, the successes and failures of the abolitionist movement, the conflicting views on states rights and federal authority, the emergence of the Republican Party and its win in 1860, and the formation of the Confederate States of America. However, abolitionists did impact the sentiments of the people in both the North and the South. –The publication of Garrisons The Liberator was banned in the South and shows the fear that such publications struck in that region.

58 USHC-4.2 Explain how the political events and issues that divided the nation led to civil war, including the compromises reached to maintain the balance of free and slave states, the successes and failures of the abolitionist movement, the conflicting views on states rights and federal authority, the emergence of the Republican Party and its win in 1860, and the formation of the Confederate States of America. Most northerners were not abolitionists. –Indeed, abolitionists were not popular in the North.

59 Philadelphias newly built Pennsylvania Hall was the scene of an abolitionist convention in May of A large mob protesting against abolitionism burned the building to the ground,. The city was known for anti-black and anti-abolitionist violence. Much of this violence came from Philadelphia workers who feared that they would have to compete for jobs with freed slaves.

60 USHC-4.2 Explain how the political events and issues that divided the nation led to civil war, including the compromises reached to maintain the balance of free and slave states, the successes and failures of the abolitionist movement, the conflicting views on states rights and federal authority, the emergence of the Republican Party and its win in 1860, and the formation of the Confederate States of America. Abolitionists helped some slaves to escape to the North on the Underground Railroad. –However, the numbers of escaped slaves were relatively small, especially in the deep South because of distance to free land.

61 Map of the Underground Railroad

62 It wasnt a railroad but a network of safe houses and sympathetic citizens who would aid runaway slaves.


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