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Chapter 14: Peripheral Nervous System PowerPoint by John McGill Supplemental Notes by Beth Wyatt.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14: Peripheral Nervous System PowerPoint by John McGill Supplemental Notes by Beth Wyatt."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 14: Peripheral Nervous System PowerPoint by John McGill Supplemental Notes by Beth Wyatt

2 Nervous System Organization

3 I. SPINAL NERVES OVERVIEW DEFINITION Nerves That Extend Off the Spinal Cord (Emerge From the Spinal Cavity) NUMBER: 31 Pair

4 Spinal Nerves

5 I. SPINAL NERVES C1-C8 CERVICAL NERVES T1-T12 THORACIC NERVES L1-L5 LUMBAR NERVES SACRAL NERVES S1-S5 COCCYGEAL NERVES 1 PAIR

6 They are NOT named. LETTERS INDICATE REGIONS OF VERTEBRAL COLUMN NUMBERS INDICATE HOW MANY OF EACH TYPE (EACH PAIRED) SPINAL NERVES are IDENTIFIED BY LETTERS AND NUMBERS

7 THE LETTERS AND NUMBERS INDICATE WHERE THE NERVES EXIT SPINAL CAVITY C1-C7 Exit Above C1-C7 Vertebrae C8 Exits Below C7 Vertebra Thoracics and Lumbars Exit Below Their Respective Vertebrae Sacrals Exit Through Openings in Sacrum Coccygeals Pass Over Coccyx

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9 CAUDA EQUINA ( Horses Tail ) Describes the Appearance of the Bottom of the Spinal Cord Reason: Spinal Cord Ends at Bottom of the 1 st Lumbar Vertebra;

10 CAUDA EQUINA ( Horses Tail ) Means That Lumbar, Sacral, and Coccygeal Nerves Hang in a Bundle at the Bottom of the SC Before Exiting at Their Respective Locations Causes the Bottom of the Spinal Cord to Resemble a Cauda Equina

11 SPINAL NERVES ARE MIXED NERVES The spinal nerves carry both sensory and motor messages and are called mixed nerves.

12 SPINAL NERVE STRUCTURE NERVE ROOTS: Join Spinal Nerves to Spinal Cord VENTRAL ROOTS NF OF EFFERENT NEURONS DORSAL ROOTS NF OF AFFERENT NEURONS

13 SPINAL NERVE ROOTS

14 RAMI (RAMUS) The Major Branches of a Spinal Nerve Each Spinal Nerve Has 2 Rami

15 RAMI (RAMUS) DESCRIPTION The spinal nerve trunk emerges laterally from the intervertebral foramen The trunk divides into two major branches (The anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) primary rami (ramus, singular)) The posterior primary rami go to the back. The anterior primary rami go to the sides and front of the body, and to the upper and lower members.

16 DORSAL RAMUS AREAS SUPPLIED Provides Nerve Supply to Posterior Head, Neck, and Trunk Contains Both Afferent and Efferent (Somatic) Nerve Fibers

17 VENTRAL RAMUS (More Complex ) AREAS SUPPLIED Lateral and Anterior Neck and Trunk as well as Extremities Contains Both Afferent and Efferent (Somatic & Autonomic) Nerve Fibers

18 VENTRAL RAMUS (More Complex) NERVE PLEXUSES are only found on ventral rami DEFINITION Complex Nerve Network The Ventral Rami of Most Spinal Nerves Form Plexuses (Not T2 T12) Formed when the Ventral Rami of Several Spinal Nerves Exchange Fibers (Fibers Recombine) to Form New Nerves that Supply Specific Areas

19 Plexus

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21 VENTRAL RAMUS (Comments from the text) Fibers of several rami join to form individual nerves. Each nerve emerging from a plexus contains all the fibers that innervate a body region. Destination is basis for nerves name. The plexus reduces the number of nerves needed to supply a body part. Since plexi are composed of fibers from different spinal nerves, damage to one spinal nerve does not mean a complete loss of function in a body region But Instead, Partial Loss of Function in Several Areas

22 MAJOR PLEXUSES (ALL ARE PAIRED): CERVICAL PLEXUS CERVICAL PLEXUS Formed by the Ventral Rami of C1C4 and a Branch of Ventral Ramus of C5 Provides Nerve Supply to Neck and Upper Shoulders and Part of Head

23 CERVICAL PLEXUS

24 MAJOR PLEXUSES (ALL ARE PAIRED):BRACHIAL PLEXUS BRACHIAL PLEXUS Formed by the Ventral Rami of C5T1 Provides Nerve Supply to Lower Shoulders and Arms

25 BRACHIAL PLEXUS

26 MAJOR PLEXUSES (ALL ARE PAIRED): LUMBAR PLEXUS LUMBAR PLEXUS Formed by the Ventral Rami of L1L4 SACRAL PLEXUS Formed by the Ventral Rami of L4, L5, & S1S4 *Note: Together the Lumbar and the Sacral Plexuses (also the Coccygeal Plexus) Are Known as the Lumbosacral Plexus that Provides Nerve Supply to the Lower Trunk and the Legs

27 LUMBOSACRAL PLEXUS

28 Plexus Notes * Coccygeal Plexus: Formed by S4, S5, and Coccygeal Nerves

29 GENERALIZATIONS ABOUT SPINAL NERVES Spinal Nerves Are Not Named; However, the Nerves That Emerge From Plexuses Often Are Named Examples: Phrenic Nerve, Sciatic Nerve There is a Close Relationship Between Where a Spinal Nerve Exits the Spinal Cavity and the Area the Nerve Supplies

30 CRANIAL NERVES DEFINITION Nerves That Attach to the Undersurface of the Brain (Mainly the Brainstem) 12 Pair

31 CRANIAL NERVES IDENTIFICATION By Names and Numbers NAMES MAY INDICATE NERVES FUNCTION MAY INDICATE AREA THE NERVE SUPPLIES NUMBERS ROMAN NUMERALS ORDER IN WHICH NERVE EMERGES FROM ANTERIOR TO POSTERIOR

32 NERVE TYPES Some Cranial Nerves Are Mixed, Some Are Sensory, Some Are Motor Saying to Remember Nerve Types: Some Say Marry Money, But My Brothers Say Bad Business Marry Money MIXED NERVES: V, VII, IX, X SENSORY NERVES: I, II, VIII MOTOR NERVES: III, IV, VI, XI, XII

33 NAMES, NUMBERS, FUNCTIONS CRANIAL NERVE I OLFACTORY NERVE Sensory Function: Smell

34 CRANIAL NERVE II OPTIC NERVE Sensory Function: Vision

35 CRANIAL NERVE III OCULOMOTOR NERVE Motor Functions: Eye Movements Regulation of Pupil Size Accomodation

36 CRANIAL NERVE IV TROCHLEAR NERVE Motor Function: Eye Movements

37 CRANIAL NERVE V TRIGEMINAL NERVE Mixed Functions: Sensory: Sensations of Head and Face Motor: Chewing

38 CRANIAL NERVE V

39 CRANIAL NERVE VI ABDUCENS NERVE Motor Function: Lateral Eye Movements

40 CRANIAL NERVE VII FACIAL NERVE Mixed Functions: Sensory: Taste Motor: –Facial Expressions –Secretion of Saliva and Tears

41 CRANIAL NERVE VIII Vestibulocochlear Sensory Functions: Hearing and Equilibrium

42 CRANIAL NERVE IX GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE Mixed Functions: Sensory: Taste (and General Sensations of Tongue) Motor: Swallowing, Secretion of Saliva NOTE: This nerve is also involved in the reflexes of BP and respiration.

43 CRANIAL NERVE X X VAGUS NERVE Mixed Functions: Sensory: Sensations in Organs Supplied Motor: Movements of Organs Supplied (i.e., Slows Heart, Increases Peristalsis)

44 CRANIAL NERVE XI ACCESSORY NERVE Motor Functions: Turning Movements of Head Shoulder Movements Movements of Organs Supplied Voice Production

45 CRANIAL NERVE XII HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE Motor Function: Tongue Movements

46 Saying Used to Remember the Names of the Cranial Nerves On Old Olympus Tiny Tops A Friendly Viking Grew Vines And Hops On Old Olympus Tiny Tops A Friendly Viking Grew Vines And Hops

47 Only Old Octopi Trade Tracks At Friendly Vertebrate Grasslands In Vagus Ad Hoc

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52 III. FUNCTIONAL DIVISIONS OF THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Based on Direction in Which Neurons Conduct Nerve Impulses AFFERENT (SENSORY) DIVISION aa, like baa Af = toward Consists of all Afferent Neurons Includes all Spinal Nerves (Afferent Fibers)as well as Cranial Nerves Which are Sensory and Mixed (Afferent Fibers)

53 III. FUNCTIONAL DIVISIONS OF THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM EFFERENT (MOTOR) DIVISION ee, like Lee or eff, like Jeff Ef = away from Consists of all Efferent Neurons Includes all Spinal Nerves (Efferent Fibers)as well as Cranial Nerves Which are Motor and Mixed (Efferent Fibers)

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55 Two Efferent Subdivisions OF THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Two Subdivisions (Based on Effectors) –SOMATIC MOTOR NERVOUS SYSTEM Effectors are Voluntary: Skeletal Muscles –THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM (Sympathetic & Parasympathetic Effectors are Involuntary: Cardiac Muscle, Smooth Muscle, and Glands

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57 ANS has 2 Divisions: Sympathetic and Parasympathetic SYMPATHETIC DIVISION THORACOLUMBAR Nerves of the Sympathetic Division Branch from Thoracic Spinal Nerves (T1T12) and from some Lumbar Spinal Nerves (L1L4) Explanation: Spinal Nerves are Mixed, Their Efferent Nerve Fibers are Somatic and Autonomic; The Autonomic Fibers are Sympathetic Nerves

58 ANS has 2 Divisions: Sympathetic and Parasympathetic PARASYMPATHETIC DIVISION CRANIOSACRAL Nerves of the Parasympathetic Division Branch from some Cranial Nerves (III, VII, IX, X, XI) and from some Sacral Spinal Nerves (S2S4) Explanation: Cranial Nerves III and XI are Motor, the Remaining Cranial Nerves Listed (VII, IX, X) are Mixed; Spinal Nerves are Mixed; Efferent Fibers in All These Nerves are Somatic and Autonomic; The Autonomic Fibers are Parasympathetic Nerves

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60 b.FUNCTIONS OF THE ANS OVERVIEW OF ANS FUNCTIONS ANS REGULATES AUTONOMIC EFFECTORS IN WAYS THAT MAINTAIN HOMEOSTASIS BOTH DIVISIONS: CONTINUALLY CONDUCT NI'S TO AUTONOMIC EFFECTORS (TONICALLY ACTIVE)

61 b.FUNCTIONS OF THE ANS EXERT ANTAGONISTIC INFLUENCES ON AUTONOMIC EFFECTORS –Ex: If Sympathetic Division Stimulates an Autonomic Effector, then the Parasympathetic Division will Inhibit the Autonomic Effector –*NOTE: ACTUAL EFFECT DEPENDS ON WHICH DIVISION DOMINATES (SITUATION) ANS INFLUENCED BY CEREBRAL CORTEX AND HYPOTHALAMUS

62 FUNCTIONS OF SYMPATHETIC DIVISION MAJOR FUNCTION DURING STRESS PRODUCES THE FIGHT OR FLIGHT REACTION (SERVES AS THE BODY'S EMERGENCY SYSTEM) Dominates during Stress (Physical or Psychological) During Stress Produces "Fight or Flight Reaction

63 Fight or Flight" Reaction A Collection of Changes in Autonomic Effectors which are Designed to Prepare the Individual to Respond to the Stress The Major Goal of all the Changes is to Get Skeletal Muscles Prepared to Expend Maximum Energy

64 SUMMARY OF MAJOR CHANGES THAT OCCUR IN THE FIGHT OR FLIGHT REACTION: *CARDIAC MUSCLE: Rate/Strength of Heartbeat Increases *SMOOTH MUSCLE: Of Blood Vessels Coronary, Skeletal Muscle: Dilate Digestive Organ: Constrict Of Hollow Organs Respiratory Airways: Dilate Digestive Tract: Peristalsis Decreases *GLANDS Sweat Glands: Production of Sweat Increases Liver: Glycogen -----> Glucose Adrenal Medulla: Secretion of Epinephrine (Adrenalin) Increases

65 SYMPATHETIC DURING NONSTRESS DOMINATES SOME AUTONOMIC EFFECTORS MAINTAINS THEIR NORMAL FUNCTION Ex: Cardiac Muscle

66 FUNCTIONS OF PARASYMPATHETIC DIVISION DOMINATES MOST AUTONOMIC EFFECTORS DURING NONSTRESS Rest and Repair Division Promotes Normal Digestive System Activities (For Example: Peristalsis and Elimination)

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69 http://www.octc.kctcs.edu/gcaplan/anat /Notes/API%20Notes%20M%20%20P eripheral%20Nerves.htm http://www.teaching- biomed.man.ac.uk/resources/wwwcal/c ranial_nerves/page2.asp


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