Presentation on theme: "Living in an Exponential Age:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Living in an Exponential Age: Describe the concept of exponential growth.How has the growth rate of the human population changed since 1963?Assuming static growth and death rates, it is estimated that the population will surpass 9 billion by Why are environmentalists concerned? (consumption/production)The # of people the earth can sustain is yet to be determined. What are some disturbing signs that we are nearing that limit?(2)
3 Industrial revolution Black Death—the Plague Agricultural revolution Huntingand gatheringAgricultural revolutionIndustrial revolutionFig. 1-1, p. 1Fig. 1-1, p. 5
4 Living in an Exponential Age: Describe the concept of exponential growth.Quantities increase by a fixed percentage over timeHow has the growth rate of the human population changed since 1963?SlowedAssuming static growth and death rates, it is estimated that the population will surpass 9 billion by Why are environmentalists concerned? (consumption/production)Consumption of food, water, raw materials and energyProduction of solid waste and pollutionThe # of people the earth can sustain is yet to be determined. What are some disturbing signs that we are nearing that limit?(2)Loss of species (1/31/2)Climate change caused by deforestation and burning of fossil fuelsSlow start, rapid increaseHuman population2007 ~ 6.7 billion peopleProjections225,000 people per dayAdd population of U.S. < 4 years2050 ~ 9.2 billion peopleResource consumption, degradation, depletionPossible resultsHuge amount of pollution and wastesDisrupt economiesLoss of species, farm land, water suppliesClimate changePolitical fallout
5 Is there a solution to the impending environmental crisis? Understand our environmentPractice sustainability
6 Chapter 1(1.1) Environmental Problems, Their Causes, and Sustainability Objectives:Define environmental science as an interdisciplinary scienceUnderstand the term sustainability and key componentsHow do you we become environmentally sustainable
7 I. Studying Connections in Nature (4) EnvironmentEverything around us both living and nonlivingEnvironmental scienceInterdisciplinary study of humanities relationship with the environment
8 Philosophy and religion Political science EthicsBiologyPoliticalscienceEcologyEconomicsChemistryDemographyPhysicsAnthropologyGeologyGeographyFig. 1-2, p. 7
9 Continued….EcologyBiological science studying the relationship between living things and their environmentEcosystemsSet of organisms interacting with each other and within a defined area containing nonliving matter and energyEnvironmentalismA social science dedicated to protecting the earthMore political than science
10 II. Sustainability Sustainability Ability of the earth, humans, and economies to survive and adapt to changing environmental conditions indefinitely without depletion of capital
11 A. Components of Sustainability (2) Natural capitalThe natural resources and natural services provided by nature (figure 1-3)Ex.Air air purificationWater water purificationLife population Control
13 Components cont….. A. Natural Resources Materials and energy in nature that are essential useful or necessary for humansa. MaterialsRenewableNonrenewableb. EnergySolar capitalPhotosynthesis
14 Components cont…. B. Natural Services Functions of nature Purification of air, waterNutrient cyclingcritical for “life” chemicals to cycle back and forth between living and nonliving parts of the environment
16 Organic matter in animals Dead organic matter Organic matter in plants DecompositionInorganicmatter in soilFig. 1-4, p. 9
17 Components cont…. Consumption rate > renewal rate Human activities degrading renewable resources faster than the rate at which they are renewedEx. Deforestation, overfishingScientific search for solutionsImplementation involves economic and political systemsEx. Stop deforestation will have an economic impact and require laws and regulations Conflict!
18 Trade-off or compromise to satisfy needs Ex. Establishing tree farms in areas that have already been cleared
19 2. Sustainable Living from Natural Capital Environmentally sustainable societyMeets the resource needs currently without compromising future generationsProtect the natural capital while living off the natural incomeNatural capital and natural incomeBad news: signs of natural capital depletion at exponential ratesOverusing 62% of the earth’s natural services
20 Summary: What Is an Environmentally Sustainable Society? Our lives and economies depend on energy from the sun (solar capital) and natural resources and natural services (natural capital) provided by the earth.Sustainable living means living off earth’s natural income without depleting or degrading the natural capital that supplies it.
21 1-2 How Can Environmentally Sustainable Societies Grow Economically? Concept 1-2 Societies can become more environmentally sustainable through economic development dedicated to improving the quality of life for everyone without degrading the earth’s life-support systems.
22 Economics Economic growth Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Per capita GDP – PPPEconomic developmentDeveloped countriesDeveloping countries
24 Percentage of World's: 18% Population 82% Population growth 0.1% 1.5% Life expectancy77 years66 yearsWealth andincome85%15%Figure 1.5: Global outlook: comparison of developed and developing countries, 2007.Question: Why do you think less developed, less wealthy countries have higher population growth rates?(Data from the United Nations and the World Bank)Resourceuse88%12%Pollutionand waste75%25%Fig. 1-5, p. 10
25 1-3 How Are Our Ecological Footprints Affecting the Earth? Concept 1-3 As our ecological footprints grow, we are depleting and degrading more of the earth’s natural capital.
26 Natural Resources (1) Perpetual – renewed continuously Solar energyRenewable – hours to decadesWater, airForest, grasslands
27 Natural Resources (2) Sustainable yield Environmental degradation Highest use while maintaining supplyEnvironmental degradationExceed natural replacement rate
33 (Data from Worldwide Fund for Nature, Global Footprint Network) Total Ecological Footprint (million hectares) and share of Global Ecological Capacity (%)Per Capita Ecological Footprint (hectares per person)Projected footprintEcological footprintEarth’s ecological capacityFigure 1.8: Natural capital use and degradation: total and per capita ecological footprints of selected countries (top). In 2003, humanity’s total or global ecological footprint was about 25% higher than the earth’s ecological capacity (bottom) and is projected to be twice the planet’s ecological capacity by 2050.Question: If we are living beyond the earth’s ecological capacity, why do you think the human population and per capita resource consumption are still growing exponentially?(Data from Worldwide Fund for Nature, Global Footprint Network)Stepped ArtFig. 1-8, p. 13
34 Case Study: China Rapidly developing country Middle-class affluent lifestylesWorld’s leading consumer in:Wheat, rice, meat, coal, fertilizers, steel, cementTelevisions, cell phones, refrigeratorsFuture consumption2/3 world grain harvestTwice world’s current paper productionExceed current global oil production
35 1-4 What Is Pollution and What Can We Do about It? Concept 1-4 Preventing pollution is more effective and less costly than cleaning up pollution.
36 Pollution What is pollution? Point sources Nonpoint sources Unwanted effects of pollution
39 Disadvantages of Output Control TemporaryGrowth in consumption may offset technologyMoves pollutant from one place to anotherBurialIncinerationDispersed pollutants costly to clean up
40 1-5 Why Do We Have Environmental Problems? Concept 1-5A Major causes of environmental problems are population growth, wasteful and unsustainable resource use, poverty, excluding the environmental costs of resource use from the market prices of goods and services, and trying to manage nature with insufficient knowledge.Concept 1-5B People with different environmental worldviews often disagree about the seriousness of environmental problems and what we should do about them.
41 Causes of Environmental Problems Population growthWasteful and unsustainable resource usePovertyFailure to include environmental costs of goods and services in market pricesToo little knowledge of how nature works
42 Five Basic Causes of Environmental Problems Fig. 1-10, p. 16
43 environmental costs from market prices PopulationgrowthUnsustainableresource usePovertyExcludingenvironmental costs from market pricesTrying to manage nature without knowing enoughabout itFigure 1.10: Environmental and social scientists have identified five basic causes of the environmental problems we face.Question: What are three ways in which your lifestyle contributes to these causes?Fig. 1-10, p. 16
44 Causes of Environmental Problems PopulationgrowthUnsustainableresource usePovertyExcludingenvironmental costs from market pricesTrying to manage nature without knowing enoughabout itFigure 1.10: Environmental and social scientists have identified five basic causes of the environmental problems we face.Question: What are three ways in which your lifestyle contributes to these causes?Stepped ArtFig. 1-10, p. 16
46 Lack of access to Number of people (% of world's population) Adequate sanitation facilities2.6 billion (39%)Enough fuel forheating and cooking2 billion (30%)Electricity2 billion (30%)Clean drinkingwater1.1 billion (16%)Adequatehealth careFigure 1.11: Some harmful results of poverty.Question: Which two of these effects do you think are the most harmful? Why?(Data from United Nations, World Bank, and World Health Organization)1.1 billion (16%)Adequatehousing1 billion (15%)Enough foodfor good health0.84 billion (13%)Fig. 1-11, p. 16
48 Environmental Effects of Affluence Harmful effectsHigh consumption and waste of resourcesAdvertising – more makes you happyBeneficial effectsConcern for environmental qualityProvide money for environmental causesReduced population growth
49 Evaluating Full Cost of Resources Use ExamplesClear-cutting + habitat lossCommercial fishing + depletion of fish stocksTax breaksSubsidies
53 1-6 What Are Four Scientific Principles of Sustainability? Concept 1-6 Nature has sustained itself for billions of years by using solar energy, biodiversity, population regulation, and nutrient cycling – lessons from nature that we can apply to our lifestyles and economies.
55 Reliance on Solar Energy BiodiversityFigure 1.13: Four scientific principles of sustainability: these four interconnected principles of sustainability are derived from learning how nature has sustained a variety of life on the earth for about 3.7 billion years. The top left oval shows sunlight stimulating the production of vegetation in the Arctic tundra during its brief summer (solar energy) and the top right oval shows some of the diversity of species found there during the summer (biodiversity). The bottom right oval shows Arctic gray wolves stalking a caribou during the long cold winter (population control). The bottom left oval shows Arctic gray wolves feeding on their kill. This, plus huge numbers of tiny decomposers that convert dead matter to soil nutrients, recycle all materials needed to support the plant growth shown in the top left and right ovals (nutrient cycling).Nutrient CyclingPopulation ControlFig. 1-13, p. 20
57 Sustainability Emphasis Current EmphasisSustainability EmphasisPollution cleanupPollution preventionWaste disposal(bury or burn)Waste preventionProtecting speciesProtecting habitatEnvironmental restorationEnvironmentaldegradationIncreasing resource useLess resource wasteFigure 1.14: Solutions: some shifts involved in bringing about the environmental or sustainability revolution.Question: Which three of these shifts do you think are most important? Why?Population growthPopulation stabilizationDepleting and degrading natural capitalProtecting natural capitalFig. 1-14, p. 20