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Objectives This section will show you how to: write effective paragraphs and essays, describe the relationships between writing and reading provide some.

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Presentation on theme: "Objectives This section will show you how to: write effective paragraphs and essays, describe the relationships between writing and reading provide some."— Presentation transcript:

1 Objectives This section will show you how to: write effective paragraphs and essays, describe the relationships between writing and reading provide some writing assignments Part Eight, Additional Learning Skills Writing Effectively McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2013 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.

2 Goals of effective writing 1. Make a point 2. Support the point 3. Organize the support 4.Write error-free sentences Part8 4-2

3 Some important terms: Paragraph = a series of sentences about one main idea, or point. A paragraph typically starts with a point, and the rest of the paragraph provides specific details to support and develop that point. Point = a general idea that contains an opinion. Topic sentence = the sentence that expresses the main idea, or point of a paragraph. Signal words or transitions = help the reader follow the direction of the writer’s thought. Part8 4-3

4 Essay = a series of paragraphs about one main point or idea. This allows a writer to develop a topic in more detail. The process of writing an essay is much the same as writing a paragraph. Parts of an essay: Introductory paragraph Supporting paragraphs Concluding paragraph Part8 4-4

5 Introductory paragraph Gain the reader’s attention Present the thesis statement, or central idea of the essay Lay out a plan of development, or brief statement of the main supporting details for the central idea. Four common methods of introduction Begin with a broad statement and narrow it down to your thesis statement Present an idea or situation that is the opposite of what will be written about Tell a brief story Ask one or more questions that you intend to answer in your essay, or that show that your topic directly relates to your readers. Part8 4-5

6 Supporting paragraphs Each supporting paragraph should have its own topic sentence that states the point to be developed in that paragraph. Concluding paragraph A concluding paragraph is needed for a sense of completion. Two common methods of conclusion: Provide a summary and a final thought. Using different wording than in your introduction, restate your thesis and main supporting points. This review gives readers an overview of your essay and helps them remember what they’ve read. Focus on the future. This can include a prediction or recommendation. Part8 4-6

7 Relationships between reading and writing Reading and writing are interrelated language skills. Both reading and writing are processes. Both reading and writing are vital for communication. Part8 4-7

8 Ways to organize support: Listing order = a list of two or more reasons, examples or details. Often the most important detail is saved for last because the reader is most likely to remember the last thing read. Transition words that show a listing order include: onesecondalsonextlast of all for one thingthirdanothermoreoverfinally first of allnextin additionfurthermore Time order = the order in which events or details occur. Transition words that show time order include: firstbeforeafterwhenthen nextduringnowwhileuntil assoonlateroftenfinally Part8 4-8

9 Writing error-free sentences Use correct spelling Follow grammar, punctuation and usage rules Use reference materials to help you be sure your writing is correct. Keep a good dictionary and grammar handbook nearby Also, use a style manual if your instructor wants your papers written with a certain style, such as MLA or APA. Part8 4-9

10 How do you reach the goals of effective writing? Writing a paper is a process that can be divided into the following steps: Step 1: Getting started through prewriting Step 2: Preparing a scratch outline Step 3: Writing the first draft Step 4: Revising Step 5: Proofreading and fixing errors Part8 4-10

11 Step One: Getting started through prewriting Use any of several prewriting strategies to help you do the thinking needed to figure out the point you want to make and the support you have for that point. Freewriting = writing whatever comes into your mind about a topic. Questioning = writing down a series of questions about your topic and answers about it. Start with what, when, where, why and how. Part8 4-11

12 Clustering = thinking in a visual way, by writing ideas in ovals around the center idea or point of your paper. Part8 4-12

13 List-making or brainstorming = making a list of ideas and details that could go into the paper. Pile these items up, one after another, without worrying about putting them in any special order. Try to accumulate as many details as you can come up with. The goal of prewriting is to get a lot of information down on paper. You can then add to, shape, and subtract from your raw material as you take your paper through the series of writing drafts. During this early stage of the writing process, anything goes. You are not ready to write your paper until you know your main point and many of the details that can be used to support it. Part8 4-13

14 Don’t rush through prewriting. It’s better to spend more time on this stage than to waste time writing a paragraph for which you have no solid point and too little interesting support. Part8 4-14

15 Step Two: Writing a Scratch Outline Scratch outline = a brief plan for the paragraph. Includes the main point and the main support for that point. Trying to outline is a good way to see if you need more prewriting. If a solid outline doesn’t emerge, then you know you need to do more prewriting to clarify your main point or its support. Part8 4-15

16 Step Three: Writing the first draft When you do a first draft, be prepared to put in additional thoughts and details that didn’t emerge in your prewriting activity. Don’t worry about grammar, punctuation or spelling as you write the first draft. Make it your goal to develop the content of the paper with plenty of specific details. Part8 4-16

17 Step Four: Revising Revising is an essential step in writing a paper. Revising = rewriting the paper, building upon what has been done to make it stronger and better. A typical revision means writing at least one or two more drafts. Part8 4-17

18 Step Five: Proofreading Proofreading = checking your paper carefully for spelling, grammar, punctuation, and other errors. You are ready for this stage when you are satisfied with your choice of supporting details, the order in which they are presented, and the way they and your topic sentence are worded. Use a grammar handbook to make sure grammar is correct. Read through the paper carefully, looking for typing errors, omitted words, and any other errors you may have missed before. Part8 4-18

19 Some proofreading hints: Read your paper out loud to identify awkward wording and places where the punctuation needs improvement. Make changes needed for your paper to read smoothly and clearly. Cover the paragraph so you can read one line at a time. Read your paper backward, from the last sentence to the first, to keep you from getting caught up in the flow of the paper and missing small mistakes. Part8 4-19

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