10Bernoulli Assumptions There are three main variables in the Bernoulli Equation Pressure – Velocity – ElevationTo simplify problems, assumptions are often made to eliminate one or more variablesKey Assumption # 1Velocity = 0Imagine a swimming pool with a small 1 cm hole on the floor of the pool. If you apply the Bernoulli equation at the surface, and at the hole, we assume that the volume exiting through the hole is trivial compared to the total volume of the pool, and therefore the Velocity of a water particle at the surface can be assumed to be zero
11Bernoulli Assumptions Key Assumption # 2Pressure = 0Whenever the only pressure acting on a point is the standard atmospheric pressure, then the pressure at that point can be assumed to be zero because every point in the system is subject to that same pressure. Therefore, for any free surface or free jet, pressure at that point can be assumed to be zero.
12The Continuity Equation Bernoulli AssumptionsKey Assumption # 3The Continuity EquationIn cases where one or both of the previous assumptions do not apply, then we might need to use the continuity equation to solve the problemA1V1=A2V2Which satisfies that inflow and outflow are equal at any section
13A pump forces water at a constant flow rate through a pipe with cross sectional area A, gradually decreasing in area to the exit point 1/3 the area. If y=cm and the flow speed of the water just after it leaves the pump is 1m/s, what is the gauge pressure at point 1?
14An open can is completely filled with water, to a depth of 20. 6 cm An open can is completely filled with water, to a depth of 20.6 cm. A hole is punched in the can at a height of 1.7 cm from the bottom of the can. Bernoulli's equation can be used to derive the following formula for the speed of the water flowing from the hole. (a) How fast does the water initially flow out of the hole? (b) How fast does the water flow when the can is half empty?
15Just substitute the given numbers into Bernoulli's equation. A. h = 0 Just substitute the given numbers into Bernoulli's equation. A. h = v = sqrt(2*9.81*( )) m/s B. h = v = sqrt(2*9.81*( )) m/s
16Water flows steadily from an open tank as in the figure below Water flows steadily from an open tank as in the figure below. The elevation of point 1 is 10.0m, and the elevation of points 2 and 3 is 2.00m. The cross-sectional area at point 2 is m2; at point 3 it is m2. The area of the tank is very large compared with the cross-sectional area of the pipe.