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**Measurements and Calculations**

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**Accuracy and Precision**

You must use the correct equipment Accuracy is how close you come to the desired value Precision is how close all of the data is to itself

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**Significant Figures The amount of rounding that is acceptable**

Calculators do not use significant figures Sig Figs are essential to reporting the results This discusses how certain one is of each number

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**Significant Figures Rules 1. ALL non-zero numbers are significant**

2. All zeros between non-zero numbers are significant 3. Zeros to the right of a non-zero number are significant ONLY if a decimal is used 4. Zeros to the left of non-zero numbers are not significant

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Significant Figures 46.3 All three numbers are significant 40.789 All five numbers are significant 7.890 All four numbers are significant All six numbers are significant Four numbers are significant

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**Significant Figures Multiplication and Division**

The answer must have the same number of significant figures as the measurement with the SMALLEST number of significant figures x = On the calculator it reads: The measurement with the smallest number of sig figs is with four sig figs, so round so the answer has four sig figs, or 14.24

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**Significant Figures Addition and subtraction**

The answer can be no more certain than the least certain number in the calculation

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Scientific Notation This shows significant figures by condensing to a single digit decimal place 486,000,000,000 becomes 4.86 x 1011 becomes 6.8 x 10-14 Must have single digit decimal place When the exponent is positive, the number is greater than 1 When the exponent is negative, the number is less than 1

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Scientific Notation When putting scientific notation in the calculator, use the EE or EXP button, do not put x 10 ^ exponent If this is done, the calculation will be incorrect!

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