Presentation on theme: "Chapter 20: Northern Eurasia"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 20: Northern Eurasia 1500-1800 Japan: Similarities to China and RussiaMilitary conflicts (internal and external)Political growth and strengtheningExpanded commercial and cultural contactsJapan: Differences with China and Russiaculturally homogenous populationnatural boundariesprocess of political unification much shorterresponses to European contacts
2 When Japan’s political unity disintegrated in the 12th century, the country was controlled by: Numerous warlords named daimyo (DIE-mee-oh)Each had his own castle town, a small bureaucracy, and an army of warriors called samuraidaimyo pledged allegiance to the military leader, the shogun, as well as the emperor, but neither had real political power.Warfare among the daimyo was common, leading to civil wars.The most successful of these warlords was Hideyoshi.
3 In 1592 after years of civil war, Hideyoshi Launched an invasion of the Asian mainlandHe intended to conquer Korea and ChinaKorea, influenced in many ways by China, employed their military technology, including “turtle boats”.Hideyoshi was able to get past Korea into the Chinese mainland, but after his death was pushed back out.
4 One of the consequences of Japanese aggression was Korea was severely devastated by the invasion.The most dramatic consequences were in China—battles in Manchuria allowed Manchu opposition to grow stronger and eventually take possession of Beijing.
5 After the period of civil wars ended in Japan A more centralized government was formedA new shogun named Tokugawa established a military government known as the Tokugawa Shogunate.They created a new capital at Edo (now Tokyo)Trade promoted economic development, which is what the Tokugawa government is known for.
6 Japanese manufacturers in the 1600s and 1700s made beautiful Pottery (mostly porcelain)Despite government efforts to curtail merchant independence, Japanese merchants:Amassed large family fortunesThe samurais well-being was threatened as they became dependent customers of merchants goods. That is why the gov’t tried to regulate the merchants—unsuccessfully.
7 European contact with Japan resulted in “opportunities and problems” such as Japan gained Western weapons, launching the first East Asian “gunpowder revolution”New trade with merchants from Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands and England (gov’t closely regulated)Problems:Hostility eventually surrounded the Christian presence in Japan, including violent persecution against Christians.
8 Japanese response to the Society of Jesus or the Jesuits was Mixed response: many ordinary Japanese found the religion appealing, but many of the elite thought it disruptive and foreignMany converted, and a daimyo gave a port city to the Jesuits, many required conversion of Christianity for their subjects.
9 Eventually, what was Japan’s response to European trade and Christian influence? The fractious politics of Japan plus the larger suspicion about Europe’s larger goal in Japan caused the shogun to be hostile toward Christians.A decree ordered that Christians were overthrowing truth, changing the gov’t, and seizing land caused many Christians to leave, but others to go underground.Violent persecutions of Christians beganThen in the middle 1600s more decrees ended European trade, forced people to prove their Buddhist orthodoxy, and their loyalty to Japan.Only the Dutch were allowed to trade, though it was limited.
10 What factors led to Tokugawa Japan’s instability? 1700s—population growth put a strain on well-developed landsthe shogunate’s inability to stabilize rice prices and halt the economic decline of the samuraiTokugawa gov’t followed Confucian idea that agriculture should be basis of gov’t not merchantsIts decentralized gov’t limited its ability to regulate the merchants & actually stimulated their growth
11 What was the fate of the samurai of the Forty-Seven Ronin incident? , displays the change from a military gov’t to a civil oneThey were allowed to commit ritual suicide
12 Later Ming and Early Qing Like Japan, China experienced civil wars and foreign wars after 1500, but on a larger scaleBy 1800 China had an expanded economy, and many doubts regarding the importance of European trade and Christianity
13 European visitors to Ming China in the 16th century were Astonished at their imperial power, exquisite manufactures, and vast population.They bought so much blue on white porcelain, all fine dishes became known as “china”
14 During its decline, what was experienced by the Ming? Climate change called the Little Ice Age in 17th century dropping temps leading to agricultural decline and famineDeclines in local populations resultedRapid urban growth in the trading economy, coupled with the influx of American silver caused inflationCorruption in gov’t, workers’ strikesJapanese attacks in late 1500s harmed the Ming and strengthened their opponents, the Manchus
15 Which empire replaced the Ming Empire of China? Qing Empire, headed by a Manchu familyThe Qing/Manchus were a minority population among ethnic Chinese and had to adopt Chinese traditions eventually
16 Merchants from which country were the first to arrive in East Asia? Although European enthusiasm for Chinese trade was high, how did the Chinese feel about Europeans?The Chinese were much slower to embrace European trade—suspicionMerchants from which country were the first to arrive in East Asia?PortugalEventually expelled from the country, later allowed to trade. Spain and the Dutch were allowed to trade from Taiwan briefly.
17 The VOC (Dutch East India Company) representatives gained the favor of the Chinese Emperor by They performed the ritual of “kowtow”, which was an acknowledgment of the emperor’s moral superiority.The visitor to the emperor hit his head on the floor repeatedly while crawling to the throne.
18 What European organization was a transmitter of science and technology to China? Society of Jesus, or JesuitsFar more successful than in Japan (at least for now)Who was Matteo Ricci?A Jesuit missionary who introduced European technology to ChinaHe was permitted to stay in China as a Western scholar
19 The Qing Emperor’s desire for security of the northern border led to An intense struggle with RussiaThey feared an alliance between Russia and the Mongol stateWhat was the Treaty of Nerchinsk?Fixed the northern border of China along the Amur Riverthe border has endured since then
20 To gain converts, the Jesuits made what compromises? They tolerated Confucian ancestor worshipCaused controversy between the Jesuits and their Catholic rivals in China—the Franciscans and Dominicans and between Jesuits and the pope.Kangxi (emperor from ) wrote the pope declaring his support for the JesuitsEventually Christians were persecuted rather than supported by the emperor
21 During the Qing Empire, what new items or ideas did Europe gain from China? An early form of inoculationWallpaperSilk, porcelain, teaRoom dividers, painted fans, carved jade and ivoryPoetry—expressing political ideas that struck a chord with European intellectuals who were questioning their own political philosophies
22 Europeans were permitted to trade only at Canton
23 What were Britain’s motives for becoming China’s biggest European trading partner? China’s large population made it a potential market for European goodsTea became a fashionable drink in EuropeThey needed a new market after the loss of the American coloniesThe desire to end the English trade deficit in China—they were pouring silver in to buy Chinese goods but weren’t selling anything to China
24 The British Macartney Mission was an attempt to What problem did the British face with Chinese markets that they called the “Canton System?”China didn’t buy British goodsThe British Macartney Mission was an attempt toPersuade China to revise its trade system1792, Britain sent Lord George Macartney went to China with many scientists, artists, and translators to show the Qing how interested England wasMacartney refused to perform kowtow, and the Qing refused to revise the Canton trading system.
25 Population growth in China in the 1700s led to Severe environmental problemsIncreased demands for building materials depleted the forests, which accelerated wind and water erosion, which increased flooding…Dams were not maintained, and the Grand Canal was nearly unusableThe empire became too vast for the Qing and decline set in.
26 Russian rulers were called: The princes of Muscovy organized a movement of conquest and expansion against theGolden Horde—Mongols had ruled Russia from 1200s to 1480Under the Golden Horde Moscow had become the most important city.Russian rulers were called:Tsars (caesars)They believed they were the 3rd Rome.
27 The motivation for Russian expansion in the east was Availability of fur pelts which provided revenue to access European technologyHow did the growth of a centralized Russian Empire affect the peasants?Peasants became serfs, people who were tied to the landAccording to the Russian census of 1795, over half the population wereSerfs
28 The greatest Romanov tsar was Tsar Peter the GreatOne result of the “Great Northern War” wasRussian access to the Baltic SeaThe new city that was to be Russia’s “window on the West” isSt. Petersburg, modeled after French buildings