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Neural Tissue The nervous system includes all the neural tissue in the body.

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Presentation on theme: "Neural Tissue The nervous system includes all the neural tissue in the body."— Presentation transcript:

1 Neural Tissue The nervous system includes all the neural tissue in the body.

2 Structure of the nervous system

3 The Nervous System Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Brain Spinal Cord Sympathetic Parasympathet ic SomaticAutonomic AfferentEfferent

4 Peripheral Nervous System Afferent - bring sensory Efferent - carry commands

5 Efferent Division ✴S✴S omatic - skeletal muscle contractions (voluntary) & involuntary reflexes ✴A✴A utonomic (visceral motor system) - Involuntary (smooth muscles, cardiac muscle & glandular secretions)

6 Autonomic Nervous System Parasympathetic - nonstressful rest & digest Sympathetic – stressful fight or flight

7 Neuron Functional & Structural unit of the nervous system

8 dendrites Nissl bodies nucleusnucleolus neurofilaments Initial segment of axon axon mitochondria dendritic spines synaptic terminals telodendria Golgi apparatus axon hillock telodendria axon nucleus perikaryon dendrites Multipolar Neuron

9 Vocabulary ✴ dendrites - typically highly branched, carry messages ✴ axon - propagates an electrical impulse away from the cell body ✴ initial segment - base of an axon

10 Vocabulary cont. ✴ axon hillock - thickened region ✴ soma - cell body, houses organelles but lack centioles ✴ telodendria - fine extensions off the axon ✴ synaptic terminal - ends of the telodendria

11 Structural Classification of Neurons anaxonic neuron bipolar neuron unipolar neuron multipolar neuron

12 Functional Classification of Neurons ✴S✴S ensory neurons (afferent) - from sensory receptors to CNS somatic sensory neurons - monitor the outside world & our position in it visceral sensory neurons - monitor internal conditions & the status of the organs

13 Sensory receptors proprioceptors interoceptors exteroceptors

14 Sensory Receptors Further broken down into Mechanoreceptor s Thermoreceptors Nociceptors Chemoreceptors Osmoreceptors Photoreceptors

15 Functional Classification of Neurons ✴M✴M otor Neurons (efferent) - carry instructions from the CNS to peripheral effectors

16 Functional Classification of Neurons ✴ Interneurons (association) - outnumber all other types mostly in brain & spinal cord situated between sensory & motor neurons

17 Ependymal Cells line the central canal & ventricles which house the brain & spinal cord, creates a barrier between the Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF) and the brain & spinal cord

18 Neuroglial Cells

19 Astrocytes ✴ Maintain the blood-brain barrier ✴ Create a 3-D framework for the CNS ✴ Repair damaged nerve tissue ✴ Guide neuron development ✴ Control the interstitial environment

20 Oligodendrocytes Form the myelin sheath along the length of the axon ✴ myelin - increases the speed of the action potential along the axon ✴ myelin sheath - membrane wrapping around the axon ✴ internodes - area of the axon wrapped myelin (1 - 2 mm in length) ✴ nodes - small gaps (few micrometers) between internodes with no myelin ✴ white matter - CNS, areas with myelinated axons, high lipid content ✴ gray matter - areas containing neuron cell bodies, dendrites & unmyelinated axons

21 The Myelinated Axon

22 Microglia least numerous cleanup by engulfing cellular debris, waste products & pathogens

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