Presentation on theme: "Vocabulary Strategies. What do children need to learn? There are 88,700 word families in text up to 12th grade. 20 words account for 25% of spoken English."— Presentation transcript:
What do children need to learn? There are 88,700 word families in text up to 12th grade. 20 words account for 25% of spoken English. 107 words account for 50% of the words in running text. 5,000 more words account for an additional 45% of the words in running text. Infrequent words (5% of total) carry the most unique meaning in a passage (Nagy and Anderson, 1984 estimate)
Vocabulary Gap at age 6 Low SES-2,000 words Middle SES 4,000 words High SES 6,000 words
In 1st and 2nd grade, children need to learn 800+ words per year, (about 2 per day) Children need to learn 2,000-3,000 new words each year from 3rd grade onward (about 6-8 per day)
An average child increases knowledge of root words to about 8,000 by 6th grade. The verbally limited children may have learned about 4,000 in the same time span.
Reading and vocabulary development Childrens books have more varying and unusual words than TV. Rarity and variety of words in childrens books is greater than that in adult conversation. Adult reading matter contains words 2- times rarer than those heard on TV
Who is going to develop a larger vocabulary Good readers: read an average of 30 minutes per day at 150 wpm=4500 wpd Average readers: read an average of 20 minutes a day at 100 wpm=2000 wpd Struggling readers: read an average of 10 minutes per day at 50 wpm=500 wpd
What does this mean for ELL students ELL students may be more adept at decoding than they are at interpreting what they read. ELL students need basic vocabulary that native English speakers possess already.
Background knowledge of ELLs may be very different from native speakers ELL students have a lot of catching up to do.
Make sure they can hear the sound (Phonemic Awareness) RhymingOdditySegmentation –Syllables Va-ca-tion –Phonemes M-a-pBlendingDeletion –1st sound:Pink-ink –final sound:Belt-bell –initial consonant blend:Plan-pan –final blend:Blimp-blip
If students cant hear and pronounce the sound they confuse the words: Pacific/specificThen/thanShocked/shot/Bisect/biceptFeel/fillKinetic/ConnecticutHomogeneous/heterogeneous
Teaching words in context It takes 10-12 meaningful encounters with a word to know a word from context
Limited encounters mean limited knowledge Designated means sober? Borrowed means given? Job means parents particular job?
Context may be misdirective: Sandra won the dance contest and the audiences cheers brought her to the stage for an encore. Every step she take is perfect and graceful. Ginny said grudgingly.
Context may be non-directive: Dan heard the door open and by the lumbering footsteps he knew it was Aunt Grace.
Teaching Vocabulary in Context TPRPicturesRealia Hands on activities Acting out meaning Using key vocabulary often in many contexts Thematic units
For level 1 students, context may be the only method.
Multiple meanings The oldest English words have the most meanings: House (Anglo-Saxon 800A.D.) Residence (Norman French 1300A.D.)
How many meanings can you find? FrameCheckPitchSpringRace
Word relationships Words and concepts should be learned in relation to one another and in relation to a topic of interest. New words are remembered and retrieved more easily if they are filed in a meaning network.
Types of vocabulary activities Introductory –When students are first introduced to a word –Definitions alone arent necessarily meaningful
Types of vocabulary activities Deep processing –Activities that help students find relationships between words –Help students understand the word and its connotations –Help students practice using the word in meaningful ways (those 12 times)
Types of vocabulary activities Culmination activities –Help students solidify their understandings of the word –Complete the deep understanding of the word
A vocabulary cycle Weekly vocabulary instruction Monday: Introductory activity Tuesday-Thursday: Deep processing activities Friday: Culmination activity
Introductory activities Using context –TPR –Pictures –Realia –Hands on activities –Acting out meaning
Card sort Sort the cards into catagories UnknownKnownOwn
Deep Processing activities Cause students to interact with the vocabulary in meaningful ways –Thematic units –Hands on activities More cognitively engaging Help build relationships between words and concepts
Categories: Put the cards into categories and subcategories. What did you need to know to do this?
Semantic feature analysis The critical of defining features of words can be analyzed in charts that show the contrast between similar concepts.
Antonyms A common way to form antonyms: Un, in non, mis, or dis –happy/unhappy – hospitable/inhospitable – conformist/nonconformist – identify/misidentify –allow/disallow
Activity Put the words together to identify their meaning
Culminating activities Help students solidify their knowledge of the word
Definitions More useful at the end of the word study Enables students to solidify their understandings Activity: Use the definition form to define three words.
Which words should be directly taught? Words critical to understanding the text or topic at hand Words with general utility likely to be encountered many times. Difficult words that need interpretation (metaphorical, abstract, nuanced, idiomatic) Level 1 and 2 students need direct instruction in basic vocabulary.
Basic communication Anglo saxon Academic Latin origin Content specific Greek origin
Tier 1 words Common everyday words found in regular oral usage. Tend to be Anglo-Saxon origin. A native English speaker at the grade level would know these words. Important words for Level 1 and 2 students. Examples: Run, play, go Examples: Run, play, go
Tier 2 words Cognitive academic words. Tend to be Latin origin. Often these words are cognates and can be easier for Spanish speakers. Important for developing vocabulary. For language development, place most of the emphasis here. Examples: Independence, subjugate.
Tier 3 words Unique, unusual words. Often content specific. Tend to be Greek origin. Examples: Kinetic, photosynthesis