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What Determines Elections? Linkage Institutions #4.

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Presentation on theme: "What Determines Elections? Linkage Institutions #4."— Presentation transcript:

1 What Determines Elections? Linkage Institutions #4

2 The Campaign Running For President – “Getting Mentioned” “Off the record” mention you are considering it Travel around the country to give speeches (Obama) Have a famous name (Trump) Be identified with major legislation (McCain) Governor of a major state (Bush, Romney)

3 The Campaign Organization – Large Paid Staff – Volunteers (Ground Game) – Advisors on Issues (Position Papers)

4 The Campaign Strategy and Themes – Incumbents defend record, Challengers attack – Developing a Theme “Change You Can Believe In” – Developing a Tone (Positive or Negative) – Issues (Two Types) Position Issues: Issues in which rival candidates have opposing views and voters divided Valence Issues: Issues in which nearly everyone agrees (strong economy)

5 Delivering Your Message 1)Spots (Paid Advertisements) 2)News Broadcasts (“Visuals) 3)Debates 4)Internet

6 Spots (Paid Advertising)


8 News Broadcasts Cost the campaign very little Has greater credibility with voters Actually are LESS informative than paid advertisements

9 Debates Usually only an advantage to the challenger – Reagan 1980 – Clinton 1992 – Romney (First Debate at least) 2012 Higher Risk than Reward in most cases – Rick Perry in Primary not being able to detail his own program – Mitt Romney in Senate Race in Massachusetts

10 Debates



13 The Internet Direct Mail Campaigns Become Possible Addressing Specific Voters Fundraising Ability

14 Money Presidential Primaries – Federal Matching Funds for all individual donations of $250 or less – Gives incentive to raise from small donors – Grants given to cover convention costs Presidential General Election – Can be Public Money (limited though) or Private (more and more politicians) Congressional Elections – All private money (individuals, PACs, Parties) – Most money from individual small donors

15 Campaign Finance Rules 1974 Reform (Brought on by Watergate) Federal Campaign Reform Law – Limit on individual donations – Ban on corporate or union donations – Allowed to raise money through PACs (Political Action Committees) – PACS must…. Have 50 voluntary members Give to at least 5 federal election candidates Limited to $5,000 per election per candidate and $15,000 per year to a party

16 Campaign Finance Rules 1974 Reform (Continued) – Primary and general election counted separately for donations – Public Funding for Presidential Campaigns Matching funds in Primary Full Funding up to a limit (for major parties) More and more candidates declining Partial funding for minor parties that get 5% of the vote in previous election (Green Party- Nader in 2000)

17 Campaign Finance Rules Problems with Reform – Independent Expenditures An organization or PAC can spend as much as it wishes on advertising as long as it is not coordinated with a campaign – Soft Money Unlimited amount of money may be given to a party as long as a candidate is not named. Money can be spent on helping candidates with voter drives (Half a billion spent in 2000)

18 Campaign Finance Rules 2000 McCain-Feingold Bipartisan Campaign Finance Reform Act – Banned Soft Money Contributions to national parties from corporations and unions – Raised the limit on individual donations to $2,000 per candidate, per election – Restricted Independent Expenditures Groups could not use their own money for an advertisement referring to a candidate by name in months before an election

19 Campaign Finance Rules Mc-Cain Feingold Loopholes – 527s Groups that permit soft-money spending that once went to parties Cannot “coordinate” with a candidate or lobby directly for that person 2004- 1/3 of a billion dollars spent by 527s

20 Campaign Finance Rules Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission (2010) – Challenged Independent Expenditures aspect of McCain-Feingold – 5-4 vote stating that it violated first amendment rights Equates money with speech And “corporations are people, my friend” – Led to creation of SUPERPACS!!!! Not allowed to coordinate with campaigns, but can spend unlimited amounts of money As of October they have spend half a billion dollars

21 Money

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