Presentation on theme: "Chapter Twelve Notes: The War of 1812. Madison replaces Jefferson as president after 2 terms Natural replacement with a long resume Not an effective politician."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter Twelve Notes: The War of 1812
Madison replaces Jefferson as president after 2 terms Natural replacement with a long resume Not an effective politician
Macons Bill No. 2 made to replace Non-Intercourse Act Offered non-importation policies on the country that did not remove their own restrictive trade policies on the U.S. (France or Britain) Napoleon took advantage of U.S.s desire to avoid war and promised to oblige (even though he had no intentions of doing so) –Brits upset at this –Helped Napoleon since he wanted another foe for Britain
Election of War Hawks in 1810 –New, young congressmen come from the SW and W They wanted to wipe out Native resistance to white settlement –Opposed by Tecumseh and his brother the Prophet –Tecumsehs confederacy was damaged by Harrisons attack at Tippecanoe in 1811
More nationalistic than many easternerswanted to fight the British over the impressments of sailors –National rights trampled by the British upsetting the young upstarts –Western ag. Products were not shipped due to the British Orders in Council
The Naive Madison, the crafty Napoleon, the youthful Congress, and lingering resentments from the Revolutionary War set the stage for the Second War for Independence.
For many the prize of the war was Canada Fighting forces were patheticpoorly trained, little discipline, and no zeal Poor strategyshould have aimed at the center of Canada (Montreal) Canadians and British were ready, and possessed a solid strategy.
The fighting: –Americans initially repelled at Detroit, Champlain, Niagara, and Mackinac –Turned tide when Americans won on Lake Erie, and the Battle of Thames –Advancing British finally defeated on L. Champlain near Plattsburgh.
Results also mixed in the Middle States and the South British invaded Washington, burning the Capitol building and the White House British then attacked Baltimore, but were finally driven back Brits then attacked New Orleans (after the treaty was signed) and were soundly defeated by Andrew Jackson and his men (helped his future immensely).
On the sea, the Americans were overmatched, but still emerged victorious and earned the reputation as a first-class power in the world
Treaty of Ghent: 1815 A victory for America since they achieved something when they earned nothing –Brits won the war narrowly –Americans won the negotiation Pressures in Europe compelled British to be happy without any new territories and to accept a draw.
War of 1812 enabled America to turn its back on Europe Western lands were gained from battles with the Native Americans –Horseshoe Bend –Battle of the Thames Navy became stronger, thus serving as a deterrent to forces considering an attack New England (though battered and upset over the blockadeas shown by their Hartford Convention gathering) was able to build a manufacturing base, allowing America to make their own, instead of buying from Europe.
In the end, the wars with Europe were overfor 103 years. Europe was so exhausted from battling Napoleon that the prospect of another war was a paralyzing thought.