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European Timeline 1450-2000. Donatello Father of Renaissance sculpture Most famous for the bronze statue David the first free-standing nude in Europe.

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Presentation on theme: "European Timeline 1450-2000. Donatello Father of Renaissance sculpture Most famous for the bronze statue David the first free-standing nude in Europe."— Presentation transcript:

1 European Timeline 1450-2000

2 Donatello Father of Renaissance sculpture Most famous for the bronze statue David the first free-standing nude in Europe since Roman times Brunelleschi First major architect of the Italian Renaissance Designed the church of San Lorenzo

3 Lorenzo Valla Wrote On Pleasure Exposed as a forgery the Donation of Constantine Known as the father of modern historical criticism Machiavelli Most important political writer during the Renaissance Wrote The Prince, which rejected the traditional Christian view A ruler must be willing to be ruthless to be successful – end justifies the mean

4 Pico della Mirandola Wrote Oration on the Dignity of Man Castiglione Wrote The Book of the Courtier A gentlemen should be well-rounded, know several languages, be athletic, and polite

5 Leonardo da Vinci First Italian painter to use oil Painted Mona Lisa and Last Supper He dealt with mostly religious themes but in secular manner Michelangelo Painter and sculpture Painted the frescoes on the Sistine Chapel for Pope Julius II Sculpted Pieta and Moses

6 1450 Movable Printing Press Developed by Johannes Gutenberg Spread ideas of Renaissance and humanistic literature to the rest of Europe 1456 Gutenberg Bible

7 1453 Charles VII revives France and monarchy Organized Frances first standing army By 1453, he had expelled English out of all of France except Calais Ottomans capture Constantinople

8 1454 Peace of Lodi Florence, Milan, and Venice sign alliance to create new order in Northern Italy

9 The Medici Medici Family Held power in Florence Italy Height of Florence

10 1469 Marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile unites Spain

11 1479 Pazzi Conspiracy Unsuccessful attempt in Florence to overthrow the Medici

12 1461-1483 Louis XI ruled France Known as the Spider King Promoted new industry, welcomed foreign craftsmen, increased taxes in order to improve military

13 The end of the War of the Roses English Civil War between York house and the Lancaster house York (white) and Lancaster (Red) Henry VII become first Tudor monarch – New monarch 1485

14 Portuguese Exploration Prince Henry the Navigator Established sailing and navigation school at Sagres Responsible for the growth of the Portugal colonial empire Bartholomew Diaz - Portuguese sea captain and explorer In 1487 became the first European to see Cape of Good Hope and to round southern tip of Africa

15 Portuguese Exploration Helped find southeastern water route to Asia 1497-9 Vasco da Gama sailed in India In 1500 Pedro Cabral sent to India but blown off course Sighted Brazil and claimed it for Portugal

16 1492 Ferdinand of Argon and Isabella of Castile married and unified Spain Reconquista Expulsion of Moors and Jews from Spain led to economic decline because no middle class Christopher Columbus went out looking for new route to India, but instead reached the New World or the Americas Financed by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain

17 Pope Alexander VI Corrupt Spanish Pope Aided militarily by his son, Cesare Borgia Successfully recovered papal authority in the papal lands

18 In Florence the Dominican friar Girolamo Savonarola: Attacked paganism and moral vice of Florence under Medici rule Attacked undemocratic government and corruption of Pope Alexander VI

19 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas The new world, or the Americas, was divided by the line of demarcation between Spain and Portugal Decided by Pope Leo VI Invasion of Italy by King Charles VIII of France Medici driven from power French welcomed by Savonarola

20 John Cabot Italian navigator Explored off the coast of New England, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland Gave England claim to North America 1496

21 1498 Savonarola burned at the stake in Florence

22 1500s – known as the cinquecentro 1500-1527 – High Renaissance 1503-1513 – Julius II is pope – Julius II was responsible for much of the artwork accumulated by the Roman Catholic Church in the Vatican and elsewhere. He commissioned Michelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel 1506 – Julius II begins work on Saint Peters Basilica 1509 – Erasmus publishes Praise of Folly – a plea for Christian morality 1509 – Henry VIII becomes King of England

23 1512 1512 – Lateran Council meets to reform the Church; Start of the Reformation 1512- Medici overthrow the Republic in Florence

24 1513 1513 – Balboa discovers the Pacific 1513 – The Prince written by Machiavelli 1513-1521 – Pope Leo X is pope

25 1516 – Thomas More publishes Utopia 1516- Concordat of Bologna Established royal control over church appointments 1517 – Luther posts 95 theses on Wittenberg Castle 1519-1522 – Charles V commissioned Magellans crew circumnavigates the earth 1519 – Leonardo da Vinci dies 1519 – Charles V universal monarch becomes Holy Roman Emperor 1520 – Luther publishes Appeal to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation 1520- Luther is excommunicated by Pope Leo X

26 1521 Edict of Worms declared Luther a heretic Henry VIII writes the Defense of the Seven Sacraments, attacking Luther Start of the Hapsburg – Valois wars Diet of Worms called by Charles V, puts Luther on trial – Here I stand, I cannot do otherwise

27 1524-1525 – Peasants revolt in Germany 1526- Turks defeat the Hungarians at the Battle of Mohács

28 1527 Machiavelli dies Charles V sacks Rome Henry VIII is thus unable to get Pope Clement VII to give him a divorce from Catherine of Aragon – a relative of Charles V End of Renaissance in Italy

29 1528 – Castiglione publishes The Book of the Courtier 1529 – Colloquy of Marburg summoned to unite Protestant opinion – failed

30 1529 – The Turks besieged Vienna 1529- Diet of Speyer – Charles V makes Anabaptism punishable by drowning 1530- Augsburg Confessions – doctrinal basis for Lutheranism 1531- Formation of the Schmalkaldic League a defensive alliance by the Protestant German princes 1531- Battle of Kappel – Zwingli killed 1533 – Henry VIII issues the Act in Restraint of Appeals – King sovereign in England; forbade judicial appeals to the papacy

31 1534 Henry VIII issues Act of Submission of the Clergy – required churchmen to submit to the king Henry VIII issues Act of Supremacy – king supreme head of the Church of England Henry VIII issues Act of Succession – all subjects must swear oath of loyalty to the king Rabelais published Gargantua and Pantagruel

32 1535- Thomas More executed 1536 – Pilgrimage of Grace – massive multiclass rebellion against Henrican religious policies – brutally suppressed 1536- Ten Articles established the doctrine for the Church of England (basically Lutheran)

33 1536 – Institutes of Christian Religion published by Calvin 1540 – Society of Jesus, Jesuits, founded by Ignatius of Loyola 1541 – John Calvin begins theocracy in Geneva, Switzerland 1542 – Roman Inquisition 1542 – Catholic Church publishes Index of Prohibited Books 1543 – Copernicus publishes On Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres – the year he died to avoid persecution by the Catholic Church

34 1545-1563 – Council of Trent called by Pope Paul III to suggest reforms of the Catholic Church; End of Reformation 1547 – Miguel de Cervantes born – author of Don Quixote a story that criticized the Spanish government for their negligence 1548 – Ignatius Loyola publishes Spiritual Exercises 1549 – Thomas Cranmers Book of Common Prayer published 1550 – Start of Baroque movement – period of elaborate art, which was present in many Catholic churches and institutions art – Rubens The Horrors of War music - Bach

35 1550-1700 This period of time was known as the Baroque Movement Emotional, exuberant art Emphasized dramatic, curving forms, elaborate ornamentation, and overall balance of disparate parts Developed with exceptional vigor in Catholic countriesSpain, Latin America, Austria, southern Germany, & Poland

36 1555 Peace of Augsburg (cuius regio, eius religio)

37 1556 Philip II After the abdication of Charles V, his son Philip II became King of Spain in 1556 Marriage was only considered a political alliance to him: Queen Mary I of England Elisabeth of Valois, the daughter of Henri I of France Anne, the daughter of emperor Maximilian II Declared himself the leader of the Counter Reformation Ignatius Loyola dies

38 1558 - death of Queen Mary of England The daughter of Henry VIII, Queen Elizabeth I took the throne in England, succeeding her half- sister She was a politique She was the last monarch of the Tudor dynasty

39 1559 Act of Uniformity in England: required the use of the Protestant Book of Common Prayer by Thomas Cranmer Philip II of Spain & Henri II of France signed the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis Henry II killed in joust – Catherine de Medici becomes regent for Francis II It ended the Habsburg-Valois Wars with Spain as the victor It ended an era of dynastic wars so both countries could focus on wiping out Protestantism

40 1560-1660 This period marked the height of the Great European Witch-Hunt The vast majority of witches were married or widowed women between the ages of fifty and seventy years old. They were usually crippled or bent with age, and with pockmarked skin. 3,229 witches were executed in southwestern Germany

41 1562-1598 War of Three Henrys The War of Three Henrys was a French civil war for the throne between Henri of Navarre (Huguenot), Henri of Guise (Catholic), and Henri III of Valois (Catholic) Henri of Navarre emerged victorious and became Henry IV of France Valois Guise Navarre

42 Johannes Kepler expanded on the work of his mentor, Tycho Brahe Three famous laws of planetary motion: While Copernicus speculated, Kepler proved his ideas mathematically 1571-1630

43 1564-1642 Galileo Galilei challenged old ideas about motion He consolidated the experimental method Galileo formulated the law of inertia and provided astrological evidence for the Copernican theory Tried for heresy by the papal Inquisition and forced to recant his views

44 1572 The wave of Catholic mob violence against the French Huguenots was known as St. Bartholomews Day Massacre It marked a turning point in the War of Three Henrys Several dozen Huguenot leaders were murdered in Paris

45 1579 The Union of Utrecht unified the northern provinces of the Netherlands and formed a Protestant republic Foundation of the republic of the Seven United Netherlands Their independence was not formally recognized until the Peace of Westphalia in 1648

46 1584-1613 Following the death of Ivan the Terrible, Russia experienced a period of chaos and struggles known as the Time of Troubles In 1613 the nobles elected Michael Romanov, sixteen-year-old grandnephew of Ivan the Terrible, to be the tsar of Russia – because they thought they could manipulate him

47 1587 Mary, Queen of Scots was beheaded on charges of plotting against her first cousin, Elizabeth I (The Babington Plot) If Elizabeth were to die childless, the Catholic Mary would have become Queen of England

48 1588 The Spanish Armada defeated by the English The Spanish ironically had called the fleet la felícissima armadaThe most fortunate fleet Prevented Philip II from imposing religious unity on Western Europe by force

49 1598 The Edict of Nantes ended the War of Three Henrys Henry IV of France granted the French Huguenots liberty of conscience and worship The Huguenots were granted 150 places of safety, such as La Rochelle Its purpose was primarily to end the long- running French wars of religion & restore peace Prepared the way for French absolutism in the seventeenth century by restoring internal unity

50 1602 - Chartering of Dutch East India Company – reaped enormous wealth and allowed the Netherlands to dominate the European economy in 1650 1603: Death of Elizabeth I and the end of the Tudor dynasty and the start of the Stuarts; end of the northern Renaissance

51 1605 The Gunpowder Plot - a desperate but failed attempt by a group of unsophisticated English Catholics to kill King James I of England, by blowing up the Houses of Parliament

52 1611: King James Version of the Bible first published in England 1613: An Assembly of the Russian Empire elects Mikhail Romanov to be the Tsar of Russia; establishes the Romanov Dynasty

53 1614 The French Estates General meets for the last time before the beginning of the French Revolution

54 1618-1648: Thirty Years War Four phases: Bohemian - Defenestration of Prague starts war in Bohemia; Protestant forces defeated Danish – height of Catholic forces during the war; Edict of Restitution (1629) – emperor declared all church territories secularized since 1552 to be restored to Catholic Church Swedish – Protestants liberate territory lost in previous phase French – International Phase political

55 1624-1643: Richelieu dominates French government during Louis XIIIs reign. Reshuffled the royal council, eliminated potential power brokers, crushed aristocratic conspiracies, used intendants 1625: Huguenots revolt in France 1625-1675: Golden Age of Dutch culture

56 1626: Charles I dissolves Parliament He came to the throne when Europe was moving towards control by all-powerful monarchs, such as Louis XIV. Charles would attempt to pursue similar policies but would be limited by a powerful parliamentary opposition. widespread opposition to many of Charles' actions: use of the Court of the Star Chamber to suppress dissent taxation without the approval of Parliament a religious policy that was seen by the puritans as an attempt to bring the Anglican Church closer to Roman Catholicism

57 1628 1628: Charles I reconvenes the English Parliament and accepts the Petition of Right as a concession to gain his subsidies limited the power of Charles I of England could not declare martial law could not collect taxes could not imprison people without cause soldiers could not be housed without consent

58 1632 Galileo's Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published

59 1640 The English Long Parliament is summoned. called by Charles I after the Bishops Wars. It receives its name from the fact that it sat almost continuously during the English Civil War. The sole reason Charles reassembled Parliament was to ask it to pass finance bills, since the Bishops Wars had bankrupted him. 1640-1688: Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg

60 Between the Royalists (supporters of Charles I of England) and the Parliamentarian supporters of the Long Parliament. 1648: Peace of Westphalia ended the Thirty Years' War and readjusted the religious and political affairs of Europe 1645: Cromwell creates The New Model Army 1649: Charles I executed 1642-49 English Civil War

61 1648 Start of the Fronde in France English Parliament finds Charles I guilty of treason, and sentences him to be executed Oliver Cromwell would soon become Lord Protector of England, a position which made him a virtual dictator

62 1648-1660: Fronde The Fronde in France series of outbreaks during the reign of King Louis XIV, caused by: the efforts of the Parlement of Paris to limit the growing authority of the crown the personal ambitions of discontented nobles the grievances of the people against the financial burdens suffered under cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin

63 1650 William III of Orange becomes Prince of the House of Orange in the Netherlands Netherlands is Protestant

64 Thomas Hobbes was an English philosopher & political theorist In Leviathan, he explains that sovereignty is derived from the people, who in turn transfer it to the monarchy He says the power of the ruler is absolute, but they do not have divine right Advocated absolutism - without it, there would be anarchy and chaos Parliament passes first Navigation Act Goods imported into England must be on English ships 1651

65 Anglo-Dutch Wars 1652-1675 Enforced by Oliver Cromwell & said that British goods have to be carried on British ships Goal: to hurt Dutch shipping Caused the rise of British Mercantilism & crushed the Dutch shipping dynasty 1650-1790 Marked unprecedented growth of Atlantic Trade!

66 1658 ~ Oliver Cromwell Dies So… The Restoration Charles II Brought Back to the Throne Parliament Restored & Anglican Church 1670 ~ Charles II Secretly Agrees With to Louis XIV to: - ReCatholicize England - Declare himself Catholic (at the appropriate time) -Ease restrictions on Catholics The Restoration 1660

67 1663-1683 ~ Colberts Mercantilism in France Created powerful merchant marine under Louis Xiv & greatly aided the development of manufactured goods 1665 ~ The Plague in GB Brought by fleas on black rats on ships 1666 ~ Great Fire in GB Helped end the plague 1660s

68 Test Acts 1673 People had to take the Eucharist or you would be limited from holding public office

69 1682-1725 Rule of Peter the Great in Russia Westernization of Russia & Built St. Petersburg 1685 ~ Edict of Fontainebleau 1685 - Louis XIV Revoked the Edict of Nantes to ensure his complete unity of the state 1686 ~ Fontenelle published Conversation on the Plurality of Worlds Attempt to make scientific revolution information witty & expose a new audience to it 1687 ~ Newtons Principia Describes laws of motion & synthesizes everyones work previous to him 1680s Start of Enlightenment

70 1685 Charles IIs brother James becomes king of England Louis XIV revokes the Edict of Nantes -ends religious toleration of the Huguenots

71 Glorious Revolution 1688 James II sympathetic towards Catholics All of England Scared of a Catholic King & possibility of Catholic Heir James Violated Test Act!!! Tories –Parliamentary supporters of the king Whigs – Parliamentary opponents of the king William of Orange & James daughter Mary invited to take over No blood shed @ all = GLORIOUS!!! James flees to France

72 1689 William and Mary accept the Bill of Rights Affirms the rights of Parliament Anglicanism is the established Church of England Catholics prohibited from being on the throne

73 1690 John Lockes Essays Concerning Human Understanding Tabula Rasa!!! ~ blank slate…experience and exposure Second Treatise of Civil Government Life, liberty & property

74 1700-1721 Great Northern War Charles XII (Sweden) Peter the Great Ended by Treaty of Nystad Peter gained Baltic states window to the West

75 1701 Tull invents the seed drill Turnips Brought agricultural revolution to England from the Netherlands Foundation of St. Petersburg Westernization of Russia by Peter the Great Influenced by Louis XIVs Versailles Act of Settlement in England Only Anglican could succeed to the throne of England After restoration Charles II= king

76 1701-1713 War of Spanish Succession Between England, Spain, and France Fought because of Louis XIVs relatives possibility of becoming the new Spanish King

77 1707 Act of Union Unified Scotland and England English and Scottish Parliaments merged Became Great Britain

78 1712 Savery and Newcomen invent steam pump Agricultural Revolution

79 1713 Peace of Utrecht – end of War of Spanish Succession Ended French expansion policies under Louis XIV Destroyed French economy Led to depopulation Weakened Louis XIV Britain= biggest winner Got asiento from Spain Spain lost most of its possessions

80 Pragmatic Sanction 1713 Pragmatic Sanction Maria Teresa- reduced serfdom- Joseph II

81 1715 End of the reign of Louis XIV He was the most successful absolute ruler

82 1733 Kay invented the flying shuttle Agricultural Revolution

83 1740-1748 War of Austrian Succession Prussia, France, Bavaria, and Spain vs. Austria and Russia Prussia took Silesia from Austria making it the most powerful German State: great power Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle Ended War of Austrian Succession

84 1748 Montesquieu wrote The Spirit of the Law Power checks power Influenced the American Revolution

85 1750 Beginning of the Population explosion in Europe

86 1751 First publication of the Encyclopedia by Diderot and dAlembert (published until 1765)

87 1756 Start of the Seven Years War Diplomatic Revolution (Alliance of Britain and Prussia)

88 1762 Rousseaus Social Contract Ascension of Catherine the Great

89 1765 Hargreaves invents the spinning jenny Arkwright invents the water frame

90 1772 1 st Partitioning of Poland by Catherine the Great of Russia, Maria Theresa of Austria, and Frederick of Prussia Poland lost one-third of territory and half of the population

91 1774 1773-4: Pugachevs Rebellion in Russia Death of Louis XV Ascension of Louis XVI

92 1776 Adam Smiths Wealth of Nations Attacked mercantilism and advocated economic liberalism

93 1780 Death of Maria Theresa Ascension of Joseph II of Austria (ish) Arkwright: Steam engine to power looms

94 1781 Enlightened despot Joseph II abolishes serfdom

95 1789 Estates General called by Louis XVI Tennis Court Oath Declaration of the Right of Man 3 rd Estate becomes the National Assembly Storming of the Bastille Women march to Versailles to demand action from Louis XVI

96 1791 Olympe de Gourges: The Rights of Women Legislative Assembly convenes Prussia and Austria issue the Declaration of Pillnitz Death of Mozart

97 1792 Mary Wollstonecraft: Declaration of the Rights of Woman Legislative Assembly declares war Legislative Assembly disbands National Convention formed France declared a Republic

98 1793 2 nd Partitioning of Poland Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin Louis XVI beheaded Mountain ousts the Girondins Committee of Public Safety formed Start of the Reign of Terror

99 1794 Danton and Followers executed Marie Antoinette beheaded Thermidorean Reaction End of the Reign of Terror Robespierre executed Girondins readmitted Economic controls lifted; ended control of sans-culottes Institution of the Revolutionary Calendar

100 1795 3 rd and Final Partitioning of Poland Formation of the Directory

101 1799 Coup détat Brumaire by Napoleon Formation of the Consulate; Napoleon declared 1 st Consul Combination Acts – the British government prohibit the formation of unions

102 Napoleon Concordant (1801): creates reconciliation between the church and government Louisiana Purchase (1803): allows France to concentrate on its European agenda Napoleonic Code (1804): system of rules and civil code Napoleon becomes the self proclaimed emperor of France (1804)

103 War efforts 1805 - Battle of Trafalgar: Nelson of Britain destroys the French Navy and any chance of a French invasion 1805 - Battle of Austerlitz: France defeats invading Russian Army Creation the Confederation of the Rhine and Grand Duchy of Warsaw establishes Napoleons European Power After failing to wipe out Britain with the continental system Napoleon comes to odds with Spain and touches off the Peninsula War 1807 - Treaty of Tilsit: Between Russia and France. Keeps Russia out of European Conflict

104 End of Napoleon Grand Army in Russia (1812): French face defeat due to the harsh winter He is then defeated by a European Coalition and exiled to Elba, but shortly escapes. (Hundred Days) Waterloo (1815): Napoleon defeated by England and is exiled to St. Helena where he dies

105 Congress of Vienna From 1814-1815, major European powers were called together to decide what they should do with post-Napoleon Europe They decided to strengthen Frances border states in order to create a balance of power The leading speakers where Metternich (Austria), Talleyrand (France), and Castlereagh (England)

106 Liberalism 1819: Carlsbad Decree – limited freedom of the press and prohibited fraternities in Germany

107 England 1807: Britain outlaws slave trade in its colonial trade possesions 1824-1825: Combination Acts repealed in London allowing the formation of unions 1825: First Railway in the world built in Great Britain 1834: Britain outlaws slave ownership in colonial possesions 1837: Queen Victoria comes to power marks the end of the industrial revolution

108 Ireland Irish potato famine (1845-1850) Potato crop ruined Massive starvation, Many people immigrated to England and America

109 Karl Marx Marx, who lived in Paris, was influenced by the French Utopian socialists but thought they were unscientific Believed capitalism was simply a stage of history marked by class struggles Marx developed the idea of scientific socialism The Communist Manifesto (1848): Written by Karl Marx and Freidrich Engels, introduces socialism attractive to many struggling European countries He who controls the means of production controls power

110 Revolutions of 1848 February Rebellion in France: overthrows the rule of Louis Philippe (1830-1848) and established the Second republic, ended with the creation of a republic where Napoleon the III was elected president

111 Revolutions of 1848 Germany: influenced by the French, the Germans revolt to create a unified, national government. After indecisiveness to agree on a national constitution by the provisional government, the old regime gains power again

112 Italy: After their revolt causes the Pope Pius IX to leave Italy, Mazzini is given the power to unify Italy, but could not due to the rigid individuality of city states Revolutions of 1848

113 Austria: All the revolutions of 1848 – FAILED!!! Revolutions of 1848

114 Second Empire in France 1852-1871 Emperor Napoleon III seizes power in December 1851 via coup detat Disastrous Foreign Policy Liberal reforms to cover foreign policy Extended power of Legislative Assembly Ended by Franco-Prussian War

115 Third French Republic Adolphe Thiers- created National Assembly Paris Commune: 1870-71, radical Chamber of Deputies- Nobles had power Gambetta- leading radical republican Ferry- secular education Boulanger Crises (1887-89)- leader against the republic committed suicide & this weakened support for reforms, good for republicans Dreyfus Affair: 1894, threat to republic, Emile Zola~ realist author, condemned military

116 Great Britain Lord Palmerston- dominant power from 1850-65 Conservative party- from Tory Party Liberal Party- from Whig Party Mill- On Liberty (1859) Reform Bill of 1867- Disraelis leap in the Dark Reform Act of 1884- suffrage to adult males in some counties Fabian Society (1883)- advanced form of revisionist Marxism

117 Dispute over privileges in Holy Land - Concert of Europe failed Turks negotiate with France Russian Czar Nicholas II threatened by negotiations Fighting between Russians and Turks Britain, France, and Piedmont join against Russia Concluded by Peace of Paris- Russians big losers @ conference Crimean War 1853-1856

118 Austria-Hungary Ausgleich- 1867~ this compromise made Austria into the Austro-Hungarian Empire Karl Luegar- Vienna mayor, anti-Semitism Magyars- integrated with Hungary

119 Unification of Italy 1859-1870 Sardinia-Piedmont led way in unification under Count Cavour Cavour sought unity for Northern Italy Realpolitik – Pragmatic and Machiavellian view of politics

120 France agreed to support Sardinia if there was a war with Austria so Sardinia could establish a Northern Italian state France ignored agreement because didnt want to go to war with Prussia Sardinia got Lombardy 1860- Cavour annexes Parma, Modena, Romagna, and Tuscany Nice and Savoy transferred to France

121 May 1860- Liberated Southern Italy and Sicily with support of his Red Shirts September 1860- took control of Naples and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies Allowed these territories to be annexed by Victor Emmanuel II, King of Sardinia Piedmont

122 1866- Venice included in Italian Kingdom due to agreement with Otto Van Bismarck 1871- Rome captured by Italian Troops Rome made capital of Italy Italian completes political unification Cultural gap between progressive, industrial North and Agrarian South

123 Otto Von Bismarck Bismarck-Imperial Chancellor – Iron Chancellor – dominated 1850-1900 A member of the Prussian Junker aristocracy In 1862 he claimed that Prussia must use Blood and Iron

124 Schleswig-Holstein 1863 Schleswig and Holstein were located south of Denmark The people were most German speaking, but ruled by the Danish king The Danish king annexed Schleswig Bismarck proposed an alliance with Austria Denmark quickly defeated in 1864 Prussia would occupy Schleswig Austria would occupy Holstein

125 Austro-Prussian War 1866 Bismarck made sure Russia, France, and Italy would remain neutral if there was a conflict with Austria France agreed because they expected a long war and Austrian victory Italy would gain possessions from Austria Russia had gained the support of Bismarck in the suppression of the Russian peasants in 1863 Prussia accused Austria of interfering in the affairs of Schleswig In the Seven Weeks War the Prussians soundly defeated the Austrians

126 Bismarck wanted to be lenient towards Austria because he knew he would need their help against France 1866: Treaty of Prague a) Prussia get possession of Schleswig and Holstein b) also gets some northern German states c) Austria agreed to dissolution of the German Confederation d) Italy gained Venetia North German Confederation (1867) now dominated by Prussia In the south there were 4 independent states Prussia wanted the Catholic and liberal independent states

127 Ems Dispatch -Bismarck manipulated Napoleon III to declare war on Prussia French surrendered after the Battle of Sedan 1871: Treaty of Frankfurt – Alsace-Lorraine to Germany(led to French resentment) January 18, 1871- German Unification complete William I- Crowned Emperor of Germany (Kaiser Wilhelm) at Versailles Franco-Prussian War 1870

128 Designed by Bismarck to create stability William I of Germany Emperor Francis Joseph of Austria Tsar Alexander II of Russia The Three Emperors League 1872

129 Third French Republic Established in 1875 after downfall of Napoleon III Dominated by bourgeoisie Chamber of Deputies Universal Male Suffrage Leon Gambetta- led Republicans Jules Ferry- secular education Government fell multiple times

130 Russia Emancipation Act of 1861- Mirs & Zemstvos abolished serfdom Intelligensia- nihilism- radical intellectuals of the socialist pool Alexander III: Pogroms- anti-Semitism, Autocracy, Orthodoxy, & Russification Herzel- Zionism- Jewish Holy Land

131 Emancipation Act 1861 Alexander II – very liberal 90% of Russians lived off the land Serfs freed, but many not impacted because of mirs, Russian communities

132 Suez Canal In the 1800s Egypt was an autonomous part of the Ottoman empire The French built the Suez Canal in 1869 to open the Mediterranean Sea to Indian Ocean Huge British Advantage Financial problems soon caused the Egyptians to sell part ownership to the British When riots broke out against the British the British navy bombarded Alexandria In 1882 Egypt became a British protectorate

133 Russo-Turkish War 1877-78 Russia dreamed of controlling the Bosporus Russia supported Pan-Slavism, but under Russian control The Slavs in the Turkish empire used Russian support to cause problems for the Turks In 1877 Russia declared war on Turkey The British became involved to protect the Suez canal which was in Egypt (part of the Ottoman Empire) In 1878 Turkey was forced to sign the Treaty of San Stefano

134 Congress of Berlin 1878 War between Britain and Russia looked inevitable Bismarck called for a Congress to meet in Berlin The Congress kept peace in Europe by carving up the Turkish Empire The Russians gave up the Treaty of San Stefano, but still won independence for the Serbs and Romanians Austria-Hungary was authorized to occupy and administer Bosnia Germany gained nothing, except European peace Bismarck was called the honest broker However Balkan nationalists were dissatisfied and this would be a cause of World War I in 1914

135 Africa Africa - Began in the 1870s Stanley and Livingstone

136 Conference of Berlin 1875 Called by Bismarck to establish rules for dividing Africa Germany: Cameroon, Togo, southwest Africa, & East Africa France: Tunisia, Algeria, French West Africa Britain: Egypt and Sudan Italy: Libya Fashoda Crisis- Occurred when British and French armies met unexpectedly in Fashoda, Sudan

137 India India controlled by British jewel of the Empire Sepoy Mutiny 1857-1858 Insurrection of Hindu & Muslim soldiers – defeated Indian National Congress 1885

138 China Sino-Japanese War China defeated by Japan Rush for protectorates and concessions Britain, France, Germany, Russia and Japan

139 China 1842: Opium War – British annex Hong Kong Sino-Japanese War (1894-95) showed how weak China was and opened door for imperial nations Britain, France, Germany, Japan, and Russia all gained territory and control in east China Led to Boxer Rebellion of 1900 and end of Manchu Dynasty

140 Boxer Rebellion 1900 Uprising by Chinese nationalists against Western encroachment Put down Led to end of Manchu Dynasty

141 Boer War 1899-1902 Cecil Rhodes- Prime Minister of Cape Colony Discovery of diamonds and gold in Transvaal Area controlled by Boers (Dutch settlers) Kruger Telegram- Kaiser Wilhelm II congratulates Boers on victory over British

142 Imperialist Literature Rudyard Kipling, The White Mans Burden - Stated it was Westerners duty to civilize backwards peoples of Africa 1902: Joseph Conrad writes Heart of Darkness 1902: J.A. Hobson Imperialism: A Study – financiers were the power behind imperialism 1916: Lenin, Imperialism: The Last Stage of Capitalism – capitalism must expand to survive

143 Nationalism Loyalty felt to government Universal Male Suffrage common Welfare States in Germany, Britain, and France Conservatives often led governments Conservatives channeled patriotism into anti- liberalism Build up of militaries

144 The Balkans The Eastern Question who would control the Balkans? Russia wanted to retake and re-christianize the Balkans Gave rise to pan-slavism Defeated Ottoman Turks Negotiations mediated by Bismarck the honest broker Congress of Berlin 1871- Russia left

145 1904: Entente CordialeAn agreement against Germany by France and Great Britain. Great Britain gains Egypt and France gains Morocco

146 Start of the Russo Japanese War– This imperialist war solidifies Japan as a world power Japan attacked Russian installation at Port Arthur Technology-advanced Japan defeated traditional Russia First time a major European power has been beaten and the first major war since 1870 Weakens the myth of Russian power Cause of the Russian Revolution as Russia shifted attention back to Europe, especially the Balkans Russo-Japanese War 1904

147 Defeat by Japanese discredits Russia government March Revolution of 1905 Bloody Sunday – troops open fire on demonstrators led by Father Gapon Turns people against tsar in Russia 1905: October Manifesto, Nicholas II promised a) constitutional reforms b) guarantees civil liberties c) establish a Duma (elected parliament) 1906: Fundamental Laws – The tsar limits the power of the Duma Russian Revolution 1905

148 1905: Einstein develops Theory of Relativity 1907: Anglo Russian TreatyA naval treaty to ensure the protection of Persia Military competition between England and Germany Britain develops the Dreadnought Moroccan Crisis

149 1914: Assassination of Franz FerdinandThis event sparks the powder keg 1914: World War I begins 1915: Lusitania Sunk by German U-boats. 1916: Battle of VerdunFrance defeats Germany

150 1916: Easter RisingAn attempt to overtake Dublin and end British rule in Ireland 1917: Zimmerman TelegramNote sent by German ambassador promising Mexico part of United States, and also used by USA as propaganda for war

151 Bolshevik Revolution in RussiaThis ends the rule of the tsars Caused by military incompetence and hunger 1918: Treaty of Brest LitovskRussia drops out of WWI. Bolshevik Revolution 1917

152 Germany loses Alsace and Lorraine, and Poland becomes an independent country Treaty of Versailles 1919

153 1922: End of Bolshevik Revolution and start of U.S.S.R. led by Lenin 1924: Dawes PlanAmerican Charles Dawes establishes system for Germany to pay reparations 1924: Stalin takes power after Lenin dies

154 1925: Locarno PactAgreements that secure post war territorial disputes 1926: English General StrikeStrike by trade unions in England

155 1928: The Five Year PlansIndustrial and agricultural plans in the U.S.S.R. establishing socialist policies 1929: Great Depression in USA hurts world economies

156 1933: Reichstag FireGerman Parliament burns down 1933: Rise of Nazi Party in Germany 1935: Nuremburg LawsLead to persecution of Jews in Germany 1936: Start of Spanish Civil War 1936: Rome-Berlin AxisPact between Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany Adolph Hitler

157 1938: Munich Conference: Neville Chamberlain of England appeases Germany and agrees to let Hitler invade Sudetenland Peace in our time 1939: End of Spanish Civil War

158 1939: Start of World War II in Europe to halt Nazi expansionism Causes: a) failure of appeasement b) incomplete enforcement of Versailles c) fear of Communism d) rising unemployment in Germany e) domestic problems caused by the Great Depression 1939: Russo German Nonaggression PactGermany promises not to invade Russia World War II

159 1941: Lend-Lease beginsAllows for supplies to be sent to Allied forces from Americas 1941: Atlantic CharterDocument calls for no secret agreements, self determination, and free elections 1942-43: Battle of StalingradBattle proves to be turning point for the Eastern Front as the Red Army begins to push the Germans back out of Russia 1944: D-DayAllied Forces Invade German Occupied France and becomes largest naval invasion in history

160 Yalta ConferenceThe Big Three decide that Berlin and Germany is to be divided into 4 separate military zones Hitler commits suicide Franklin D. Roosevelt dies End of World War II Potsdam ConferenceStalin opposes free elections in Eastern Europe. The United Nations is established United Nations chartered 1945

161 1946: Churchill delivers iron curtain speech at Fulton, Missouri 1947: Truman Doctrine helps fight Communism in Greece and Turkey 1947: Marshall PlanAdvocates American financial aid to help European restoration 1947: Great Britain grants India independence 1948: Communist dictatorship in Czechoslovakia 1948: Britain, France, and the Benelux countries sign the Brussels Pact The Cold War

162 1948: Berlin Blockade and Berlin AirliftSoviets blockade Western Berlin so airlifts carry supplies to city 1949 Soviets lift Berlin blockade 1949: NATO created 1951: Schuman Plan integrates French and West German coal and steel industries and forms the European Coal and Steel Community 1953: Stalin died – replaced by Nikita Khrushchev who advocated peaceful coexistence 1955: Warsaw pact created by Soviets to balance NATO 1955-1962: De-Stalinization The Cold War

163 1956: Pasternak, Doctor Zhivago 1956: Soviets suppress Hungarian revolution 1957: Russian Satellite Sputnik - in orbit 1957: Treaty of Rome creates the European Economic Community (Common Market)

164 1960s: Space Race 1960: U-2 incident causes collapse of Paris Summit 1961: Soviets construct the Berlin Wall to stop East Germans from leaving 1961: the Russian cosmonaut first to orbit the globe 1962: Solzhenitsyn, One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovitcvh 1962 Cuban missile crisis 1963: Freidan, The Feminine Mystique 1968: Students protest the policies of the De Gaulle government in France Soviet tanks end Prague Spring 1969: America puts first man on the moon

165 1971: collapse of postwar monetary system 1973-1979: OPEC oil prices increase 1979: Soviets invade Afghanistan – ends détente between the superpowers 1979: Election of Pope John Paul II from Poland

166 1980s: Growth of debt Reduced Spending on Big Science Computer revolution through 1990s 1980: Lech Walesa leads Solidarity in Poland 1985: Gorbachev take power Revival of religion in Soviet Union 1988: Economic crisis in Poland 1989: Unification of Germany 1989-1990; Revolutions in Eastern Europe

167 1990s 1990: Maastricht Treaty proposes monetary union 1990s: Conservative economic policies develop in western Europe - Migration towards western Europe increases 1991: End of the Soviet Union! 1991-1995: War in former Yugoslavia 1993: European Community becomes European Union

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