Presentation on theme: "Energy from Waste As An Energy and Environmental Management System"— Presentation transcript:
1Energy from Waste As An Energy and Environmental Management System Purpose of this meeting is:1. For us to introduce the modern WTE industry- Its history- Its public service role- Its current technology- Its current environmental performance- Its unique environmental benefits2. For us to understand Green-e- Its purpose- Its criteria- Its methods for determining eligible sources3. OVERALL PURPOSE: To discuss our belief that WTE contributes to an overall reduction in environmental impacts from power production, and that it should therefore be considered to be consistent with Green-e’s goals.1
2Energy – from – Waste IS Sustainable Development Modern Energy - from - Waste (EfW) Provides Three Functions:Reduce GHGs,PM 2.5 and airtoxics.EfWSolid WasteDisposalRenewableEnergy
3Presentation Outline International Activity Increased use of Energy-from-WasteRegulations that are driving this behaviorPennsylvania’s Solid Waste BalanceSolid waste management and renewable energyGreenhouse gas reductionOther sustainable attributesMessageEfW is growing in Europe, Asia and the USAThe European Union Landfill Directive is smart “pollution prevention” policy – by avoiding landfilling of MSW - they are avoiding GHG and air toxic emissions while maximizing energy recovery.Lifecycle analysis is recommended for sustainability analysis
4I. International – The use of EfW is increasing due to focus on energy and climate change. LocationExisting FacilitiesNew Facilities(a)RFPs/Expansions (b)Plans(c)Europe388 (2003)4456---USA89 (2006)3/5China67 (2005)TBD400In construction or operation.USA expansions include Florida (Lee and Hillsborough), Minnesota (PERM, Olmstead, Poke Douglas). Others are also in motion.The 67 facilities manage 1.5 % of MSW. The 400 larger facilities are to manage 30 % of MSW by 2030.
5I. International – The European Thematic Strategy The European Commission and European Union have adopted an integrated program for a healthy local and international environmentFour PrioritiesClimate ChangeBiodiversityHealthResource UseSeven StrategiesAir QualityMarine EnvironmentSustainable use of resourcesWaste prevention and recyclingPesticidesSoil QualityUrban Environment
6I. International Activity – Specific EU Legislation “EfW and Landfills are subject to stringent regulations”EfW (2000/76/EC)Creates emission limits and operating standards for energy-from-waste facilitiesThese standards can be credited for large reductions in emissions from EfW facilitiesLandfills (99/31/EC)EU Landfill Directive requires a reduction in landfilling of biodegradable wasteSpecific goal is to reduce emissions (CH4) that contribute to greenhouse effect and to reduce impact on human health
7International – Worldwide Experience “EfW is compatible with Recycling” CompostingLandfillEnergy-from-Waste is used extensively worldwide780 EfW facilities; 140 million tons per year (TPY)U.S.89 EfW facilities29 million TPYWestern Europe388 EfW facilities62 million TPYAsia301 EfW facilities48 million TPY
8I. The EU Integrated System is in Lancaster County RefuseFrey FarmLandfill57,00011%Waste-to-EnergyFacility266,20052%Recyclables186,400 tons37%Recycled
9Ferrous recovery contributes 3% to the overall County recycling rate. I. Lancaster County’s Integrated System “Evidence that WTE and Recycling are Compatible”WTE has supported recycling efforts, not competed with them.Ferrous recovery contributes 3% to the overall County recycling rate.% Materials RecycledWTE began operating
10II. Pennsylvania’s MSW Balance – “2005 data shows that 88 II. Pennsylvania’s MSW Balance – “2005 data shows that 88.3 % of non-recycled MSW is landfilled with 38.5 % being from out-of-state”ManagementOptionMillionTonsMSWPercentLandfill21.688.3EfW2.911.7Total24.5100OriginMillion Tons MSWPercentIn-State15.161.5Out-of-State9.438.5Total24.5100Does not identify waste shipped out of stateNJ is about 55 % and NY is 40 % of out-of state waste22 of 45 landfills have LFGTE
11II. Pennsylvania’s MSW Balance and Energy WTE generates clean renewable energy and promotes independence from fossil fuelsIncreased EfW and decreased landfilling generates significant extra renewable energyEach Ton of MSW managed by EfW avoids 1 barrel of oil or 0.25 ton of coal on an electrical energy generating basisEfW generates more power than any landfill option by processing each tonin about 1-hour using controlled combustion. The anaerobic breakdown ofMSW in a landfill is not controlled and occurs in a 50 to 100 year period.
12II. Pennsylvania’s MSW Balance and Energy Renewable energy from EfW reduces fossil fuel use
13II. Pennsylvania’s MSW Balance and GHG’s “ Pennsylvania’s MSW mass balance is yielding positive CO2 emissions”OptionMillion tons MSWTon CO2E / ton MSWMillion tons CO2E/YearEfW3.0- 0.78- 2.34Landfill21.5+ 0.62Total24.5---Basis of calculationsThe ~ 3 million tons of MSW going to EfW is not going to a landfill in PA with energy generation – avoids ~ 2.34 Million tons CO2E (conservative, assumes all landfills have LFGTE)Remaining 21.5 million tons of MSW is going to landfills - all with LFG collection - 50 % with LFGTE and 50 % with flares. No vents only.EPA Lo of 100 M3 CH4 per megagram MSW and 45 % LFG % based on a lifecycle analysis.
14II. Pennsylvania’s MSW Balance and GHG’s “ Increased Use of EfW will reduce GHG emissions” Estimated breakeven point is about 10.5 million tons going to EfW and 13.5 million tons going to landfills
15II. Background on GHG Emission Factors “ Each ton of MSW managed by modern EfW avoids about 0.78 Tons of CO2 when using conservative assumptions (45 % LFG collection with LFGTE)”Emission factors as Ton CO2E per Ton MSW for EfW and LFGTE45 % LFG CollectionLifecycle ParameterEfWLandfillEfW vs. LFGTENonbiogenic0.380.00Avoided Fossil Fuel CO2-0.56-0.16-0.40Avoided Methane-0.70Avoided Ferrous CO2-0.06Long Haul Mobile SourceProcess Total-0.94-0.78Avoided CO2E with a landfill with flare is 0.94 ton CO2E/Ton MSW
16II. Background on GHG Emission Factors “Avoided fossil fuel CO2 information for Pennsylvania” CO2 factorEnergy FactorsCO2 FactorPowerSupply(EIA)Lb CO2 perValueUnitsThermal %(lb CO2/MWAs % FossilCoal1000 lb2161Btu/lb1040232221488.5Oil31391830018283.6Gas137Btu/scf102214257.9The weighted average for avoided CO2 from fossil fuel combustion for electric power is: 2137 lbs CO2 / MW.A modern EFW facility generates 0.55 MW/ton which is equivalent to an avoided factor of 0.59 Ton CO2E per ton MSW.
17II. Background on Emission Factors “Avoided methane information for Pennsylvania” ParameterValueUnitsEPA Inventory Lo100M3 CH4 per Megagram MSWCH4 content55% volumeCH4 Potential1.4Ton CO2E per ton MSWCH4 Recovery via LFG45% of total CH4 generatedCH4 Oxidation15% of uncollected CH4Emission Factor-Flare0.70Avoided Fossil CO2 (a)0.15Emission Factor - LFGTE0.54Average Flare/ICE0.62Based on same avoided fossil factor as EfW and use of an internal combustionengine for electrical energy production.
18III. Environmental Aspects of WTE Nationwide WTE facility emissions have been dramatically reduced Source: Environmental Protection Agency, 2002
19III. Environmental Aspects of WTE - Dioxin WTE emissions now represent less than 1% of known dioxin inventory
20IV. Environmental Aspects of WTE - Mercury WTE now represents less than 3% of U.S. man-made mercury emissions
21III. Environmental Aspects of WTE - GHGs WTE reduces PM 2 III. Environmental Aspects of WTE - GHGs WTE reduces PM 2.5 Precursors and Air ToxicsFine ParticulateEfW avoids SO2 and NOX emissions from fossil fuel combustion – these are precursors to ambient ammonium sulfate and nitrate, respectively.Landfill EmissionsAvoids a variety of air toxics from landfills including ;- 46 constituents in EPAs AP42- 25 of which are air toxics- nonmethane organic compounds (NMOC)- methane – a potent greenhouse gas (23 time more potent that CO2)
22III. Environmental Aspects of WTE – Land Use WTE reduces waste volume by 90% and reduces biological byproducts including LFG, organic leachate and pathogens.Land Use10 cubic yards of MSW is reduced by 90 % to 1 cubic yard, thereby maximizing land committed to a landfill.An EfW facility uses significantly less land than a landfill over any time period. As an example – the EfW industry saves 25,000 acre-feet per year when comparing landfill area required for MSW versus combined ash.Combined Ash DisposalStable and inert due to low pozzolanic properties & low carbon content.RCRA nonhazardous with very low metals leaching from landfills.Can be reused as landfill cover and other potential civil applications.
23IV. Conclusion “EfW promotes a sustainable environment thru maximum recovery of electrical power and maximum avoidance of GHGs”Reduced use of landfilling reduces GHG emissionsThe EU Landfill DirectiveGROCCLifecycle analysis using EPA’s modelEnergy-from-Waste maximizes renewable energyAvoids dependence on fossil fuelsPromotes energy independenceEnergy-from-waste provides clean energyControlled combustion and air pollution control processesHighly regulated industry with testing, continuous monitoring and reporting