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Colonial Wisconsin. First Europeans Etienne Brulé: Scout for Samuel de Champlain Born:1592 Died:1633, explored North America 1615-1621 Traveled St Lawrence.

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Presentation on theme: "Colonial Wisconsin. First Europeans Etienne Brulé: Scout for Samuel de Champlain Born:1592 Died:1633, explored North America 1615-1621 Traveled St Lawrence."— Presentation transcript:

1 Colonial Wisconsin


3 First Europeans Etienne Brulé: Scout for Samuel de Champlain Born:1592 Died:1633, explored North America Traveled St Lawrence and Great Lakes with Native Americans Is known to have entered Lake Superior; Wisconsin shoreline already shown on maps by the time of Nicolet

4 Jean Nicolet Nicolet was searching for a water passage to the Pacific In 1634, Nicolet landed at Red Banks, near present Green Bay Met people who called themselves Ho-Chunk (People of the Big Voice) Nicolet translated as People of the Big Sea This, and the fact that they cultivated wild rice, lead Nicolet to believe that he was close to the Pacific Ocean

5 Médard Chouart, Sieur des Groseilliers : Des Groseilliers spent two years in Wisconsin and Michigan gathering furs for sale in Montreal Montreal & Quebec become center for French commercial fur empire in North America

6 New France Unlike the British most French settlements were not permanent Coureurs du bois would trade metal tools, guns ammunition, etc with local tribes for fur Fur was prized in the fashion industry of Europe in the 1600s and 1700s

7 Green Bay Nicolet established a trading post in Green Bay in 1634 The French called it la baie puants, the stinking bay. Later traders called it La Baie Verte, the Green Bay A Jesuit mission was established in 1671 A fort was built in 1717, town was incorporated in 1754 Ceded to British in 1761

8 Marquette & Joliet Father Jacques Marquette, Louis Joliet, Born in Canada Marquette & Joliet explored Great Lakes. First Europeans to reach the Upper Mississippi, followed down to mouth of the Arkansas River then returned north Built trading post at Portage, Wisconsin

9 Nicolas Perrot: Came to New France in 1660 with Jesuits Traveled, traded with and became close to Indians 1685 named commandant of post at Green Bay Built fort at mouth of Wisconsin River on Mississippi Claimed much of what is now Wisconsin in name of France Discovered and began the mining of lead in Southwestern Wisconsin and Iowa

10 Claude Allouez: Jesuit missionary and explorer. Arrived in New France in 1658; studied native languages served as missionary to the Potowatomi and Ho-Chunk tribes in Wisconsin 1671 founded St Francis Xavier Mission in what is now DePere

11 French Settlement in Wisconsin The French did not establish permanent colonies Posts & Missions were occupied temporarily by traders and missionaries Traders often married Indian women, and established families

12 The First Fox War: Fox Indians controlled the Fox River & opposed French attempts to use the river for fur transportation The Fox were also angered by French trade with the Sioux In attempt to develop trade, the French invite the Fox to settle around Fort Detroit in Michigan

13 The First Fox War: Fox Indians rebel and attack fort with Mascouten and Kickapoo allies. Eventually driven off by French 1716: Louis de La Porte de Louvigny leads 800 soldiers & destroys Fox fortifications at Little Lake Buttes des Mortes Fox tribes surrender

14 The Second Fox War: The Fox began harassing French traders again The French decided on a policy of genocide Captain Pierre-Paul Marin lead a sneak attack on Fox settlement on Little Lake Butte des Morts Attack included artillery and grenades Fox tribe numbered 3500 in 1712, less than 500 after wars French determination to destroy Fox damaged their relations with other tribes in Great Lakes region Surviving Fox fled south and joined with Sac (Sauk ) tribe

15 Charles de Langlade: Father was French fur trader, mother was Ottawa Indian Helped his father run the fur trading post at Green Bay During 1750s & 60s lead Indians fighting with the French against the English. Was one of the leaders of the ambush that killed General Braddock at Monongahela Lead Indian troops fighting for the British during Revolution


17 1760: British Rule Begins In 1760 England defeats France in North America, and Wisconsin falls under British Rule. It is a military district until 1774, when the Quebec Act makes it part of the British Province of Quebec Captain Henry Balfour and the 80 th Light Infantry take possession of French fort at Green Bay, October 1760

18 Fort Edward Augustus 1760: The British build Fort Edward on west bank of Fox River Four log buildings and a wooden stockade Garrisoned by Ensign James Gorrell, a sergeant and 15 privates of the 60 th Royal American Infantry Regiment

19 Treaties with Tribes Gorrell quickly signed treaties with the Menominee, Sauk Ottawa, Winnebago, Fox and Sioux tribes

20 Pontiacs Rebellion: Ottawa chief Pontiac united many tribes in an effort to drive the British out of the land west of the Alleghenies British abandon Fort Edward in Green Bay

21 Pontiacs Rebellion: Tribes were reacting to the pressure of westward settlement and the arrogant attitude of the British toward the Indians This policy was coordinated by Jeffrey Amherst The French had treated the Indians as equals and even intermarried with them. British expressed contempt for the Indian way of life and often treated them as savages

22 Pontiacs Rebellion: Many forts taken quickly by surprise in 1763 At Fort Michilimackinac the Ojibwe hit a lacrosse ball through the open gate and ran to retrieve it. Women gave them smuggled weapons and the soldiers were massacred

23 Siege of Fort Pitt 550 Colonists in Western Pennsylvania retreated to Fort Pitt Shawnee and Delaware Indians surrounded the fort Amherst and Colonel Henry Bouquet devise a scheme to spread smallpox to the tribes with infected blankets Smallpox did help break the siege, but it is unclear whether British plan actually caused the outbreak

24 Legacy of Pontiacs Rebellion The violence continued until 1766 British regained control over much of the area, but both sides tired of war, sign treaty with Pontiac in 1766 Parliament issued (delayed) Proclamation of 1763 which set a dividing line between colonists & Indians in the Allegheny Mountains. This Proclamation considered Native American Bill of Rights

25 Wisconsin during the Revolution Both Colonists & British sought alliances and fur trade with tribes in Wisconsin Southern tribes began to switch allegiance in 1778 after George Rogers Clarke invaded Illinois & captured British forts at Vincennes & Kaskaskia Northern tribes remained loyal to British

26 Treaty of Paris: 1783 America wins Independence from Britain in 1783 What is now Wisconsin, is part of the territory ceded to the United States At this time, French fur traders are still the only non native inhabitants

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