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The Atom, The History, and The Periodic Table (Chemical Naming and Formula Writing) Unit #3 Part I Chemistry.

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Presentation on theme: "The Atom, The History, and The Periodic Table (Chemical Naming and Formula Writing) Unit #3 Part I Chemistry."— Presentation transcript:


2 The Atom, The History, and The Periodic Table (Chemical Naming and Formula Writing) Unit #3 Part I Chemistry

3 Theories Involving Matter and Atoms Democritus –Greek –400 B.C. – Greeks: all matter is composed of 4 fundamental substances Earth, air (wind), water & fire –Democritus: matter is composed of small, indivisible parts, (Greek – atomos) –No experiments to test; no definitive conclusion –First scientist to discover the idea of an atom

4 Alchemy (next 2000 years) Mixture of science and mysticism. Lab procedures were developed, but alchemists did not perform controlled experiments like true scientists.

5 Theories cont. Aristotle –Greek –Rejected the idea of atoms –Expanded on idea of 4 elements –Reasoning from logic & observation –Also in line with religion

6 Theories cont. Lavoisier - French chemist - Father of Modern Chemistry - Experimented and measured the masses of reactants and products of various reactions - Law of Conservation of Matter

7 Theories cont. Proust –French chemist –Showed that a given compound always contains the same proportion of elements by mass –Law of Definite Proportions

8 Theories cont. John Dalton (1803) –English schoolteacher –Thought about atoms as particles that might compose elements –Billiard Ball Model atom is a uniform, solid sphere –Elements combine in the ratio of small whole numbers –Law of Multiple Proportions

9 John Dalton Daltons Four Postulates 1.Elements are composed of small indivisible particles called atoms. 2.Atoms of the same element are identical. Atoms of different elements are different. 3.Atoms of different elements combine together in simple proportions to create a compound. 4.In a chemical reaction, atoms are rearranged, but not changed.

10 Henri Becquerel (1896) Discovered radioactivity –spontaneous emission of radiation from the nucleus Three types: –alpha ( ) - positive –beta ( ) - negative –gamma ( ) - neutral

11 J. J. Thomson (1903) Cathode Ray Tube Experiments –beam of negative particles Discovered Electrons –negative particles within the atom Plum-pudding Model

12 J. J. Thomson (1903) Plum-pudding Model –positive sphere (pudding) with negative electrons (plums) dispersed throughout

13 Ernest Rutherford (1911) Gold Foil Experiment Discovered the nucleus –dense, positive charge in the center of the atom Nuclear Model

14 Ernest Rutherford (1911) Nuclear Model –dense, positive nucleus surrounded by negative electrons

15 Niels Bohr (1913) Bright-Line Spectrum –tried to explain presence of specific colors in hydrogens spectrum Energy Levels –electrons can only exist in specific energy states Planetary Model

16 Niels Bohr (1913) Planetary Model –electrons move in circular orbits within specific energy levels Bright-line spectrum

17 Erwin Schrödinger (1926) Quantum mechanics –electrons can only exist in specified energy states Electron cloud model –orbital: region around the nucleus where e - are likely to be found

18 Erwin Schrödinger (1926) Electron Cloud Model (orbital) dots represent probability of finding an e - not actual electrons

19 James Chadwick (1932) Discovered neutrons –neutral particles in the nucleus of an atom Joliot-Curie Experiments –based his theory on their experimental evidence

20 James Chadwick (1932) Neutron Model revision of Rutherfords Nuclear Model

21 Atoms Best current representation of the atom is a charged-cloud Smallest particle of an element that retains its properties Electrically neutral; # Protons = # electrons Parts of an atom –Nucleus (contains both protons and neutrons) –Electron Cloud (contains electrons)

22 Parts of an Atom Nucleus –Small, dense center of positive charge. –Protons Positively charged particles within the nucleus –Neutrons Particles within the nucleus with no charge About the same mass as protons

23 Parts of an Atom cont. Electron Cloud –Empty Space –Holds electrons, which are densely packed Negatively charged particles found outside the nucleus Much smaller than protons and neutrons Proton/neutron mass = 1.67 x g Electron mass = 9.11 x g –More about electron behavior later

24 e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- p+p+ p+p+ p+p+ nono nono nono Nucleus Protons NeutronsElectrons Picture of an atom

25 Atoms and Elements What is the difference between an element and an atom? An atom is a single example of an element. An element is the collective term for many atoms of a single substance.

26 Periodic Table of Elements Structure Listed in order of inc. atomic # –Columns = Families or GROUPS Have similar chemical properties Referred to by the number and letter (A or B) over the column Many have special names –Rows = PERIODS Contains info on physical properties (i.e. mp, bp, density, physical states, etc)

27 Element Characteristic Each square usually contains –Element name –Element symbol –Atomic number The number of protons Symbolized at Z –Atomic mass or mass number Atomic mass: decimal mole weight = to the average mass numbers of all isotopes Mass number: rounded mole weight Mass number: The sum of the number of the protons and the number of neutrons –State of matter (usually)

28 Short Handing Element Characteristics Symbolizing A z X A = mass # (NO DECIMALS!) Z = atomic # (# of protons & electrons) X = symbol of the element

29 Isotopes –Atoms with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons –Atoms of the same element have the same atomic number but different mass numbers

30 Isotopes cont. Potassium-39Potassium-40Potassium-41 Protons19 Neutrons Electrons19

31 Isotopes cont.

32 The diagram shows three oxygen isotopes. Each nucleus has eight protons (gray) and eight, nine, or ten neutrons (green).

33 Oxidation Numbers Indicate the charge on the ion Found on the periodic table Common oxidation numbers are given in additional table Note: –Group 8 elements do not form ions; No ox # –Transition metals have multiple ox #s

34 Valence Electrons Electrons in the outer most shell The electrons on an atom that can be gained or lost in a chemical reaction More on this to come with Electron Configurations….

35 Alkali Metals Group IA (except H) Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr Soft, gray metals Very reactive –Especially with water React with water to form bases Alkali = basic

36 Alkali Metals cont. Why are they so reactive? –One electron in their outer shell Only 1 electron away from a full outer shell Want to lose that electron: easily react –So reactive – dont occur as free elements

37 Interesting Tidbits Li – used as depression medication Cs – used in atomic clocks Fr – predicted by Mendeleev in 1870s; discovered in 1939 –Less than 1 oz. of Fr exists at any given time

38 Alkali Earth Metals Group IIA Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra Shiny, silvery-white metals Harder and denser than Group IA Distributed in rock formations Reactive but not as reactive as Group IA –2 outer electrons –Want to lose 2 to have a complete outer shell +2 oxidation number

39 Interesting Tidbits Used in pyrotechnics and fireworks Used in pyrotechnics and fireworks Mg – white; Sr – red; Ba – green

40 Calcium Widely distributed as limestone Important biologically for bones and teeth Compounds of Calcium - CaCO3 = limestone] - CaO = lime or quicklime - Ca(OH)2 = limewater; treat antacid

41 Nobel Gases Group VIIIA He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, & Rn Aka Inert Gases b/c they are unreactive Aka Rare Gases b/c they are very rare on Earth Colorless, tasteless, odorless

42 Nobel Gases cont. Why are they unreactive? –Their outer shells are full –Recall: the outer shell electrons are the ones involved in bonding –When the outer shells are full, these electrons cant bond and, therefore, react with other elements Used in: –Lighting Fill light bulbs, neon lights, black lights, flashlight bulbs, strobe lights, headlights, etc.

43 Halogens Group VIIA F, Cl, Br, I, At Non-metals - Exist in all 3 states at room temperature: * Solid: I, At * Liquid: Br * Gas: F, Cl Very reactive Most often, bond with metals Diatomic (F2, Cl2, etc.)

44 Halogens cont. Why are the halogens diatomic? –1 electron away from a full outer shell –Too reactive/unstable by itself –Bonds with another atom so both have 8 –Dot diagrams What is the mole weight of chlorine gas? Which is more reactive, F 2 or Cl 2 ? –F 2

45 Transition Metals Middle section of the periodic table Exhibit metallic properties –Ductile –Malleable –Good conductors of heat and electricity –Silvery luster (except Cu and Au)

46 Ions Atoms that have a positive or negative charge To become an ion, an atom gains or loses electrons Cation = positively charged ion; –Lose electron(s) –Metals form positive ions Anion = negatively charged ion; –Gain electron(s)

47 Polyatomic Ions Def: tightly bound groups of atoms that behave as a unit and carry a charge Ion composed of more than one atom List of common polyatomic ions Ex: –SO 4 -2 –NO 3 -1** Must memorize these –CO 3 -2polyatomic ions! ** –PO 4 -3 –OH -1 –C 2 H 3 O 2 -1 –NH 4 +1

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