Presentation on theme: "Vertebrates. Characteristics of Vertebrates Vertebrates have a vertebral column and specialized cells that develop from the nerve cord. The vertebral."— Presentation transcript:
Characteristics of Vertebrates Vertebrates have a vertebral column and specialized cells that develop from the nerve cord. The vertebral column, or spinal column, is the hallmark feature of vertebrates. Classes of vertebrates include fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.
Vertebral Column A vertebral column made of cartilage or bone surrounds and protects the dorsal nerve cord. The vertebral column functions as a strong, flexible rod that muscles can pull against during swimming or running.
Neural Crest A neural crest is a group of cells that develop from the nerve cord in vertebrates. Portions of the brain and skull, certain sense organs, and some nerve fibers are some of the structures that develop from the neural crest.
FishFish ExamplesJawless (eels), cartilagenous (sharks & rays), bony (goldfish, perch) HabitatWater Warm & cold areas Integument (covering)Scales, mucus Respiratory Systemgills Circulatory System2 chamber heart Body Temperature RegulationEctothermic (cold blooded)- absorb heat from surroundings Reproductive Fertilization & Embryo Development External Large # of eggs laid in water Special AdaptationsSwim bladder (depth in water) Gills, fins, lateral line
Fish Jawless Fish (lampreys) Cartilagenous (sharks, rays) Bony (goldfish, perch)
AmphibiansAmphibians ExamplesFrogs, toads, salamanders, legless HabitatFreshwater, close to water, mostly warm areas Integument (covering)Moist skin Respiratory SystemMoist membranes, gills in larvae, lungs in adult Circulatory System3 chamber heart Body Temperature RegulationEctothermic Reproductive Fertilization & Embryo Development External, large # of eggs laid in water, metamorphosis Special AdaptationsLungs, webbed feet, bridge b/w land & water animals
Characteristics of Amphibians Thin, moist skin 4 legs (except for the apoda) No claws on their toes Most live on land as adults Require water for reproduction Fertilization is usually external Water is needed to transport sperm so eggs are usually laid in water No protective membranes or shells on their eggs
Differences between a Frog and Toad Frog Generally have smooth, moist skin Longer hind legs (for swimming and leaping) Webbed hind feet Lay eggs in a clump that is a cloudy, jellylike mass Toad Generally have warty, dry skin Shorter hind legs (for walking rather than marathon hopping) More terrestrial Lay eggs in stringy chains
ReptilesReptiles ExamplesSnakes, lizards, turtles, gators/crocs HabitatLand often dry, mostly warm Integument (covering)Scales, shells Respiratory SystemWell-developed lungs Circulatory System3 chamber heart 4 chamber heart (all crocs) Body Temperature Regulation ectothermic Reproductive Fertilization & Embryo Development Internal, amniotic eggs, fewer eggs Special Adaptations
Differences between a Amphibians and Reptiles Amphibians Moist skin Often webbed feet (never clawed) Skin is smooth or bumpy, but must stay wet Ex: frogs, toads, newts, salamanders, and caecilians Reptiles Dry, scaly skin Clawed feet Lungs Ex: alligators, crocodiles, lizards, tortoises, and turtles
Differences between a Crocodile and Alligator Crocodiles Narrow, V-shaped snouts Upper and lower jaws roughly same width Both upper and lower teeth jut out when their mouth is closed 4 th lower tooth of each side sticks out prominently Alligators Broad, U-shaped snouts Upper jaw overlaps their lower jaw Upper teeth are visible, lower teeth hidden
BirdsBirds ExamplesFlapping, non-flapping (gliding & soaring) HabitatLand warm & cold areas Integument (covering)feathers Respiratory SystemLungs with air sacs Circulatory System4 chamber heart Body Temperature RegulationEndothermic (warm blooded)- regulate own temperature independent of surroundings Reproductive Fertilization & Embryo Development Internal, amniotic eggs, fewer eggs Special AdaptationsFlight with wings & hollow bones, beak, foot adaptations
MammalsMammals ExamplesEgg laying, pouched, placental, flying-bat HabitatLand and water warm & cold areas Integument (covering)Skin, hair or fur, scales Respiratory SystemLungs and diaphragm Circulatory System4 chamber heart Body Temperature RegulationEndothermic Reproductive Fertilization & Embryo Development Internal, live birth for placental & pouches, or eggs Special AdaptationsMammary glands, large brain, teeth, nearly all habitats