2Characteristics of Vertebrates Vertebrates have a vertebral column and specialized cells that develop from the nerve cord.The vertebral column, or spinal column, is the hallmark feature of vertebrates.Classes of vertebrates include fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.
3Vertebral ColumnA vertebral column made of cartilage or bone surrounds and protects the dorsal nerve cord.The vertebral column functions as a strong, flexible rod that muscles can pull against during swimming or running.
4Neural CrestA neural crest is a group of cells that develop from the nerve cord in vertebrates.Portions of the brain and skull, certain sense organs, and some nerve fibers are some of the structures that develop from the neural crest.
5ExamplesJawless (eels), cartilagenous (sharks & rays), bony (goldfish, perch)HabitatWater Warm & cold areasIntegument (covering)Scales, mucusRespiratory SystemgillsCirculatory System2 chamber heartBody Temperature RegulationEctothermic (cold blooded)- absorb heat from surroundingsReproductive Fertilization & Embryo DevelopmentExternalLarge # of eggs laid in waterSpecial AdaptationsSwim bladder (depth in water)Gills, fins, lateral lineFish
6Fish Jawless Fish (lampreys) Bony (goldfish, perch) Cartilagenous (sharks, rays)
7Amphibians Examples Frogs, toads, salamanders, legless Habitat Freshwater, close to water, mostly warm areasIntegument (covering)Moist skinRespiratory SystemMoist membranes, gills in larvae, lungs in adultCirculatory System3 chamber heartBody Temperature RegulationEctothermicReproductive Fertilization & Embryo DevelopmentExternal, large # of eggs laid in water, metamorphosisSpecial AdaptationsLungs, webbed feet, bridge b/w land & water animalsAmphibians
9Characteristics of Amphibians Thin, moist skin4 legs (except for the apoda)No claws on their toesMost live on land as adultsRequire water for reproductionFertilization is usually externalWater is needed to transport sperm so eggs are usually laid in waterNo protective membranes or shells on their eggs
10Differences between a Frog and Toad Generally have smooth, moist skinLonger hind legs (for swimming and leaping)Webbed hind feetLay eggs in a clump that is a cloudy, jellylike massToadGenerally have warty, dry skinShorter hind legs (for walking rather than marathon hopping)More terrestrialLay eggs in stringy chains
13Differences between a Amphibians and Reptiles Moist skinOften webbed feet (never clawed)Skin is smooth or bumpy, but must stay wetEx: frogs, toads, newts, salamanders, and caeciliansReptilesDry, scaly skinClawed feetLungsEx: alligators, crocodiles, lizards, tortoises, and turtles
14Differences between a Crocodile and Alligator CrocodilesNarrow, V-shaped snoutsUpper and lower jaws roughly same widthBoth upper and lower teeth jut out when their mouth is closed4th lower tooth of each side sticks out prominentlyAlligatorsBroad, U-shaped snoutsUpper jaw overlaps their lower jawUpper teeth are visible, lower teeth hidden
15Birds Examples Flapping, non-flapping (gliding & soaring) Habitat Land warm & cold areasIntegument (covering)feathersRespiratory SystemLungs with air sacsCirculatory System4 chamber heartBody Temperature RegulationEndothermic (warm blooded)- regulate own temperature independent of surroundingsReproductive Fertilization & Embryo DevelopmentInternal, amniotic eggs, fewer eggsSpecial AdaptationsFlight with wings & hollow bones, beak, foot adaptationsBirds
17Mammals Examples Egg laying, pouched, placental, flying-bat Habitat Land and water warm & cold areasIntegument (covering)Skin, hair or fur, scalesRespiratory SystemLungs and diaphragmCirculatory System4 chamber heartBody Temperature RegulationEndothermicReproductive Fertilization & Embryo DevelopmentInternal, live birth for placental & pouches, or eggsSpecial AdaptationsMammary glands, large brain, teeth, nearly all habitatsMammals